Abstract

In this paper speckle correlation is introduced as a tool to investigate the heat-influenced area during material processing with laser light. Two materials were investigated, a pure silver sheet and a sheet of SiC–diamond composite. The processing laser used in the experiments was a diode-pumped acousto-optical Q-switched Nd:YAG laser that allowed percussion hole drilling to be performed using green light through a second-harmonic crystal. The measurements were performed using a continuous-wave He–Ne laser and a digital camera. The experimental results show that the heat-influenced area is ~5000 times larger than the actual hole being drilled and that it reaches a steady-state condition toward the end of the processing cycle.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. I. Sárady, G. Phillips, S. Seidel, G. Bostanjoglo, “Frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser with high average power in processing of ceramics, metals and composites,” in Proceedings of ICALEO’95, Vol. 80 of International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1995), pp. 313–320.
  2. I. Sárady, Th. Beck, G. Bostanjoglo, G. Phillips, I. Schmidt, “Drilling and cutting of superalloys with Q-switched and modulated Nd:YAG laser pulses,” in Proceedings of ICALEO’95, Vol. 80 of International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1995), pp. 279–286.
  3. I. Sárady, “Micro structural changes in steel, irradiated by nanosecond iodine laser pulses,” in Proceedings of ICALEO’93, Vol. 77 of International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1993), pp. 545–555.
  4. J. M. Huntley, “Automated fringe pattern analysis in experimental mechanics: a review,” J. Strain Anal. 33, 105–125 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Miroshnikova, O. Yalukova, M. Sjödahl, I. Sárady, “Study of the interaction mechanisms between different materials and pulses from CO2- and Nd:YAG-lasers, using digital speckle photography,” in Nonresonant Laser–Matter Interaction (NLMI-II), M. N. Libensen, ed., Proc. SPIE5506, 42–50 (2003).
  6. T. Fricke-Begemann, G. Gulker, K. D. Hinsch, K. Wolff, “Corrosion monitoring with speckle correlation,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5948–5955 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. D. Coburn, J. Slevin, “Digital correlation system for nondestructive testing of thermally stressed ceramics,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5977–5986 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. J. Gåsvik, Optical Metrology, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Sjödahl, L. R. Benckert, “Electronic speckle photography: analysis of an algorithm, giving the displacement with sub-pixel accuracy,” Appl. Opt. 32, 2278–2284 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Sjödahl, “Electronic speckle photography: measurement of in-plane strain fields through the use of defocused laser speckles,” Appl. Opt. 34, 5799–5808 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. K. Rastogi, ed., Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry and Related Techniques (Wiley, 2001).
  12. M. Sjödahl, “Electronic speckle photography: increased accuracy by nonintegral pixel shifting,” Appl. Opt. 33, 6667–6673 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

J. M. Huntley, “Automated fringe pattern analysis in experimental mechanics: a review,” J. Strain Anal. 33, 105–125 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

Beck, Th.

I. Sárady, Th. Beck, G. Bostanjoglo, G. Phillips, I. Schmidt, “Drilling and cutting of superalloys with Q-switched and modulated Nd:YAG laser pulses,” in Proceedings of ICALEO’95, Vol. 80 of International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1995), pp. 279–286.

Benckert, L. R.

Bostanjoglo, G.

I. Sárady, Th. Beck, G. Bostanjoglo, G. Phillips, I. Schmidt, “Drilling and cutting of superalloys with Q-switched and modulated Nd:YAG laser pulses,” in Proceedings of ICALEO’95, Vol. 80 of International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1995), pp. 279–286.

I. Sárady, G. Phillips, S. Seidel, G. Bostanjoglo, “Frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser with high average power in processing of ceramics, metals and composites,” in Proceedings of ICALEO’95, Vol. 80 of International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1995), pp. 313–320.

Coburn, D.

Fricke-Begemann, T.

Gåsvik, K. J.

K. J. Gåsvik, Optical Metrology, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2002).
[CrossRef]

Gulker, G.

Hinsch, K. D.

Huntley, J. M.

J. M. Huntley, “Automated fringe pattern analysis in experimental mechanics: a review,” J. Strain Anal. 33, 105–125 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miroshnikova, N.

N. Miroshnikova, O. Yalukova, M. Sjödahl, I. Sárady, “Study of the interaction mechanisms between different materials and pulses from CO2- and Nd:YAG-lasers, using digital speckle photography,” in Nonresonant Laser–Matter Interaction (NLMI-II), M. N. Libensen, ed., Proc. SPIE5506, 42–50 (2003).

Phillips, G.

I. Sárady, G. Phillips, S. Seidel, G. Bostanjoglo, “Frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser with high average power in processing of ceramics, metals and composites,” in Proceedings of ICALEO’95, Vol. 80 of International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1995), pp. 313–320.

