Abstract

An airborne system for fast measurements of spectral actinic flux densities in the wavelength range 305–700 nm is introduced. The system is called the Actinic Flux Density Meter (AFDM). The AFDM utilizes the diode array technique and measures downwelling and upwelling spectral actinic flux densities separately with a time resolution of less than 1 s. For airborne measurements this means a spatial resolution of ~ 60 m, assuming an average aircraft velocity of 60 m/s. Thus the AFDM resolves fast changes in the actinic radiation field, which are of special importance for conditions of inhomogeneous clouds or surface reflection. Laboratory characterization measurements of the AFDM are presented, and a method to correct the nonideal angular response of the optical inlets is introduced. Furthermore, exemplar field data sampled simultaneously with spectral irradiance measurements are shown. The horizontal variability of the measured spectra of actinic flux density is quantified, and profile measurements for overcast situations are presented. Finally, the effects of clouds on the spectral actinic flux density are discussed.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. M. Müller, A. Kraus, A. Hofzumahaus, “O3→ O(1D) photolysis frequencies determined from spectroradiometer measurements of solar actinic UV radiation: comparison chemical actinometer measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 679–682 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  2. E. Eckstein, D. Perner, Ch. Brühl, T. Trautmann, “A new 4π-spectroradiometer: instrument design and application to clear sky and broken cloud conditions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 2, 1939–1977 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. D. Edwards, P. S. Monks, “Performance of a single-monochromator diode array spectroradiometer for the determination of actinic flux and atmospheric photolysis frequencies,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8546, doi: (2003).
    [Crossref]
  4. F. C. Bahe, W. N. Marx, U. Schurath, E. P. Roth, “Determination of the absolute photolysis rate of ozone by sunlight at ground level,” Atmos. Environ. 13, 1515–1522 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  5. R. R. Dickerson, D. H. Stedman, A. C. Delany, “Direct measurement of ozone and nitrogen dioxide photolysis rates in the troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4933–4946 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  6. S. T. Bairai, D. H. Stedman, “Actinometric measurement of the J[O3− O(1D)] using a luminol detector,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 2047–2050 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. E. Shetter, A. H. McDaniel, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, J. G. Calvert, “Actinometer and Eppley radiometer measurements of the NO2 photolysis rate coefficient during the Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemistry Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 10,349–10,359 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. Kelley, R. R. Russel, W. T. Luke, G. L. Kok, “Rate of NO2 photolysis from the surface to 7.6 km altitude in clear sky and clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2621–2624 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  9. W. Junkermann, U. Platt, A. Volz-Thomas, “A photoelectric detector for the measurement of photolysis frequencies of ozone and other atmospheric molecules,” J. Atmos. Chem. 8, 203–227 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. Brauers, A. Hofzumahaus, “Latitudinal variation of measured NO2 photolysis frequencies over the Atlantic Ocean between 50°N and 30°S,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 269–282 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. van Weele, J. V.-G. de Arellano, F. Kuik, “Combined measurements of UV-A actinic flux, UV-A irradiance and global radiation in relation to photodissociation rates,” Tellus 47, 353–364 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  12. M. Wendisch, S. Mertes, A. Ruggaber, T. Nakajima, “Vertical profiles of aerosol and radiation and the influence of a temperature inversion: measurements and radiative transfer calculations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 35, 1703–1715 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Crawford, D. Davis, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Müller, J. Barrick, J. Olson, “An assessment of cloud effects on photolysis rate coefficients: Comparison of experimental and theoretical values,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D55725–5734 (1999).
