Abstract

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) Ames Research Center’s Airborne Sensor Facility (ASF) is responsible for the calibration of several airborne Earth-viewing sensor systems in support of NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) investigations. The primary artifact used to calibrate these sensors in the reflective solar region from 400 to 2500 nm is a lamp-illuminated integrating sphere source. In September 1999, a measurement comparison was made at the Ames ASF Sensor Calibration Facility to validate the radiometric scale, establish the uncertainties assigned to the radiance of this source, and examine its day-to-day repeatability. The comparison was one of a series of validation activities overseen by the EOS Calibration Program to ensure the radiometric calibration accuracy of sensors used in long-term, global, remote-sensing studies. Results of the comparison, including an evaluation of the Ames Sensor Calibration Laboratory (SCL) measurement procedures and assigned radiometric uncertainties, provide a validation of their radiometric scale at the time of the comparison. Additionally, the maintenance of the radiance scale was evaluated by use of independent, long-term, multiyear radiance validation measurements of the Ames sphere source. This series of measurements provided an independent assessment of the radiance values assigned to integrating sphere sources by the Ames SCF. Together, the measurements validate the SCF radiometric scale and assigned uncertainties over the time period from September 1999 through July 2003.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. J. H. Walker, C. L. Cromer, J. T. McLean, “A technique for improving the calibration of large-area sphere sources,” in Calibration of Passive Remote Observing Optical and Microwave Instrumentation, B. W. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1493, 224–230 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2003

J. J. Butler, S. W. Brown, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, S. F. Biggar, E. F. Zalewski, B. L. Markham, P. N. Gracey, J. B. Young, R. A. Barnes, “Radiometric measurement comparison on the integrating sphere source used in the calibration of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+),” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 108, 199–228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, “The use of transfer radiometers in validating the visible to shortwave infrared calibrations of radiance sources used by instruments in NASA’s Earth Observing System,” Metrologia 40, S70–S77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, “A portable integrating sphere source for the Earth Observing System’s calibration validation programme,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 24, 215–224 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

J. J. Butler, B. C. Johnson, R. A. Barnes, “Radiometric measurement comparisons at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. I. The GSFC sphere sources,” Earth Observer 14(3), 3–8 (2002).

J. J. Butler, B. C. Johnson, R. A. Barnes, “Radiometric measurement comparisons at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. II. Irradiance lamp comparisons and the NIST sphere source,” Earth Observer 14(4), 25–29 (2002).

H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, P. Y. Barnes, “The realization of the National Institute of Standards and Technology detector-based spectral irradiance scale,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5879–5890 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

S. Hook, J. J. Meyers, K. J. Thome, M. Fitzgerald, A. B. Kahle, “The MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) — a new instrument for Earth science studies,” Remote Sen. Environ. 76, 93–102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, J. J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, K. Thome, E. Zalewski, M. Helmlinger, C. Bruegge, S. Schiller, G. Fedosejevs, R. Gauthier, S. Tsuchida, S. Machida, “Radiometric characterization of field radiometers in support of the 1997 Lunar Lake, Nevada, experiment to determine surface reflectance and top-of-atmosphere radiance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 77, 367–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. R. Spyak, D. S. Smith, J. Thiry, C. Burkhart, “Short-wave infrared transfer radiometer for the calibration of the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and the Advance Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5694–5706 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System program,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1077–1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, “A portable integrating sphere source for radiometric calibrations from the visible to the shortwave infrared,” Earth Observer 11, 14–18 (1999).

1998

E. A. Early A Thompson, C. Johnson, J. DeLuisi, P. Disterhoft, D. Wardle, E. Wu, W. Mou, Y. Sun, T. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, L. Harrison, J. Berndt, D. S. Hayes, “The 1995 North American interagency intercomparison of ultraviolet monitoring spectroradiometers,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 15–62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, “Description of a portable spectroradiometer to validate EOS radiance scales in the shortwave infrared,” Earth Observer 10, 43–47 (1998).

1996

J. E. Proctor, P. Y. Barnes, “NIST high accuracy reference reflectometer–spectrophotometer,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 619–627 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, W. P. Menzel, P. S. Grant, J. S. Myers, G. T. Arnold, S. E. Platnick, L. E. Gumley, S. C. Tsay, C. C. Moeller, M. Fitzgerald, K. S. Brown, F. G. Osterwisch, “Airborne scanning spectrometer for remote sensing of cloud density, aerosol, water vapor, and surface properties,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 777–794 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1981

J. J. Hsia, V. R. Weidner, “NBS 45°/normal reflectometer for absolute reflectance factors,” Metrologia 17, 97–102 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, G. T.

M. D. King, W. P. Menzel, P. S. Grant, J. S. Myers, G. T. Arnold, S. E. Platnick, L. E. Gumley, S. C. Tsay, C. C. Moeller, M. Fitzgerald, K. S. Brown, F. G. Osterwisch, “Airborne scanning spectrometer for remote sensing of cloud density, aerosol, water vapor, and surface properties,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 777–794 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Arnold, M. F. Fitzgerald, P. S. Grant, S. E. Platnick, S. Tsay, J. S. Myers, M. D. King, R. O. Green, L. Remer, “MODIS Airborne Simulator radiometric calibration,” in Earth Observing Systems, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2820, 56–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, P. Y.

H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, P. Y. Barnes, “The realization of the National Institute of Standards and Technology detector-based spectral irradiance scale,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5879–5890 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System program,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1077–1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Proctor, P. Y. Barnes, “NIST high accuracy reference reflectometer–spectrophotometer,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 619–627 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Barnes, J. J. Hsia, 45°/0° Reflectance Factors of Pressed Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Powder, (U. S. Government Printing Office, 1995).

Barnes, R. A.

J. J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, “The use of transfer radiometers in validating the visible to shortwave infrared calibrations of radiance sources used by instruments in NASA’s Earth Observing System,” Metrologia 40, S70–S77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Butler, S. W. Brown, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, S. F. Biggar, E. F. Zalewski, B. L. Markham, P. N. Gracey, J. B. Young, R. A. Barnes, “Radiometric measurement comparison on the integrating sphere source used in the calibration of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+),” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 108, 199–228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Butler, B. C. Johnson, R. A. Barnes, “Radiometric measurement comparisons at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. II. Irradiance lamp comparisons and the NIST sphere source,” Earth Observer 14(4), 25–29 (2002).