I. Sárady, Th. Beck, G. Bostanjoglo, G. Phillips, I. Schmidt, “Drilling and cutting of superalloys with Q-switched and modulated Nd:YAG laser pulses,” in Proceedings of ICALEO’95, Vol. 80 of International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1995), pp. 279–286.

Sárady, I.

I. Sárady, Th. Beck, G. Bostanjoglo, G. Phillips, I. Schmidt, “Drilling and cutting of superalloys with Q-switched and modulated Nd:YAG laser pulses,” in Proceedings of ICALEO’95, Vol. 80 of International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1995), pp. 279–286.

I. Sárady, G. Phillips, S. Seidel, G. Bostanjoglo, “Frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser with high average power in processing of ceramics, metals and composites,” in Proceedings of ICALEO’95, Vol. 80 of International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1995), pp. 313–320.

I. Sárady, “Micro structural changes in steel, irradiated by nanosecond iodine laser pulses,” in Proceedings of ICALEO’93, Vol. 77 of International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1993), pp. 545–555.

N. Miroshnikova, O. Yalukova, M. Sjödahl, I. Sárady, “Study of the interaction mechanisms between different materials and pulses from CO2- and Nd:YAG-lasers, using digital speckle photography,” in Nonresonant Laser–Matter Interaction (NLMI-II), M. N. Libensen, ed., Proc. SPIE5506, 42–50 (2003).

Schmidt, I.

I. Sárady, Th. Beck, G. Bostanjoglo, G. Phillips, I. Schmidt, “Drilling and cutting of superalloys with Q-switched and modulated Nd:YAG laser pulses,” in Proceedings of ICALEO’95, Vol. 80 of International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1995), pp. 279–286.

Seidel, S.

I. Sárady, G. Phillips, S. Seidel, G. Bostanjoglo, “Frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser with high average power in processing of ceramics, metals and composites,” in Proceedings of ICALEO’95, Vol. 80 of International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1995), pp. 313–320.

Sjödahl, M.

Slevin, J.

Wolff, K.

Yalukova, O.

N. Miroshnikova, O. Yalukova, M. Sjödahl, I. Sárady, “Study of the interaction mechanisms between different materials and pulses from CO2- and Nd:YAG-lasers, using digital speckle photography,” in Nonresonant Laser–Matter Interaction (NLMI-II), M. N. Libensen, ed., Proc. SPIE5506, 42–50 (2003).

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Strain Anal. (1)

J. M. Huntley, “Automated fringe pattern analysis in experimental mechanics: a review,” J. Strain Anal. 33, 105–125 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

N. Miroshnikova, O. Yalukova, M. Sjödahl, I. Sárady, “Study of the interaction mechanisms between different materials and pulses from CO2- and Nd:YAG-lasers, using digital speckle photography,” in Nonresonant Laser–Matter Interaction (NLMI-II), M. N. Libensen, ed., Proc. SPIE5506, 42–50 (2003).

I. Sárady, G. Phillips, S. Seidel, G. Bostanjoglo, “Frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser with high average power in processing of ceramics, metals and composites,” in Proceedings of ICALEO’95, Vol. 80 of International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1995), pp. 313–320.

I. Sárady, Th. Beck, G. Bostanjoglo, G. Phillips, I. Schmidt, “Drilling and cutting of superalloys with Q-switched and modulated Nd:YAG laser pulses,” in Proceedings of ICALEO’95, Vol. 80 of International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1995), pp. 279–286.

I. Sárady, “Micro structural changes in steel, irradiated by nanosecond iodine laser pulses,” in Proceedings of ICALEO’93, Vol. 77 of International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1993), pp. 545–555.

P. K. Rastogi, ed., Digital Speckle Pattern Interferometry and Related Techniques (Wiley, 2001).

K. J. Gåsvik, Optical Metrology, 3rd ed. (Wiley, 2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of speckle correlation: (a) cross correlation between two subimages. (b) Three-dimensional correlation map representing calculated correlation values. (c) Vectors representing the calculated speckle motion; the noisy area in the center of the image has been removed for clarity.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Speckle images captured (a) before, (b), (c) during, and (d) after the drilling of a 0.5 mm silver sheet by focused 532 nm laser pulses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Correlation maps calculated from the images in Fig. 3: (a) after ~2000 pulses, (b) after ~3000 pulses, and (c) ~1 s after processing has stopped.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Correlation maps calculated from the images of a 2 mm SiC–diamond composite: (a) after ~45,000 pulses, (b) after ~47,000 pulses, and (c) after ~50,000 processing pulses.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

SEM images of a 2 mm thick SiC–diamond composite, drilled by 532 nm laser pulses: (a) beam entrance side, (b) beam exit side. Note that the two pictures have different scales.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

SEM images of a 2 mm thick SiC–diamond composite, drilled by 1064 nm laser pulses: (a) beam entrance side, (b) beam exit side. Note that the two pictures have different scales.

Equations (2)

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c ( p , q ) = F - 1 ( H s 1 * H s 2 ) ,
d = 4 λ f π D M 2 ,

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