  14. B. Früh, T. Trautmann, M. Wendisch, A. Keil, “Comparison of observed and simulated NO2 photodissociation frequencies in a cloudless atmosphere and in continental boundary layer clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, D89843–9857 (2000).
  15. B. Früh, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, M. Wendisch, M. Fiebig, U. Feister, “Ground-based measured and calculated spectra of actinic flux density and downward UV irradiance in cloudless conditions and their sensitivity to aerosol microphysical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
    [Crossref]
  16. C. T. McElroy, “A spectrometer for the measurement of direct and scattered solar irradiance from on board the NASA ER-2 high-altitude research aircraft,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1361–1364 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  17. W. Junkermann, C. Brühl, D. Perner, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, B. Früh, R. Dlugi, T. Gori, A. Ruggaber, J. Reuder, M. Zelger, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, F. Rohrer, D. Brüning, G. Moortgart, A. Horowitz, J. Tadic, “Actinic radiation and photolysis processes in the lower troposphere: effect of clouds and aerosols,” J. Atmos. Chem. 42, 413–441 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  18. R. E. Shetter, L. Cinquini, B. L. Lefer, S. R. Hall, S. Madronich, “Comparison of airborne measured and calculated spectral actinic flux and derived photolysis frequencies during the PEM Tropics B mission,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
    [Crossref]
  20. R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
    [Crossref]
  21. R. E. Shetter, M. Müller, “Photolysis frequency measurements using actinic flux spectroradiometry during PEM-Tropics mission: Instrumentation description and some results,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D55647–5661 (1999).
  22. M. Wendisch, D. Müller, D. Schell, J. Heintzenberg, “An airborne spectral albedometer with active horizontal stabilization,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 18, 1856–1866 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  23. M. Wendisch, B. Mayer, “Vertical distribution of spectral solar irradiance in the cloudless sky—a case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1183–1186 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, B. Mayer, “Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi: (2004).
    [Crossref]
  25. A. Volz-Thomas, A. Lerner, H. W. Pätz, M. Schultz, “Airborne measurements of the photolysis frequency of NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,613–18,627 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  26. A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, M. Müller, “Solar actinic spectroradiometry: a technique for measuring photolysis frequencies in the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4443–4460 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  27. K. S. Stamnes, S. Tsay, W. Wiscombe, K. Jayaweera, “Numerically stable algorithm for discrete-ordinate-method radiative transfer model in multiple scattering and emitting layered media,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2502–2509 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. A manuscript to be called “Spectral actinic flux in the lower troposphere: measurement and 1-D simulations for cloudless, broken cloud, and overcast situations,” is being prepared by A. Kylling, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, 2027 Kjeller, Norway.
  29. A. R. Webb, A. Kylling, M. Wendisch, E. Jäkel, “Airborne measurements of ground and cloud spectral albedos under low aerosol loads,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
    [Crossref]
  30. A. Keil, M. Wendisch, E. Brüggemann, “Measured profiles of aerosol particle absorption and its influence on clear-sky solar radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 1237–1247 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  31. W. DeMore, S. Sander, D. Golden, R. Hampson, M. Kurylo, C. Howard, A. Ravishankara, C. Kolb, M. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling, evaluation number 12,” JPL Publ. 97-4 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1997).
  32. T. Trautmann, I. Podgorny, J. Landgraf, P. J. Crutzen, “Actinic fluxes and photodissociation coefficients in cloud fields embedded in realistic atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30,173–30,192 (1999).
    [Crossref]