J. J. Butler, B. C. Johnson, R. A. Barnes, “Radiometric measurement comparisons at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. I. The GSFC sphere sources,” Earth Observer 14(3), 3–8 (2002).

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, J. J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, K. Thome, E. Zalewski, M. Helmlinger, C. Bruegge, S. Schiller, G. Fedosejevs, R. Gauthier, S. Tsuchida, S. Machida, “Radiometric characterization of field radiometers in support of the 1997 Lunar Lake, Nevada, experiment to determine surface reflectance and top-of-atmosphere radiance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 77, 367–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Butler, B. L. Markham, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, H. W. Yoon, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, E. F. Zalewski, P. R. Spyak, F. Sakuma, J. W. Cooper, “Radiometric measurement comparisons using transfer radiometers in support of the calibration of NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) sensors,” in Sensors, Systems and Next-Generation Satellites III, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3870, 180–192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berndt, J.

E. A. Early A Thompson, C. Johnson, J. DeLuisi, P. Disterhoft, D. Wardle, E. Wu, W. Mou, Y. Sun, T. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, L. Harrison, J. Berndt, D. S. Hayes, “The 1995 North American interagency intercomparison of ultraviolet monitoring spectroradiometers,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 15–62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biggar, S. F.

J. J. Butler, S. W. Brown, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, S. F. Biggar, E. F. Zalewski, B. L. Markham, P. N. Gracey, J. B. Young, R. A. Barnes, “Radiometric measurement comparison on the integrating sphere source used in the calibration of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+),” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 108, 199–228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, J. J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, K. Thome, E. Zalewski, M. Helmlinger, C. Bruegge, S. Schiller, G. Fedosejevs, R. Gauthier, S. Tsuchida, S. Machida, “Radiometric characterization of field radiometers in support of the 1997 Lunar Lake, Nevada, experiment to determine surface reflectance and top-of-atmosphere radiance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 77, 367–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System program,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1077–1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, “Preflight cross-calibration radiometers for EOS AM-1 platform visible and near-IR sources,” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE1939, 243–249 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Butler, B. L. Markham, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, H. W. Yoon, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, E. F. Zalewski, P. R. Spyak, F. Sakuma, J. W. Cooper, “Radiometric measurement comparisons using transfer radiometers in support of the calibration of NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) sensors,” in Sensors, Systems and Next-Generation Satellites III, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3870, 180–192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brown, K. S.

M. D. King, W. P. Menzel, P. S. Grant, J. S. Myers, G. T. Arnold, S. E. Platnick, L. E. Gumley, S. C. Tsay, C. C. Moeller, M. Fitzgerald, K. S. Brown, F. G. Osterwisch, “Airborne scanning spectrometer for remote sensing of cloud density, aerosol, water vapor, and surface properties,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 777–794 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S. W.

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, “A portable integrating sphere source for the Earth Observing System’s calibration validation programme,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 24, 215–224 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Butler, S. W. Brown, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, S. F. Biggar, E. F. Zalewski, B. L. Markham, P. N. Gracey, J. B. Young, R. A. Barnes, “Radiometric measurement comparison on the integrating sphere source used in the calibration of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+),” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 108, 199–228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, J. J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, K. Thome, E. Zalewski, M. Helmlinger, C. Bruegge, S. Schiller, G. Fedosejevs, R. Gauthier, S. Tsuchida, S. Machida, “Radiometric characterization of field radiometers in support of the 1997 Lunar Lake, Nevada, experiment to determine surface reflectance and top-of-atmosphere radiance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 77, 367–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, “A portable integrating sphere source for radiometric calibrations from the visible to the shortwave infrared,” Earth Observer 11, 14–18 (1999).

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, “Description of a portable spectroradiometer to validate EOS radiance scales in the shortwave infrared,” Earth Observer 10, 43–47 (1998).

J. J. Butler, B. L. Markham, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, H. W. Yoon, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, E. F. Zalewski, P. R. Spyak, F. Sakuma, J. W. Cooper, “Radiometric measurement comparisons using transfer radiometers in support of the calibration of NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) sensors,” in Sensors, Systems and Next-Generation Satellites III, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3870, 180–192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bruce, S. S.

B. C. Johnson, S. S. Bruce, J. M. Houston, T. R. O’Brian, A. Thompson, S. B. Hooker, J. L. Mueller, in The Fourth SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-4),, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1996), Vol. 37, pp. 1–65.

Bruegge, C.

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, J. J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, K. Thome, E. Zalewski, M. Helmlinger, C. Bruegge, S. Schiller, G. Fedosejevs, R. Gauthier, S. Tsuchida, S. Machida, “Radiometric characterization of field radiometers in support of the 1997 Lunar Lake, Nevada, experiment to determine surface reflectance and top-of-atmosphere radiance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 77, 367–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bruegge, C. J.

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System program,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1077–1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burkhart, C.

Butler, J. J.

J. J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, “The use of transfer radiometers in validating the visible to shortwave infrared calibrations of radiance sources used by instruments in NASA’s Earth Observing System,” Metrologia 40, S70–S77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Butler, S. W. Brown, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, S. F. Biggar, E. F. Zalewski, B. L. Markham, P. N. Gracey, J. B. Young, R. A. Barnes, “Radiometric measurement comparison on the integrating sphere source used in the calibration of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+),” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 108, 199–228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Butler, B. C. Johnson, R. A. Barnes, “Radiometric measurement comparisons at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. II. Irradiance lamp comparisons and the NIST sphere source,” Earth Observer 14(4), 25–29 (2002).

J. J. Butler, B. C. Johnson, R. A. Barnes, “Radiometric measurement comparisons at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. I. The GSFC sphere sources,” Earth Observer 14(3), 3–8 (2002).

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, J. J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, K. Thome, E. Zalewski, M. Helmlinger, C. Bruegge, S. Schiller, G. Fedosejevs, R. Gauthier, S. Tsuchida, S. Machida, “Radiometric characterization of field radiometers in support of the 1997 Lunar Lake, Nevada, experiment to determine surface reflectance and top-of-atmosphere radiance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 77, 367–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System program,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1077–1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Butler, B. L. Markham, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, H. W. Yoon, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, E. F. Zalewski, P. R. Spyak, F. Sakuma, J. W. Cooper, “Radiometric measurement comparisons using transfer radiometers in support of the calibration of NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) sensors,” in Sensors, Systems and Next-Generation Satellites III, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3870, 180–192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, J. W.

