Abstract

We present a new method for monitoring aluminum corrosion by determining the kind of light output that is as corrosion occurs. We prepared some metallized multimode optical fibers by physical vacuum deposition of aluminum to monitor metal corrosion. The sensing area was 1–2 cm in length and had an uncladded part. We used scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) to observe the microappearance of the aluminum before and after corrosion by sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid. The film’s thickness was also measured by SEM. The factors that affect the rate of corrosion were also investigated.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. A. Panova, P. Pantano, D. R. Walt, “In situ fluorescence imaging of localized corrosion with a pH-sensitive imaging fiber,” Anal. Chem. 69, 1635–1641 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. J. Elster, J. Greene, M. Jones, T. Bailey, S. Lenahan, “Optical fiber-based chemical sensors for detection of corrosion precursors and by-products,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Sensors X, R. A. Lieberman, ed., Proc. SPIE3540, 251–257 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. L. Michael, L. C. Taylor, D. R. Walt, “A far-field-viewing sensor for making analytical measurements in remote locations,” Anal. Chem. 71, 2766–2773 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. A. Greene, M. E. Jones, P. G. Duncan, C. L. Kozikowski, T. A. Bailey, R. G. May, K. A. Murphy, “Grating-based optical fiber corrosion sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1997: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, R. O. Claus, ed., Proc. SPIE3042, 260–266 (1997).
  5. W. C. Michie, B. Culshaw, M. Konstantanki, I. McKenzie, S. Kelly, N. B. Graham, C. Moran, “Distributed pH and water detection using fiber-optic sensors and hydrogels,” J. Lightwave technol. 13, 1415–1420 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. E. A. Mendoza, J. Sorenson, A. Iossi, Z. Sun, “Demonstration of self-referenced fiber optic moisture and pH sensors using optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR),” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors VIII, R. A. Lieberman, ed., Proc. SPIE2836, 242–249 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. Rutherford, R. Ikegami, J. Shrader, “Novel NDE fiber optic corrosion sensor,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1996: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, K. A. Murphy, D. R. Huston, eds., Proc. SPIE2718, 158–169 (1996).
  8. R. Bossi, T. Criswell, R. Ikegami, J. Nelson, E. Normand, P. Rutherford, J. Shrader, “Novel methods for aircraft corrosion monitoring,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Aircraft, Airports, Aerospace Hardware, and Materials, T. M. Cordell, R. D. Rempt, eds., Proc. SPIE2455, 70–81 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. L. Michael, L. C. Taylor, D. R. Walt, “A far-field-viewing sensor for making analytical measurements in remote locations,” Anal. Chem. 71, 2766–2773 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

A. A. Panova, P. Pantano, D. R. Walt, “In situ fluorescence imaging of localized corrosion with a pH-sensitive imaging fiber,” Anal. Chem. 69, 1635–1641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

W. C. Michie, B. Culshaw, M. Konstantanki, I. McKenzie, S. Kelly, N. B. Graham, C. Moran, “Distributed pH and water detection using fiber-optic sensors and hydrogels,” J. Lightwave technol. 13, 1415–1420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, T.

J. Elster, J. Greene, M. Jones, T. Bailey, S. Lenahan, “Optical fiber-based chemical sensors for detection of corrosion precursors and by-products,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Sensors X, R. A. Lieberman, ed., Proc. SPIE3540, 251–257 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, T. A.

J. A. Greene, M. E. Jones, P. G. Duncan, C. L. Kozikowski, T. A. Bailey, R. G. May, K. A. Murphy, “Grating-based optical fiber corrosion sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1997: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, R. O. Claus, ed., Proc. SPIE3042, 260–266 (1997).

Bossi, R.

R. Bossi, T. Criswell, R. Ikegami, J. Nelson, E. Normand, P. Rutherford, J. Shrader, “Novel methods for aircraft corrosion monitoring,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Aircraft, Airports, Aerospace Hardware, and Materials, T. M. Cordell, R. D. Rempt, eds., Proc. SPIE2455, 70–81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Criswell, T.