2004 (2)

M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, B. Mayer, “Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi: (2004).
[Crossref]

A. R. Webb, A. Kylling, M. Wendisch, E. Jäkel, “Airborne measurements of ground and cloud spectral albedos under low aerosol loads,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (5)

M. Wendisch, B. Mayer, “Vertical distribution of spectral solar irradiance in the cloudless sky—a case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1183–1186 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

G. D. Edwards, P. S. Monks, “Performance of a single-monochromator diode array spectroradiometer for the determination of actinic flux and atmospheric photolysis frequencies,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8546, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

B. Früh, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, M. Wendisch, M. Fiebig, U. Feister, “Ground-based measured and calculated spectra of actinic flux density and downward UV irradiance in cloudless conditions and their sensitivity to aerosol microphysical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

E. Eckstein, D. Perner, Ch. Brühl, T. Trautmann, “A new 4π-spectroradiometer: instrument design and application to clear sky and broken cloud conditions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 2, 1939–1977 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. Junkermann, C. Brühl, D. Perner, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, B. Früh, R. Dlugi, T. Gori, A. Ruggaber, J. Reuder, M. Zelger, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, F. Rohrer, D. Brüning, G. Moortgart, A. Horowitz, J. Tadic, “Actinic radiation and photolysis processes in the lower troposphere: effect of clouds and aerosols,” J. Atmos. Chem. 42, 413–441 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, L. Cinquini, B. L. Lefer, S. R. Hall, S. Madronich, “Comparison of airborne measured and calculated spectral actinic flux and derived photolysis frequencies during the PEM Tropics B mission,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

M. Wendisch, D. Müller, D. Schell, J. Heintzenberg, “An airborne spectral albedometer with active horizontal stabilization,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 18, 1856–1866 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Keil, M. Wendisch, E. Brüggemann, “Measured profiles of aerosol particle absorption and its influence on clear-sky solar radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 1237–1247 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

B. Früh, T. Trautmann, M. Wendisch, A. Keil, “Comparison of observed and simulated NO2 photodissociation frequencies in a cloudless atmosphere and in continental boundary layer clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, D89843–9857 (2000).

1999 (4)

J. Crawford, D. Davis, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Müller, J. Barrick, J. Olson, “An assessment of cloud effects on photolysis rate coefficients: Comparison of experimental and theoretical values,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D55725–5734 (1999).

T. Trautmann, I. Podgorny, J. Landgraf, P. J. Crutzen, “Actinic fluxes and photodissociation coefficients in cloud fields embedded in realistic atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30,173–30,192 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, M. Müller, “Solar actinic spectroradiometry: a technique for measuring photolysis frequencies in the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4443–4460 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, M. Müller, “Photolysis frequency measurements using actinic flux spectroradiometry during PEM-Tropics mission: Instrumentation description and some results,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D55647–5661 (1999).

1996 (2)

A. Volz-Thomas, A. Lerner, H. W. Pätz, M. Schultz, “Airborne measurements of the photolysis frequency of NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,613–18,627 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Wendisch, S. Mertes, A. Ruggaber, T. Nakajima, “Vertical profiles of aerosol and radiation and the influence of a temperature inversion: measurements and radiative transfer calculations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 35, 1703–1715 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (4)

M. van Weele, J. V.-G. de Arellano, F. Kuik, “Combined measurements of UV-A actinic flux, UV-A irradiance and global radiation in relation to photodissociation rates,” Tellus 47, 353–364 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. T. McElroy, “A spectrometer for the measurement of direct and scattered solar irradiance from on board the NASA ER-2 high-altitude research aircraft,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1361–1364 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. Müller, A. Kraus, A. Hofzumahaus, “O3→ O(1D) photolysis frequencies determined from spectroradiometer measurements of solar actinic UV radiation: comparison chemical actinometer measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 679–682 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Kelley, R. R. Russel, W. T. Luke, G. L. Kok, “Rate of NO2 photolysis from the surface to 7.6 km altitude in clear sky and clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2621–2624 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (3)

S. T. Bairai, D. H. Stedman, “Actinometric measurement of the J[O3− O(1D)] using a luminol detector,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 2047–2050 (1992).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, A. H. McDaniel, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, J. G. Calvert, “Actinometer and Eppley radiometer measurements of the NO2 photolysis rate coefficient during the Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemistry Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 10,349–10,359 (1992).
[Crossref]

T. Brauers, A. Hofzumahaus, “Latitudinal variation of measured NO2 photolysis frequencies over the Atlantic Ocean between 50°N and 30°S,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 269–282 (1992).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

W. Junkermann, U. Platt, A. Volz-Thomas, “A photoelectric detector for the measurement of photolysis frequencies of ozone and other atmospheric molecules,” J. Atmos. Chem. 8, 203–227 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1982 (1)

R. R. Dickerson, D. H. Stedman, A. C. Delany, “Direct measurement of ozone and nitrogen dioxide photolysis rates in the troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4933–4946 (1982).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

F. C. Bahe, W. N. Marx, U. Schurath, E. P. Roth, “Determination of the absolute photolysis rate of ozone by sunlight at ground level,” Atmos. Environ. 13, 1515–1522 (1979).
[Crossref]

Bahe, F. C.