J. J. Butler, B. L. Markham, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, H. W. Yoon, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, E. F. Zalewski, P. R. Spyak, F. Sakuma, J. W. Cooper, “Radiometric measurement comparisons using transfer radiometers in support of the calibration of NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) sensors,” in Sensors, Systems and Next-Generation Satellites III, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3870, 180–192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cromer, C. L.

B. C. Johnson, J. B. Fowler, C. L. Cromer, The Sea WiFS Transfer Radiometer (SXR), , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1998), Vol. 1, pp. 1–58.

J. H. Walker, C. L. Cromer, J. T. McLean, “A technique for improving the calibration of large-area sphere sources,” in Calibration of Passive Remote Observing Optical and Microwave Instrumentation, B. W. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1493, 224–230 (1991).
[CrossRef]

DeLuisi, J.

E. A. Early A Thompson, C. Johnson, J. DeLuisi, P. Disterhoft, D. Wardle, E. Wu, W. Mou, Y. Sun, T. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, L. Harrison, J. Berndt, D. S. Hayes, “The 1995 North American interagency intercomparison of ultraviolet monitoring spectroradiometers,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 15–62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Disterhoft, P.

E. A. Early A Thompson, C. Johnson, J. DeLuisi, P. Disterhoft, D. Wardle, E. Wu, W. Mou, Y. Sun, T. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, L. Harrison, J. Berndt, D. S. Hayes, “The 1995 North American interagency intercomparison of ultraviolet monitoring spectroradiometers,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 15–62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Early, E. A.

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System program,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1077–1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Early A Thompson, E. A.

E. A. Early A Thompson, C. Johnson, J. DeLuisi, P. Disterhoft, D. Wardle, E. Wu, W. Mou, Y. Sun, T. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, L. Harrison, J. Berndt, D. S. Hayes, “The 1995 North American interagency intercomparison of ultraviolet monitoring spectroradiometers,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 15–62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fedosejevs, G.

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, J. J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, K. Thome, E. Zalewski, M. Helmlinger, C. Bruegge, S. Schiller, G. Fedosejevs, R. Gauthier, S. Tsuchida, S. Machida, “Radiometric characterization of field radiometers in support of the 1997 Lunar Lake, Nevada, experiment to determine surface reflectance and top-of-atmosphere radiance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 77, 367–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, M.

S. Hook, J. J. Meyers, K. J. Thome, M. Fitzgerald, A. B. Kahle, “The MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) — a new instrument for Earth science studies,” Remote Sen. Environ. 76, 93–102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, W. P. Menzel, P. S. Grant, J. S. Myers, G. T. Arnold, S. E. Platnick, L. E. Gumley, S. C. Tsay, C. C. Moeller, M. Fitzgerald, K. S. Brown, F. G. Osterwisch, “Airborne scanning spectrometer for remote sensing of cloud density, aerosol, water vapor, and surface properties,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 777–794 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, M. F.

G. T. Arnold, M. F. Fitzgerald, P. S. Grant, S. E. Platnick, S. Tsay, J. S. Myers, M. D. King, R. O. Green, L. Remer, “MODIS Airborne Simulator radiometric calibration,” in Earth Observing Systems, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2820, 56–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, J. B.

B. C. Johnson, J. B. Fowler, C. L. Cromer, The Sea WiFS Transfer Radiometer (SXR), , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1998), Vol. 1, pp. 1–58.

Gauthier, R.

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, J. J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, K. Thome, E. Zalewski, M. Helmlinger, C. Bruegge, S. Schiller, G. Fedosejevs, R. Gauthier, S. Tsuchida, S. Machida, “Radiometric characterization of field radiometers in support of the 1997 Lunar Lake, Nevada, experiment to determine surface reflectance and top-of-atmosphere radiance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 77, 367–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, C. E.

Gracey, P. N.

J. J. Butler, S. W. Brown, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, S. F. Biggar, E. F. Zalewski, B. L. Markham, P. N. Gracey, J. B. Young, R. A. Barnes, “Radiometric measurement comparison on the integrating sphere source used in the calibration of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+),” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 108, 199–228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grant, P. S.

M. D. King, W. P. Menzel, P. S. Grant, J. S. Myers, G. T. Arnold, S. E. Platnick, L. E. Gumley, S. C. Tsay, C. C. Moeller, M. Fitzgerald, K. S. Brown, F. G. Osterwisch, “Airborne scanning spectrometer for remote sensing of cloud density, aerosol, water vapor, and surface properties,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 777–794 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Arnold, M. F. Fitzgerald, P. S. Grant, S. E. Platnick, S. Tsay, J. S. Myers, M. D. King, R. O. Green, L. Remer, “MODIS Airborne Simulator radiometric calibration,” in Earth Observing Systems, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2820, 56–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Green, R. O.

G. T. Arnold, M. F. Fitzgerald, P. S. Grant, S. E. Platnick, S. Tsay, J. S. Myers, M. D. King, R. O. Green, L. Remer, “MODIS Airborne Simulator radiometric calibration,” in Earth Observing Systems, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2820, 56–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gumley, L. E.

M. D. King, W. P. Menzel, P. S. Grant, J. S. Myers, G. T. Arnold, S. E. Platnick, L. E. Gumley, S. C. Tsay, C. C. Moeller, M. Fitzgerald, K. S. Brown, F. G. Osterwisch, “Airborne scanning spectrometer for remote sensing of cloud density, aerosol, water vapor, and surface properties,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 777–794 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, L.

E. A. Early A Thompson, C. Johnson, J. DeLuisi, P. Disterhoft, D. Wardle, E. Wu, W. Mou, Y. Sun, T. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, L. Harrison, J. Berndt, D. S. Hayes, “The 1995 North American interagency intercomparison of ultraviolet monitoring spectroradiometers,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 15–62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hattenburg, A. T.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, A. T. Hattenburg, Spectral Radiance Calibrations, NBS Spec. Pub. 250–1 (U. S. Government Printing Office, 1987).

Hayes, D. S.