R. Bossi, T. Criswell, R. Ikegami, J. Nelson, E. Normand, P. Rutherford, J. Shrader, “Novel methods for aircraft corrosion monitoring,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Aircraft, Airports, Aerospace Hardware, and Materials, T. M. Cordell, R. D. Rempt, eds., Proc. SPIE2455, 70–81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Culshaw, B.

W. C. Michie, B. Culshaw, M. Konstantanki, I. McKenzie, S. Kelly, N. B. Graham, C. Moran, “Distributed pH and water detection using fiber-optic sensors and hydrogels,” J. Lightwave technol. 13, 1415–1420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Duncan, P. G.

J. A. Greene, M. E. Jones, P. G. Duncan, C. L. Kozikowski, T. A. Bailey, R. G. May, K. A. Murphy, “Grating-based optical fiber corrosion sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1997: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, R. O. Claus, ed., Proc. SPIE3042, 260–266 (1997).

Elster, J.

J. Elster, J. Greene, M. Jones, T. Bailey, S. Lenahan, “Optical fiber-based chemical sensors for detection of corrosion precursors and by-products,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Sensors X, R. A. Lieberman, ed., Proc. SPIE3540, 251–257 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Graham, N. B.

W. C. Michie, B. Culshaw, M. Konstantanki, I. McKenzie, S. Kelly, N. B. Graham, C. Moran, “Distributed pH and water detection using fiber-optic sensors and hydrogels,” J. Lightwave technol. 13, 1415–1420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Greene, J.

J. Elster, J. Greene, M. Jones, T. Bailey, S. Lenahan, “Optical fiber-based chemical sensors for detection of corrosion precursors and by-products,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Sensors X, R. A. Lieberman, ed., Proc. SPIE3540, 251–257 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Greene, J. A.

J. A. Greene, M. E. Jones, P. G. Duncan, C. L. Kozikowski, T. A. Bailey, R. G. May, K. A. Murphy, “Grating-based optical fiber corrosion sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1997: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, R. O. Claus, ed., Proc. SPIE3042, 260–266 (1997).

Ikegami, R.

R. Bossi, T. Criswell, R. Ikegami, J. Nelson, E. Normand, P. Rutherford, J. Shrader, “Novel methods for aircraft corrosion monitoring,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Aircraft, Airports, Aerospace Hardware, and Materials, T. M. Cordell, R. D. Rempt, eds., Proc. SPIE2455, 70–81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Rutherford, R. Ikegami, J. Shrader, “Novel NDE fiber optic corrosion sensor,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1996: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, K. A. Murphy, D. R. Huston, eds., Proc. SPIE2718, 158–169 (1996).

Iossi, A.

E. A. Mendoza, J. Sorenson, A. Iossi, Z. Sun, “Demonstration of self-referenced fiber optic moisture and pH sensors using optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR),” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors VIII, R. A. Lieberman, ed., Proc. SPIE2836, 242–249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jones, M.

J. Elster, J. Greene, M. Jones, T. Bailey, S. Lenahan, “Optical fiber-based chemical sensors for detection of corrosion precursors and by-products,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Sensors X, R. A. Lieberman, ed., Proc. SPIE3540, 251–257 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jones, M. E.

J. A. Greene, M. E. Jones, P. G. Duncan, C. L. Kozikowski, T. A. Bailey, R. G. May, K. A. Murphy, “Grating-based optical fiber corrosion sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1997: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, R. O. Claus, ed., Proc. SPIE3042, 260–266 (1997).

Kelly, S.

W. C. Michie, B. Culshaw, M. Konstantanki, I. McKenzie, S. Kelly, N. B. Graham, C. Moran, “Distributed pH and water detection using fiber-optic sensors and hydrogels,” J. Lightwave technol. 13, 1415–1420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Konstantanki, M.

W. C. Michie, B. Culshaw, M. Konstantanki, I. McKenzie, S. Kelly, N. B. Graham, C. Moran, “Distributed pH and water detection using fiber-optic sensors and hydrogels,” J. Lightwave technol. 13, 1415–1420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kozikowski, C. L.

J. A. Greene, M. E. Jones, P. G. Duncan, C. L. Kozikowski, T. A. Bailey, R. G. May, K. A. Murphy, “Grating-based optical fiber corrosion sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1997: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, R. O. Claus, ed., Proc. SPIE3042, 260–266 (1997).