F. C. Bahe, W. N. Marx, U. Schurath, E. P. Roth, “Determination of the absolute photolysis rate of ozone by sunlight at ground level,” Atmos. Environ. 13, 1515–1522 (1979).
[Crossref]

Bairai, S. T.

S. T. Bairai, D. H. Stedman, “Actinometric measurement of the J[O3− O(1D)] using a luminol detector,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 2047–2050 (1992).
[Crossref]

Bais, A.

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Bais, A. F.

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Barrick, J.

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Crawford, D. Davis, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Müller, J. Barrick, J. Olson, “An assessment of cloud effects on photolysis rate coefficients: Comparison of experimental and theoretical values,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D55725–5734 (1999).

Barrick, J. D.

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Brauers, T.

T. Brauers, A. Hofzumahaus, “Latitudinal variation of measured NO2 photolysis frequencies over the Atlantic Ocean between 50°N and 30°S,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 269–282 (1992).
[Crossref]

Brüggemann, E.

A. Keil, M. Wendisch, E. Brüggemann, “Measured profiles of aerosol particle absorption and its influence on clear-sky solar radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 1237–1247 (2001).
[Crossref]

Brühl, C.

W. Junkermann, C. Brühl, D. Perner, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, B. Früh, R. Dlugi, T. Gori, A. Ruggaber, J. Reuder, M. Zelger, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, F. Rohrer, D. Brüning, G. Moortgart, A. Horowitz, J. Tadic, “Actinic radiation and photolysis processes in the lower troposphere: effect of clouds and aerosols,” J. Atmos. Chem. 42, 413–441 (2002).
[Crossref]

Brühl, Ch.

E. Eckstein, D. Perner, Ch. Brühl, T. Trautmann, “A new 4π-spectroradiometer: instrument design and application to clear sky and broken cloud conditions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 2, 1939–1977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Brüning, D.

W. Junkermann, C. Brühl, D. Perner, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, B. Früh, R. Dlugi, T. Gori, A. Ruggaber, J. Reuder, M. Zelger, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, F. Rohrer, D. Brüning, G. Moortgart, A. Horowitz, J. Tadic, “Actinic radiation and photolysis processes in the lower troposphere: effect of clouds and aerosols,” J. Atmos. Chem. 42, 413–441 (2002).
[Crossref]

Calvert, J. G.

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, A. H. McDaniel, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, J. G. Calvert, “Actinometer and Eppley radiometer measurements of the NO2 photolysis rate coefficient during the Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemistry Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 10,349–10,359 (1992).
[Crossref]

Cantrell, C. A.

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, A. H. McDaniel, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, J. G. Calvert, “Actinometer and Eppley radiometer measurements of the NO2 photolysis rate coefficient during the Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemistry Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 10,349–10,359 (1992).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

J. Crawford, D. Davis, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Müller, J. Barrick, J. Olson, “An assessment of cloud effects on photolysis rate coefficients: Comparison of experimental and theoretical values,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D55725–5734 (1999).

Cinquini, L.

R. E. Shetter, L. Cinquini, B. L. Lefer, S. R. Hall, S. Madronich, “Comparison of airborne measured and calculated spectral actinic flux and derived photolysis frequencies during the PEM Tropics B mission,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[Crossref]

Crawford, J.

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Crawford, D. Davis, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Müller, J. Barrick, J. Olson, “An assessment of cloud effects on photolysis rate coefficients: Comparison of experimental and theoretical values,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D55725–5734 (1999).

Crawford, J. H.

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Crutzen, P. J.

T. Trautmann, I. Podgorny, J. Landgraf, P. J. Crutzen, “Actinic fluxes and photodissociation coefficients in cloud fields embedded in realistic atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30,173–30,192 (1999).
[Crossref]

Davis, D.

J. Crawford, D. Davis, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Müller, J. Barrick, J. Olson, “An assessment of cloud effects on photolysis rate coefficients: Comparison of experimental and theoretical values,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D55725–5734 (1999).

de Arellano, J. V.-G.