E. A. Early A Thompson, C. Johnson, J. DeLuisi, P. Disterhoft, D. Wardle, E. Wu, W. Mou, Y. Sun, T. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, L. Harrison, J. Berndt, D. S. Hayes, “The 1995 North American interagency intercomparison of ultraviolet monitoring spectroradiometers,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 15–62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Helmlinger, M.

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, J. J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, K. Thome, E. Zalewski, M. Helmlinger, C. Bruegge, S. Schiller, G. Fedosejevs, R. Gauthier, S. Tsuchida, S. Machida, “Radiometric characterization of field radiometers in support of the 1997 Lunar Lake, Nevada, experiment to determine surface reflectance and top-of-atmosphere radiance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 77, 367–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hook, S.

S. Hook, J. J. Meyers, K. J. Thome, M. Fitzgerald, A. B. Kahle, “The MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) — a new instrument for Earth science studies,” Remote Sen. Environ. 76, 93–102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. B.

B. C. Johnson, S. S. Bruce, J. M. Houston, T. R. O’Brian, A. Thompson, S. B. Hooker, J. L. Mueller, in The Fourth SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-4),, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1996), Vol. 37, pp. 1–65.

Houston, J. M.

B. C. Johnson, S. S. Bruce, J. M. Houston, T. R. O’Brian, A. Thompson, S. B. Hooker, J. L. Mueller, in The Fourth SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-4),, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1996), Vol. 37, pp. 1–65.

Hsia, J. J.

J. J. Hsia, V. R. Weidner, “NBS 45°/normal reflectometer for absolute reflectance factors,” Metrologia 17, 97–102 (1981).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Barnes, J. J. Hsia, 45°/0° Reflectance Factors of Pressed Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Powder, (U. S. Government Printing Office, 1995).

Jackson, J. K.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, Spectral Irradiance Calibrations, (U. S. Government Printing Office, 1987).

Johnson, B. C.

J. J. Butler, S. W. Brown, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, S. F. Biggar, E. F. Zalewski, B. L. Markham, P. N. Gracey, J. B. Young, R. A. Barnes, “Radiometric measurement comparison on the integrating sphere source used in the calibration of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+),” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 108, 199–228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, “A portable integrating sphere source for the Earth Observing System’s calibration validation programme,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 24, 215–224 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Butler, B. C. Johnson, R. A. Barnes, “Radiometric measurement comparisons at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. II. Irradiance lamp comparisons and the NIST sphere source,” Earth Observer 14(4), 25–29 (2002).

J. J. Butler, B. C. Johnson, R. A. Barnes, “Radiometric measurement comparisons at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. I. The GSFC sphere sources,” Earth Observer 14(3), 3–8 (2002).

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, J. J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, K. Thome, E. Zalewski, M. Helmlinger, C. Bruegge, S. Schiller, G. Fedosejevs, R. Gauthier, S. Tsuchida, S. Machida, “Radiometric characterization of field radiometers in support of the 1997 Lunar Lake, Nevada, experiment to determine surface reflectance and top-of-atmosphere radiance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 77, 367–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System program,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1077–1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, “A portable integrating sphere source for radiometric calibrations from the visible to the shortwave infrared,” Earth Observer 11, 14–18 (1999).

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, “Description of a portable spectroradiometer to validate EOS radiance scales in the shortwave infrared,” Earth Observer 10, 43–47 (1998).

B. C. Johnson, S. S. Bruce, J. M. Houston, T. R. O’Brian, A. Thompson, S. B. Hooker, J. L. Mueller, in The Fourth SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-4),, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1996), Vol. 37, pp. 1–65.

B. C. Johnson, J. B. Fowler, C. L. Cromer, The Sea WiFS Transfer Radiometer (SXR), , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1998), Vol. 1, pp. 1–58.

J. J. Butler, B. L. Markham, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, H. W. Yoon, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, E. F. Zalewski, P. R. Spyak, F. Sakuma, J. W. Cooper, “Radiometric measurement comparisons using transfer radiometers in support of the calibration of NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) sensors,” in Sensors, Systems and Next-Generation Satellites III, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3870, 180–192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, C.

E. A. Early A Thompson, C. Johnson, J. DeLuisi, P. Disterhoft, D. Wardle, E. Wu, W. Mou, Y. Sun, T. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, L. Harrison, J. Berndt, D. S. Hayes, “The 1995 North American interagency intercomparison of ultraviolet monitoring spectroradiometers,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 15–62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kahle, A. B.

S. Hook, J. J. Meyers, K. J. Thome, M. Fitzgerald, A. B. Kahle, “The MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) — a new instrument for Earth science studies,” Remote Sen. Environ. 76, 93–102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

King, M. D.

M. D. King, W. P. Menzel, P. S. Grant, J. S. Myers, G. T. Arnold, S. E. Platnick, L. E. Gumley, S. C. Tsay, C. C. Moeller, M. Fitzgerald, K. S. Brown, F. G. Osterwisch, “Airborne scanning spectrometer for remote sensing of cloud density, aerosol, water vapor, and surface properties,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 777–794 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Arnold, M. F. Fitzgerald, P. S. Grant, S. E. Platnick, S. Tsay, J. S. Myers, M. D. King, R. O. Green, L. Remer, “MODIS Airborne Simulator radiometric calibration,” in Earth Observing Systems, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2820, 56–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuyatt, C. E.

B. N. Taylor, C. E. Kuyatt, Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurements Results, (U. S. Government Printing Office, 1994).

Lucas, T.

E. A. Early A Thompson, C. Johnson, J. DeLuisi, P. Disterhoft, D. Wardle, E. Wu, W. Mou, Y. Sun, T. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, L. Harrison, J. Berndt, D. S. Hayes, “The 1995 North American interagency intercomparison of ultraviolet monitoring spectroradiometers,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 15–62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Machida, S.

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, J. J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, K. Thome, E. Zalewski, M. Helmlinger, C. Bruegge, S. Schiller, G. Fedosejevs, R. Gauthier, S. Tsuchida, S. Machida, “Radiometric characterization of field radiometers in support of the 1997 Lunar Lake, Nevada, experiment to determine surface reflectance and top-of-atmosphere radiance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 77, 367–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Markham, B. L.