Lenahan, S.

J. Elster, J. Greene, M. Jones, T. Bailey, S. Lenahan, “Optical fiber-based chemical sensors for detection of corrosion precursors and by-products,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Sensors X, R. A. Lieberman, ed., Proc. SPIE3540, 251–257 (1999).
[CrossRef]

May, R. G.

J. A. Greene, M. E. Jones, P. G. Duncan, C. L. Kozikowski, T. A. Bailey, R. G. May, K. A. Murphy, “Grating-based optical fiber corrosion sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1997: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, R. O. Claus, ed., Proc. SPIE3042, 260–266 (1997).

McKenzie, I.

W. C. Michie, B. Culshaw, M. Konstantanki, I. McKenzie, S. Kelly, N. B. Graham, C. Moran, “Distributed pH and water detection using fiber-optic sensors and hydrogels,” J. Lightwave technol. 13, 1415–1420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mendoza, E. A.

E. A. Mendoza, J. Sorenson, A. Iossi, Z. Sun, “Demonstration of self-referenced fiber optic moisture and pH sensors using optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR),” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors VIII, R. A. Lieberman, ed., Proc. SPIE2836, 242–249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Michael, K. L.

K. L. Michael, L. C. Taylor, D. R. Walt, “A far-field-viewing sensor for making analytical measurements in remote locations,” Anal. Chem. 71, 2766–2773 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michie, W. C.

W. C. Michie, B. Culshaw, M. Konstantanki, I. McKenzie, S. Kelly, N. B. Graham, C. Moran, “Distributed pH and water detection using fiber-optic sensors and hydrogels,” J. Lightwave technol. 13, 1415–1420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moran, C.

W. C. Michie, B. Culshaw, M. Konstantanki, I. McKenzie, S. Kelly, N. B. Graham, C. Moran, “Distributed pH and water detection using fiber-optic sensors and hydrogels,” J. Lightwave technol. 13, 1415–1420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Murphy, K. A.

J. A. Greene, M. E. Jones, P. G. Duncan, C. L. Kozikowski, T. A. Bailey, R. G. May, K. A. Murphy, “Grating-based optical fiber corrosion sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1997: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, R. O. Claus, ed., Proc. SPIE3042, 260–266 (1997).

Nelson, J.

R. Bossi, T. Criswell, R. Ikegami, J. Nelson, E. Normand, P. Rutherford, J. Shrader, “Novel methods for aircraft corrosion monitoring,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Aircraft, Airports, Aerospace Hardware, and Materials, T. M. Cordell, R. D. Rempt, eds., Proc. SPIE2455, 70–81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Normand, E.

R. Bossi, T. Criswell, R. Ikegami, J. Nelson, E. Normand, P. Rutherford, J. Shrader, “Novel methods for aircraft corrosion monitoring,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Aircraft, Airports, Aerospace Hardware, and Materials, T. M. Cordell, R. D. Rempt, eds., Proc. SPIE2455, 70–81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Panova, A. A.

A. A. Panova, P. Pantano, D. R. Walt, “In situ fluorescence imaging of localized corrosion with a pH-sensitive imaging fiber,” Anal. Chem. 69, 1635–1641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pantano, P.

A. A. Panova, P. Pantano, D. R. Walt, “In situ fluorescence imaging of localized corrosion with a pH-sensitive imaging fiber,” Anal. Chem. 69, 1635–1641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rutherford, P.

P. Rutherford, R. Ikegami, J. Shrader, “Novel NDE fiber optic corrosion sensor,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1996: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, K. A. Murphy, D. R. Huston, eds., Proc. SPIE2718, 158–169 (1996).

R. Bossi, T. Criswell, R. Ikegami, J. Nelson, E. Normand, P. Rutherford, J. Shrader, “Novel methods for aircraft corrosion monitoring,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Aircraft, Airports, Aerospace Hardware, and Materials, T. M. Cordell, R. D. Rempt, eds., Proc. SPIE2455, 70–81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shrader, J.