M. van Weele, J. V.-G. de Arellano, F. Kuik, “Combined measurements of UV-A actinic flux, UV-A irradiance and global radiation in relation to photodissociation rates,” Tellus 47, 353–364 (1995).
[Crossref]

Delany, A. C.

R. R. Dickerson, D. H. Stedman, A. C. Delany, “Direct measurement of ozone and nitrogen dioxide photolysis rates in the troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4933–4946 (1982).
[Crossref]

DeMore, W.

W. DeMore, S. Sander, D. Golden, R. Hampson, M. Kurylo, C. Howard, A. Ravishankara, C. Kolb, M. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling, evaluation number 12,” JPL Publ. 97-4 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1997).

Dickerson, R. R.

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. R. Dickerson, D. H. Stedman, A. C. Delany, “Direct measurement of ozone and nitrogen dioxide photolysis rates in the troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4933–4946 (1982).
[Crossref]

Dlugi, R.

W. Junkermann, C. Brühl, D. Perner, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, B. Früh, R. Dlugi, T. Gori, A. Ruggaber, J. Reuder, M. Zelger, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, F. Rohrer, D. Brüning, G. Moortgart, A. Horowitz, J. Tadic, “Actinic radiation and photolysis processes in the lower troposphere: effect of clouds and aerosols,” J. Atmos. Chem. 42, 413–441 (2002).
[Crossref]

Eckstein, E.

B. Früh, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, M. Wendisch, M. Fiebig, U. Feister, “Ground-based measured and calculated spectra of actinic flux density and downward UV irradiance in cloudless conditions and their sensitivity to aerosol microphysical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Junkermann, C. Brühl, D. Perner, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, B. Früh, R. Dlugi, T. Gori, A. Ruggaber, J. Reuder, M. Zelger, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, F. Rohrer, D. Brüning, G. Moortgart, A. Horowitz, J. Tadic, “Actinic radiation and photolysis processes in the lower troposphere: effect of clouds and aerosols,” J. Atmos. Chem. 42, 413–441 (2002).
[Crossref]

E. Eckstein, D. Perner, Ch. Brühl, T. Trautmann, “A new 4π-spectroradiometer: instrument design and application to clear sky and broken cloud conditions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 2, 1939–1977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Edwards, G. D.

G. D. Edwards, P. S. Monks, “Performance of a single-monochromator diode array spectroradiometer for the determination of actinic flux and atmospheric photolysis frequencies,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8546, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Feister, U.

B. Früh, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, M. Wendisch, M. Fiebig, U. Feister, “Ground-based measured and calculated spectra of actinic flux density and downward UV irradiance in cloudless conditions and their sensitivity to aerosol microphysical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Fiebig, M.

B. Früh, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, M. Wendisch, M. Fiebig, U. Feister, “Ground-based measured and calculated spectra of actinic flux density and downward UV irradiance in cloudless conditions and their sensitivity to aerosol microphysical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Flittner, D.

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Frost, G.

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Frost, G. J.

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Früh, B.

B. Früh, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, M. Wendisch, M. Fiebig, U. Feister, “Ground-based measured and calculated spectra of actinic flux density and downward UV irradiance in cloudless conditions and their sensitivity to aerosol microphysical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Junkermann, C. Brühl, D. Perner, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, B. Früh, R. Dlugi, T. Gori, A. Ruggaber, J. Reuder, M. Zelger, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, F. Rohrer, D. Brüning, G. Moortgart, A. Horowitz, J. Tadic, “Actinic radiation and photolysis processes in the lower troposphere: effect of clouds and aerosols,” J. Atmos. Chem. 42, 413–441 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. Früh, T. Trautmann, M. Wendisch, A. Keil, “Comparison of observed and simulated NO2 photodissociation frequencies in a cloudless atmosphere and in continental boundary layer clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, D89843–9857 (2000).

Gardiner, B.

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Gardiner, B. G.

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Golden, D.

W. DeMore, S. Sander, D. Golden, R. Hampson, M. Kurylo, C. Howard, A. Ravishankara, C. Kolb, M. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling, evaluation number 12,” JPL Publ. 97-4 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1997).