J. J. Butler, S. W. Brown, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, S. F. Biggar, E. F. Zalewski, B. L. Markham, P. N. Gracey, J. B. Young, R. A. Barnes, “Radiometric measurement comparison on the integrating sphere source used in the calibration of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+),” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 108, 199–228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Butler, B. L. Markham, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, H. W. Yoon, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, E. F. Zalewski, P. R. Spyak, F. Sakuma, J. W. Cooper, “Radiometric measurement comparisons using transfer radiometers in support of the calibration of NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) sensors,” in Sensors, Systems and Next-Generation Satellites III, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3870, 180–192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McLean, J. T.

J. H. Walker, C. L. Cromer, J. T. McLean, “A technique for improving the calibration of large-area sphere sources,” in Calibration of Passive Remote Observing Optical and Microwave Instrumentation, B. W. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1493, 224–230 (1991).
[CrossRef]

McSparron, D. A.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, Spectral Irradiance Calibrations, (U. S. Government Printing Office, 1987).

Menzel, W. P.

M. D. King, W. P. Menzel, P. S. Grant, J. S. Myers, G. T. Arnold, S. E. Platnick, L. E. Gumley, S. C. Tsay, C. C. Moeller, M. Fitzgerald, K. S. Brown, F. G. Osterwisch, “Airborne scanning spectrometer for remote sensing of cloud density, aerosol, water vapor, and surface properties,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 777–794 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mestechkina, T.

E. A. Early A Thompson, C. Johnson, J. DeLuisi, P. Disterhoft, D. Wardle, E. Wu, W. Mou, Y. Sun, T. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, L. Harrison, J. Berndt, D. S. Hayes, “The 1995 North American interagency intercomparison of ultraviolet monitoring spectroradiometers,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 15–62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meyers, J. J.

S. Hook, J. J. Meyers, K. J. Thome, M. Fitzgerald, A. B. Kahle, “The MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) — a new instrument for Earth science studies,” Remote Sen. Environ. 76, 93–102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moeller, C. C.

M. D. King, W. P. Menzel, P. S. Grant, J. S. Myers, G. T. Arnold, S. E. Platnick, L. E. Gumley, S. C. Tsay, C. C. Moeller, M. Fitzgerald, K. S. Brown, F. G. Osterwisch, “Airborne scanning spectrometer for remote sensing of cloud density, aerosol, water vapor, and surface properties,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 777–794 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mou, W.

E. A. Early A Thompson, C. Johnson, J. DeLuisi, P. Disterhoft, D. Wardle, E. Wu, W. Mou, Y. Sun, T. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, L. Harrison, J. Berndt, D. S. Hayes, “The 1995 North American interagency intercomparison of ultraviolet monitoring spectroradiometers,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 15–62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, J. L.

B. C. Johnson, S. S. Bruce, J. M. Houston, T. R. O’Brian, A. Thompson, S. B. Hooker, J. L. Mueller, in The Fourth SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-4),, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1996), Vol. 37, pp. 1–65.

Myers, J. S.

M. D. King, W. P. Menzel, P. S. Grant, J. S. Myers, G. T. Arnold, S. E. Platnick, L. E. Gumley, S. C. Tsay, C. C. Moeller, M. Fitzgerald, K. S. Brown, F. G. Osterwisch, “Airborne scanning spectrometer for remote sensing of cloud density, aerosol, water vapor, and surface properties,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 777–794 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Arnold, M. F. Fitzgerald, P. S. Grant, S. E. Platnick, S. Tsay, J. S. Myers, M. D. King, R. O. Green, L. Remer, “MODIS Airborne Simulator radiometric calibration,” in Earth Observing Systems, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2820, 56–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O’Brian, T. R.

B. C. Johnson, S. S. Bruce, J. M. Houston, T. R. O’Brian, A. Thompson, S. B. Hooker, J. L. Mueller, in The Fourth SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-4),, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1996), Vol. 37, pp. 1–65.

Osterwisch, F. G.

M. D. King, W. P. Menzel, P. S. Grant, J. S. Myers, G. T. Arnold, S. E. Platnick, L. E. Gumley, S. C. Tsay, C. C. Moeller, M. Fitzgerald, K. S. Brown, F. G. Osterwisch, “Airborne scanning spectrometer for remote sensing of cloud density, aerosol, water vapor, and surface properties,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 777–794 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pavlov, M. M.

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System program,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1077–1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Platnick, S. E.

M. D. King, W. P. Menzel, P. S. Grant, J. S. Myers, G. T. Arnold, S. E. Platnick, L. E. Gumley, S. C. Tsay, C. C. Moeller, M. Fitzgerald, K. S. Brown, F. G. Osterwisch, “Airborne scanning spectrometer for remote sensing of cloud density, aerosol, water vapor, and surface properties,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 777–794 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Arnold, M. F. Fitzgerald, P. S. Grant, S. E. Platnick, S. Tsay, J. S. Myers, M. D. King, R. O. Green, L. Remer, “MODIS Airborne Simulator radiometric calibration,” in Earth Observing Systems, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2820, 56–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Proctor, J. E.

J. E. Proctor, P. Y. Barnes, “NIST high accuracy reference reflectometer–spectrophotometer,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 619–627 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Remer, L.

G. T. Arnold, M. F. Fitzgerald, P. S. Grant, S. E. Platnick, S. Tsay, J. S. Myers, M. D. King, R. O. Green, L. Remer, “MODIS Airborne Simulator radiometric calibration,” in Earth Observing Systems, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2820, 56–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sakuma, F.

J. J. Butler, B. L. Markham, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, H. W. Yoon, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, E. F. Zalewski, P. R. Spyak, F. Sakuma, J. W. Cooper, “Radiometric measurement comparisons using transfer radiometers in support of the calibration of NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) sensors,” in Sensors, Systems and Next-Generation Satellites III, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3870, 180–192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Saunders, R. D.

J. J. Butler, S. W. Brown, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, S. F. Biggar, E. F. Zalewski, B. L. Markham, P. N. Gracey, J. B. Young, R. A. Barnes, “Radiometric measurement comparison on the integrating sphere source used in the calibration of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+),” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 108, 199–228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, Spectral Irradiance Calibrations, (U. S. Government Printing Office, 1987).

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, A. T. Hattenburg, Spectral Radiance Calibrations, NBS Spec. Pub. 250–1 (U. S. Government Printing Office, 1987).

Schiller, S.