R. Bossi, T. Criswell, R. Ikegami, J. Nelson, E. Normand, P. Rutherford, J. Shrader, “Novel methods for aircraft corrosion monitoring,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Aircraft, Airports, Aerospace Hardware, and Materials, T. M. Cordell, R. D. Rempt, eds., Proc. SPIE2455, 70–81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Rutherford, R. Ikegami, J. Shrader, “Novel NDE fiber optic corrosion sensor,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1996: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, K. A. Murphy, D. R. Huston, eds., Proc. SPIE2718, 158–169 (1996).

Sorenson, J.

E. A. Mendoza, J. Sorenson, A. Iossi, Z. Sun, “Demonstration of self-referenced fiber optic moisture and pH sensors using optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR),” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors VIII, R. A. Lieberman, ed., Proc. SPIE2836, 242–249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z.

E. A. Mendoza, J. Sorenson, A. Iossi, Z. Sun, “Demonstration of self-referenced fiber optic moisture and pH sensors using optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR),” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors VIII, R. A. Lieberman, ed., Proc. SPIE2836, 242–249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, L. C.

K. L. Michael, L. C. Taylor, D. R. Walt, “A far-field-viewing sensor for making analytical measurements in remote locations,” Anal. Chem. 71, 2766–2773 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walt, D. R.

K. L. Michael, L. C. Taylor, D. R. Walt, “A far-field-viewing sensor for making analytical measurements in remote locations,” Anal. Chem. 71, 2766–2773 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Panova, P. Pantano, D. R. Walt, “In situ fluorescence imaging of localized corrosion with a pH-sensitive imaging fiber,” Anal. Chem. 69, 1635–1641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem. (2)

A. A. Panova, P. Pantano, D. R. Walt, “In situ fluorescence imaging of localized corrosion with a pH-sensitive imaging fiber,” Anal. Chem. 69, 1635–1641 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Michael, L. C. Taylor, D. R. Walt, “A far-field-viewing sensor for making analytical measurements in remote locations,” Anal. Chem. 71, 2766–2773 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lightwave technol. (1)

W. C. Michie, B. Culshaw, M. Konstantanki, I. McKenzie, S. Kelly, N. B. Graham, C. Moran, “Distributed pH and water detection using fiber-optic sensors and hydrogels,” J. Lightwave technol. 13, 1415–1420 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

E. A. Mendoza, J. Sorenson, A. Iossi, Z. Sun, “Demonstration of self-referenced fiber optic moisture and pH sensors using optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR),” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Fiber Sensors VIII, R. A. Lieberman, ed., Proc. SPIE2836, 242–249 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Rutherford, R. Ikegami, J. Shrader, “Novel NDE fiber optic corrosion sensor,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1996: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, K. A. Murphy, D. R. Huston, eds., Proc. SPIE2718, 158–169 (1996).

R. Bossi, T. Criswell, R. Ikegami, J. Nelson, E. Normand, P. Rutherford, J. Shrader, “Novel methods for aircraft corrosion monitoring,” in Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Aircraft, Airports, Aerospace Hardware, and Materials, T. M. Cordell, R. D. Rempt, eds., Proc. SPIE2455, 70–81 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Greene, M. E. Jones, P. G. Duncan, C. L. Kozikowski, T. A. Bailey, R. G. May, K. A. Murphy, “Grating-based optical fiber corrosion sensors,” in Smart Structures and Materials 1997: Smart Sensing, Processing, and Instrumentation, R. O. Claus, ed., Proc. SPIE3042, 260–266 (1997).

J. Elster, J. Greene, M. Jones, T. Bailey, S. Lenahan, “Optical fiber-based chemical sensors for detection of corrosion precursors and by-products,” in Chemical, Biochemical, and Environmental Sensors X, R. A. Lieberman, ed., Proc. SPIE3540, 251–257 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Design of a local sensor for corrosion monitoring.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental structure for testing for fiber corrosion.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of light during corrosion.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Microappearance of cladding before and after corrosion of the metallic fiber core in NaOH.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Microappearance of cladding after corrosion of the metallic fiber core in hydrochloric acid.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Distribution of aluminum along the radial direction in the fiber’s cross section.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Effects of (a) concentrations of corrosive solutions and (b) film thickness on the rate of corrosion.

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