Gori, T.

W. Junkermann, C. Brühl, D. Perner, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, B. Früh, R. Dlugi, T. Gori, A. Ruggaber, J. Reuder, M. Zelger, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, F. Rohrer, D. Brüning, G. Moortgart, A. Horowitz, J. Tadic, “Actinic radiation and photolysis processes in the lower troposphere: effect of clouds and aerosols,” J. Atmos. Chem. 42, 413–441 (2002).
[Crossref]

Griffioen, E.

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Guan, H.

M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, B. Mayer, “Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi: (2004).
[Crossref]

Hall, S. R.

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, L. Cinquini, B. L. Lefer, S. R. Hall, S. Madronich, “Comparison of airborne measured and calculated spectral actinic flux and derived photolysis frequencies during the PEM Tropics B mission,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[Crossref]

Hampson, R.

W. DeMore, S. Sander, D. Golden, R. Hampson, M. Kurylo, C. Howard, A. Ravishankara, C. Kolb, M. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling, evaluation number 12,” JPL Publ. 97-4 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1997).

Heintzenberg, J.

M. Wendisch, D. Müller, D. Schell, J. Heintzenberg, “An airborne spectral albedometer with active horizontal stabilization,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 18, 1856–1866 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hofzumahaus, A.

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Junkermann, C. Brühl, D. Perner, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, B. Früh, R. Dlugi, T. Gori, A. Ruggaber, J. Reuder, M. Zelger, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, F. Rohrer, D. Brüning, G. Moortgart, A. Horowitz, J. Tadic, “Actinic radiation and photolysis processes in the lower troposphere: effect of clouds and aerosols,” J. Atmos. Chem. 42, 413–441 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, M. Müller, “Solar actinic spectroradiometry: a technique for measuring photolysis frequencies in the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4443–4460 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Müller, A. Kraus, A. Hofzumahaus, “O3→ O(1D) photolysis frequencies determined from spectroradiometer measurements of solar actinic UV radiation: comparison chemical actinometer measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 679–682 (1995).
[Crossref]

T. Brauers, A. Hofzumahaus, “Latitudinal variation of measured NO2 photolysis frequencies over the Atlantic Ocean between 50°N and 30°S,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 269–282 (1992).
[Crossref]

Horowitz, A.

W. Junkermann, C. Brühl, D. Perner, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, B. Früh, R. Dlugi, T. Gori, A. Ruggaber, J. Reuder, M. Zelger, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, F. Rohrer, D. Brüning, G. Moortgart, A. Horowitz, J. Tadic, “Actinic radiation and photolysis processes in the lower troposphere: effect of clouds and aerosols,” J. Atmos. Chem. 42, 413–441 (2002).
[Crossref]

Howard, C.

W. DeMore, S. Sander, D. Golden, R. Hampson, M. Kurylo, C. Howard, A. Ravishankara, C. Kolb, M. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling, evaluation number 12,” JPL Publ. 97-4 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1997).

Howard, S.

M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, B. Mayer, “Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi: (2004).
[Crossref]

Jäkel, E.

M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, B. Mayer, “Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi: (2004).
[Crossref]

A. R. Webb, A. Kylling, M. Wendisch, E. Jäkel, “Airborne measurements of ground and cloud spectral albedos under low aerosol loads,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[Crossref]

Jayaweera, K.

Johnston, P.

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Jonsson, H. H.

M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, B. Mayer, “Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi: (2004).
[Crossref]

Junkermann, W.

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Junkermann, C. Brühl, D. Perner, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, B. Früh, R. Dlugi, T. Gori, A. Ruggaber, J. Reuder, M. Zelger, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, F. Rohrer, D. Brüning, G. Moortgart, A. Horowitz, J. Tadic, “Actinic radiation and photolysis processes in the lower troposphere: effect of clouds and aerosols,” J. Atmos. Chem. 42, 413–441 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. Junkermann, U. Platt, A. Volz-Thomas, “A photoelectric detector for the measurement of photolysis frequencies of ozone and other atmospheric molecules,” J. Atmos. Chem. 8, 203–227 (1989).
[Crossref]

Keil, A.