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, J. J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, K. Thome, E. Zalewski, M. Helmlinger, C. Bruegge, S. Schiller, G. Fedosejevs, R. Gauthier, S. Tsuchida, S. Machida, “Radiometric characterization of field radiometers in support of the 1997 Lunar Lake, Nevada, experiment to determine surface reflectance and top-of-atmosphere radiance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 77, 367–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Slater, P. N.

S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, “Preflight cross-calibration radiometers for EOS AM-1 platform visible and near-IR sources,” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE1939, 243–249 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. S.

Spyak, P. R.

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, J. J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, K. Thome, E. Zalewski, M. Helmlinger, C. Bruegge, S. Schiller, G. Fedosejevs, R. Gauthier, S. Tsuchida, S. Machida, “Radiometric characterization of field radiometers in support of the 1997 Lunar Lake, Nevada, experiment to determine surface reflectance and top-of-atmosphere radiance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 77, 367–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System program,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1077–1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Spyak, D. S. Smith, J. Thiry, C. Burkhart, “Short-wave infrared transfer radiometer for the calibration of the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and the Advance Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer,” Appl. Opt. 39, 5694–5706 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Butler, B. L. Markham, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, H. W. Yoon, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, E. F. Zalewski, P. R. Spyak, F. Sakuma, J. W. Cooper, “Radiometric measurement comparisons using transfer radiometers in support of the calibration of NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) sensors,” in Sensors, Systems and Next-Generation Satellites III, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3870, 180–192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y.

E. A. Early A Thompson, C. Johnson, J. DeLuisi, P. Disterhoft, D. Wardle, E. Wu, W. Mou, Y. Sun, T. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, L. Harrison, J. Berndt, D. S. Hayes, “The 1995 North American interagency intercomparison of ultraviolet monitoring spectroradiometers,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 15–62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, B. N.

B. N. Taylor, C. E. Kuyatt, Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurements Results, (U. S. Government Printing Office, 1994).

Thiry, J.

Thome, K.

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, J. J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, K. Thome, E. Zalewski, M. Helmlinger, C. Bruegge, S. Schiller, G. Fedosejevs, R. Gauthier, S. Tsuchida, S. Machida, “Radiometric characterization of field radiometers in support of the 1997 Lunar Lake, Nevada, experiment to determine surface reflectance and top-of-atmosphere radiance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 77, 367–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thome, K. J.

S. Hook, J. J. Meyers, K. J. Thome, M. Fitzgerald, A. B. Kahle, “The MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) — a new instrument for Earth science studies,” Remote Sen. Environ. 76, 93–102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, A.

B. C. Johnson, S. S. Bruce, J. M. Houston, T. R. O’Brian, A. Thompson, S. B. Hooker, J. L. Mueller, in The Fourth SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-4),, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1996), Vol. 37, pp. 1–65.

Tsay, S.

G. T. Arnold, M. F. Fitzgerald, P. S. Grant, S. E. Platnick, S. Tsay, J. S. Myers, M. D. King, R. O. Green, L. Remer, “MODIS Airborne Simulator radiometric calibration,” in Earth Observing Systems, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2820, 56–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsay, S. C.

M. D. King, W. P. Menzel, P. S. Grant, J. S. Myers, G. T. Arnold, S. E. Platnick, L. E. Gumley, S. C. Tsay, C. C. Moeller, M. Fitzgerald, K. S. Brown, F. G. Osterwisch, “Airborne scanning spectrometer for remote sensing of cloud density, aerosol, water vapor, and surface properties,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 777–794 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchida, S.

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, J. J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, K. Thome, E. Zalewski, M. Helmlinger, C. Bruegge, S. Schiller, G. Fedosejevs, R. Gauthier, S. Tsuchida, S. Machida, “Radiometric characterization of field radiometers in support of the 1997 Lunar Lake, Nevada, experiment to determine surface reflectance and top-of-atmosphere radiance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 77, 367–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Walker, J. H.

J. H. Walker, C. L. Cromer, J. T. McLean, “A technique for improving the calibration of large-area sphere sources,” in Calibration of Passive Remote Observing Optical and Microwave Instrumentation, B. W. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1493, 224–230 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, Spectral Irradiance Calibrations, (U. S. Government Printing Office, 1987).

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, A. T. Hattenburg, Spectral Radiance Calibrations, NBS Spec. Pub. 250–1 (U. S. Government Printing Office, 1987).

Wardle, D.

E. A. Early A Thompson, C. Johnson, J. DeLuisi, P. Disterhoft, D. Wardle, E. Wu, W. Mou, Y. Sun, T. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, L. Harrison, J. Berndt, D. S. Hayes, “The 1995 North American interagency intercomparison of ultraviolet monitoring spectroradiometers,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 15–62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weidner, V. R.

J. J. Hsia, V. R. Weidner, “NBS 45°/normal reflectometer for absolute reflectance factors,” Metrologia 17, 97–102 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Wu, E.

E. A. Early A Thompson, C. Johnson, J. DeLuisi, P. Disterhoft, D. Wardle, E. Wu, W. Mou, Y. Sun, T. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, L. Harrison, J. Berndt, D. S. Hayes, “The 1995 North American interagency intercomparison of ultraviolet monitoring spectroradiometers,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 15–62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, H. W.

H. W. Yoon, C. E. Gibson, P. Y. Barnes, “The realization of the National Institute of Standards and Technology detector-based spectral irradiance scale,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5879–5890 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, J. J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, K. Thome, E. Zalewski, M. Helmlinger, C. Bruegge, S. Schiller, G. Fedosejevs, R. Gauthier, S. Tsuchida, S. Machida, “Radiometric characterization of field radiometers in support of the 1997 Lunar Lake, Nevada, experiment to determine surface reflectance and top-of-atmosphere radiance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 77, 367–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, “Description of a portable spectroradiometer to validate EOS radiance scales in the shortwave infrared,” Earth Observer 10, 43–47 (1998).

J. J. Butler, B. L. Markham, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, H. W. Yoon, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, E. F. Zalewski, P. R. Spyak, F. Sakuma, J. W. Cooper, “Radiometric measurement comparisons using transfer radiometers in support of the calibration of NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) sensors,” in Sensors, Systems and Next-Generation Satellites III, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3870, 180–192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Young, J. B.

J. J. Butler, S. W. Brown, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, S. F. Biggar, E. F. Zalewski, B. L. Markham, P. N. Gracey, J. B. Young, R. A. Barnes, “Radiometric measurement comparison on the integrating sphere source used in the calibration of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+),” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 108, 199–228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zalewski, E.

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, J. J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, K. Thome, E. Zalewski, M. Helmlinger, C. Bruegge, S. Schiller, G. Fedosejevs, R. Gauthier, S. Tsuchida, S. Machida, “Radiometric characterization of field radiometers in support of the 1997 Lunar Lake, Nevada, experiment to determine surface reflectance and top-of-atmosphere radiance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 77, 367–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zalewski, E. F.

J. J. Butler, S. W. Brown, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, S. F. Biggar, E. F. Zalewski, B. L. Markham, P. N. Gracey, J. B. Young, R. A. Barnes, “Radiometric measurement comparison on the integrating sphere source used in the calibration of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+),” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 108, 199–228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Butler, B. L. Markham, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, H. W. Yoon, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, E. F. Zalewski, P. R. Spyak, F. Sakuma, J. W. Cooper, “Radiometric measurement comparisons using transfer radiometers in support of the calibration of NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) sensors,” in Sensors, Systems and Next-Generation Satellites III, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3870, 180–192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Earth Observer

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, “Description of a portable spectroradiometer to validate EOS radiance scales in the shortwave infrared,” Earth Observer 10, 43–47 (1998).

J. J. Butler, B. C. Johnson, R. A. Barnes, “Radiometric measurement comparisons at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. I. The GSFC sphere sources,” Earth Observer 14(3), 3–8 (2002).

J. J. Butler, B. C. Johnson, R. A. Barnes, “Radiometric measurement comparisons at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center. II. Irradiance lamp comparisons and the NIST sphere source,” Earth Observer 14(4), 25–29 (2002).

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, “A portable integrating sphere source for radiometric calibrations from the visible to the shortwave infrared,” Earth Observer 11, 14–18 (1999).

Int. J. Remote Sens.

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, “A portable integrating sphere source for the Earth Observing System’s calibration validation programme,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 24, 215–224 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

M. D. King, W. P. Menzel, P. S. Grant, J. S. Myers, G. T. Arnold, S. E. Platnick, L. E. Gumley, S. C. Tsay, C. C. Moeller, M. Fitzgerald, K. S. Brown, F. G. Osterwisch, “Airborne scanning spectrometer for remote sensing of cloud density, aerosol, water vapor, and surface properties,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 777–794 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.

E. A. Early, P. Y. Barnes, B. C. Johnson, J. J. Butler, C. J. Bruegge, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, M. M. Pavlov, “Bidirectional reflectance round-robin in support of the Earth Observing System program,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 17, 1077–1091 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.

J. J. Butler, S. W. Brown, R. D. Saunders, B. C. Johnson, S. F. Biggar, E. F. Zalewski, B. L. Markham, P. N. Gracey, J. B. Young, R. A. Barnes, “Radiometric measurement comparison on the integrating sphere source used in the calibration of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+),” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 108, 199–228 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. A. Early A Thompson, C. Johnson, J. DeLuisi, P. Disterhoft, D. Wardle, E. Wu, W. Mou, Y. Sun, T. Lucas, T. Mestechkina, L. Harrison, J. Berndt, D. S. Hayes, “The 1995 North American interagency intercomparison of ultraviolet monitoring spectroradiometers,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 103, 15–62 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Proctor, P. Y. Barnes, “NIST high accuracy reference reflectometer–spectrophotometer,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 101, 619–627 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia

J. J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, “The use of transfer radiometers in validating the visible to shortwave infrared calibrations of radiance sources used by instruments in NASA’s Earth Observing System,” Metrologia 40, S70–S77 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Hsia, V. R. Weidner, “NBS 45°/normal reflectometer for absolute reflectance factors,” Metrologia 17, 97–102 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sen. Environ.

S. Hook, J. J. Meyers, K. J. Thome, M. Fitzgerald, A. B. Kahle, “The MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) — a new instrument for Earth science studies,” Remote Sen. Environ. 76, 93–102 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ.

S. W. Brown, B. C. Johnson, H. W. Yoon, J. J. Butler, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, P. R. Spyak, K. Thome, E. Zalewski, M. Helmlinger, C. Bruegge, S. Schiller, G. Fedosejevs, R. Gauthier, S. Tsuchida, S. Machida, “Radiometric characterization of field radiometers in support of the 1997 Lunar Lake, Nevada, experiment to determine surface reflectance and top-of-atmosphere radiance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 77, 367–376 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. T. Arnold, M. F. Fitzgerald, P. S. Grant, S. E. Platnick, S. Tsay, J. S. Myers, M. D. King, R. O. Green, L. Remer, “MODIS Airborne Simulator radiometric calibration,” in Earth Observing Systems, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE2820, 56–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Certain commercial equipment, instruments, or materials are identified in this paper to foster understanding. Such identification does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor does it imply that the materials or equipment identified are the best available for the purpose.

B. C. Johnson, S. S. Bruce, J. M. Houston, T. R. O’Brian, A. Thompson, S. B. Hooker, J. L. Mueller, in The Fourth SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-4),, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1996), Vol. 37, pp. 1–65.

J. J. Butler, B. L. Markham, B. C. Johnson, S. W. Brown, H. W. Yoon, R. A. Barnes, S. F. Biggar, E. F. Zalewski, P. R. Spyak, F. Sakuma, J. W. Cooper, “Radiometric measurement comparisons using transfer radiometers in support of the calibration of NASA’s Earth Observing System (EOS) sensors,” in Sensors, Systems and Next-Generation Satellites III, H. Fujisada, ed., Proc. SPIE3870, 180–192 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Y. Barnes, J. J. Hsia, 45°/0° Reflectance Factors of Pressed Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) Powder, (U. S. Government Printing Office, 1995).

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, A. T. Hattenburg, Spectral Radiance Calibrations, NBS Spec. Pub. 250–1 (U. S. Government Printing Office, 1987).

The reflectance factor is the ratio of the reflected flux to that from an ideal surface.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, D. A. McSparron, Spectral Irradiance Calibrations, (U. S. Government Printing Office, 1987).

B. N. Taylor, C. E. Kuyatt, Guidelines for Evaluating and Expressing the Uncertainty of NIST Measurements Results, (U. S. Government Printing Office, 1994).

B. C. Johnson, J. B. Fowler, C. L. Cromer, The Sea WiFS Transfer Radiometer (SXR), , S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, eds. (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 1998), Vol. 1, pp. 1–58.

S. F. Biggar, P. N. Slater, “Preflight cross-calibration radiometers for EOS AM-1 platform visible and near-IR sources,” in Sensor Systems for the Early Earth Observing System Platforms, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE1939, 243–249 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Walker, C. L. Cromer, J. T. McLean, “A technique for improving the calibration of large-area sphere sources,” in Calibration of Passive Remote Observing Optical and Microwave Instrumentation, B. W. Guenther, ed., Proc. SPIE1493, 224–230 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

NPR radiance (curve) and uncertainty (filled diamonds) from 400 to 2500 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Combined standard uncertainty in the spectral responsivity of the 746/ISIC.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Mirror reflectance for s- and p-polarized light at 45° incidence and reflectance. The ratio of the s and p reflectance (solid curve) is also shown.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of radiance measurements of the lamp-illuminated panel.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Percent difference between measured and calibrated radiance of the NPR source.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Results of the comparison of two FEL lamps: lamp F496 calibrated against the 1990 NIST irradiance scale and lamp F512 calibrated against the 2000 NIST irradiance scale. The ratio S(F512)/E(512) to S(F496)/E(496) is plotted versus wavelength for each radiometer, where S is the radiometer signal and E is the NIST-reported lamp irradiance.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Percent difference between the Ames ASD-measured ISS radiance (12 lamps on) and the radiance measured by the other radiometers.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Percent difference between the Ames ASD-measured ISS radiance (nine lamps on) and the radiance measured by the other radiometers.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Percent difference between the Ames ASD-measured ISS radiance (six lamps on) and the radiance measured by the other radiometers.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Percent difference between the Ames ASD-measured ISS radiance (three lamps on) and the radiance measured by the other radiometers.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Percent difference from the average of Ames ASD radiance measurements of the Ames ISS at the twelve-lamp illumination level. The ASD measurements were acquired on nine dates from September 1999 to March 2003. The percent standard deviation from the average is also shown.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Percent difference from the average of 746/ISIC radiance measurements of the Ames ISS at the lamp illumination levels shown. The 746/ISIC measurements were acquired on four dates from September 1999 to July 2003. The percent standard deviation from the average is also shown for each of the four illumination levels.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Percent difference of the four chronologically closest radiance measurements of the Ames ISS by the 746/ISIC and the SCL ASD radiometer from September 1999 to July 2003. The first dates listed are the dates of the 746/ISIC measurements.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Relative Standard Uncertainty Components, Expressed in Percent, That Affect Spectral Radiance L(λ) of the Ames Plaque Independently of the Radiometer Under Consideration

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measurement Wavelengths, Spectral Bandwidths, and Combined Standard Uncertainties (k = 1) of Radiance Measurements with the VXR Transfer Radiometer

Tables Icon

Table 3 Measurement Wavelengths, Spectral Bandwidths, and Combined Standard Uncertainties (k = 1) of Radiance Measurements with the UAVNIR Transfer Radiometera

Tables Icon

Table 4 Measurement Wavelengths, Spectral Bandwidths and Combined Standard Uncertainties (k = 1) of Radiance Measurements with the UASWIR Transfer Radiometer

Tables Icon

Table 5 Determination of Fold Mirror Reflectance and Radiometer Polarization Sensitivities at Ames on 1 September 1999

Tables Icon

Table 6 Short Term (i.e., Day-to-Day) Repeatability of the Ames 76 cm Diameter Integrating Sphere Operated at the Nine-Lamp Illumination Level on 1 and 2 September

Equations (25)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L ( λ ) = f ( 0 ° / 45 ° , λ ) ( 50 / r ) 2 E ( λ , 50 cm ) ,
L ( λ ) = R ( 8 ° / h , λ ) π ( 50 / r ) 2 E ( λ , 50 cm ) .
u i ( L ) L = ( 6546 nm λ ) ( 0.0006 / mA ) u ( I ) ,
u g ( L ) L = - 0.005 θ 2 ° ,
L ( λ ) = E Sphere ( λ ) Z 2 A Sphere = S Lamp ( λ ) S Sphere ( λ ) E Lamp ( λ ) ( d 2 + r 1 2 + r 2 2 ) A Sphere ,
L c ( i , j ) = λ 1 λ 2 L ref ( λ ) R ( i , j , λ ) d λ λ 1 λ 2 R ( i , j , λ ) d λ .
P ( i , j ) = 100 L m ( i , j ) - L c ( i , j ) L c ( i , j ) ,
S ( λ ) = λ 1 λ 2 R ( λ ) L ( λ ) d λ .
S ( λ ) = λ 1 λ 2 [ R s ( λ ) L s ( λ ) + R p ( λ ) L p ] d λ ,
L ( λ ) = L s ( λ ) + L p ( λ ) ,
S ( λ ) = R s ( λ ) L s ( λ ) + R p ( λ ) L p ( λ ) .
L s ( λ ) = L p ( λ ) = L ( λ ) 2 ,
S ( λ ) = [ R s ( λ ) + R p ( λ ) ] L ( λ ) 2 .
S ( λ ) = [ R s ( λ ) r s ( λ ) L s ( λ ) + R p ( λ ) r p ( λ ) L p ( λ ) ] ,
S ( λ ) = R ( λ ) L ( λ ) .
R ( λ ) = [ R s ( λ ) + R p ( λ ) ] 2 .
S M S = R s r s L s + R p r p L p R s L s + R p L p = R s r s + R p r p R s + R p ,
S M S = R s r s + R p r p 2 R = R s r s + ( 2 R - R s ) r p 2 R
R s = 2 R ( S M S - r p ) / r s - r p .
R p = 2 R ( 1 - S M / S - r p r s - r p ) .
S A = R s r s L s A + R p r p L p A ,
L s A ( λ ) = L p A ( λ ) = L A ( λ ) 2 .
S A = ( R s r s + R p r p 2 ) L A .
L A = S A ( R s r s + R p r p 2 ) - 1 .
L A = S A ( R s r p + R p r s 2 ) - 1 .

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