A. Keil, M. Wendisch, E. Brüggemann, “Measured profiles of aerosol particle absorption and its influence on clear-sky solar radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 1237–1247 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Früh, T. Trautmann, M. Wendisch, A. Keil, “Comparison of observed and simulated NO2 photodissociation frequencies in a cloudless atmosphere and in continental boundary layer clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, D89843–9857 (2000).

Kelley, P.

P. Kelley, R. R. Russel, W. T. Luke, G. L. Kok, “Rate of NO2 photolysis from the surface to 7.6 km altitude in clear sky and clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2621–2624 (1995).
[Crossref]

Koepke, P.

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Kok, G. L.

P. Kelley, R. R. Russel, W. T. Luke, G. L. Kok, “Rate of NO2 photolysis from the surface to 7.6 km altitude in clear sky and clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2621–2624 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kolb, C.

W. DeMore, S. Sander, D. Golden, R. Hampson, M. Kurylo, C. Howard, A. Ravishankara, C. Kolb, M. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling, evaluation number 12,” JPL Publ. 97-4 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1997).

Kraus, A.

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Junkermann, C. Brühl, D. Perner, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, B. Früh, R. Dlugi, T. Gori, A. Ruggaber, J. Reuder, M. Zelger, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, F. Rohrer, D. Brüning, G. Moortgart, A. Horowitz, J. Tadic, “Actinic radiation and photolysis processes in the lower troposphere: effect of clouds and aerosols,” J. Atmos. Chem. 42, 413–441 (2002).
[Crossref]

A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, M. Müller, “Solar actinic spectroradiometry: a technique for measuring photolysis frequencies in the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4443–4460 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Müller, A. Kraus, A. Hofzumahaus, “O3→ O(1D) photolysis frequencies determined from spectroradiometer measurements of solar actinic UV radiation: comparison chemical actinometer measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 679–682 (1995).
[Crossref]

Krol, M.

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Krotkov, N.

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Kuik, F.

M. van Weele, J. V.-G. de Arellano, F. Kuik, “Combined measurements of UV-A actinic flux, UV-A irradiance and global radiation in relation to photodissociation rates,” Tellus 47, 353–364 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kurylo, M.

W. DeMore, S. Sander, D. Golden, R. Hampson, M. Kurylo, C. Howard, A. Ravishankara, C. Kolb, M. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling, evaluation number 12,” JPL Publ. 97-4 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1997).

Kylling, A.

A. R. Webb, A. Kylling, M. Wendisch, E. Jäkel, “Airborne measurements of ground and cloud spectral albedos under low aerosol loads,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[Crossref]

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

A manuscript to be called “Spectral actinic flux in the lower troposphere: measurement and 1-D simulations for cloudless, broken cloud, and overcast situations,” is being prepared by A. Kylling, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, 2027 Kjeller, Norway.

Landgraf, J.

T. Trautmann, I. Podgorny, J. Landgraf, P. J. Crutzen, “Actinic fluxes and photodissociation coefficients in cloud fields embedded in realistic atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30,173–30,192 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lefer, B. L.

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, L. Cinquini, B. L. Lefer, S. R. Hall, S. Madronich, “Comparison of airborne measured and calculated spectral actinic flux and derived photolysis frequencies during the PEM Tropics B mission,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[Crossref]

Lenoble, J.

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Lerner, A.

A. Volz-Thomas, A. Lerner, H. W. Pätz, M. Schultz, “Airborne measurements of the photolysis frequency of NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,613–18,627 (1996).
[Crossref]

Lloyd, S.

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Lloyd, S. A.

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Luke, W. T.

P. Kelley, R. R. Russel, W. T. Luke, G. L. Kok, “Rate of NO2 photolysis from the surface to 7.6 km altitude in clear sky and clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2621–2624 (1995).
[Crossref]

Madronich, S.

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, L. Cinquini, B. L. Lefer, S. R. Hall, S. Madronich, “Comparison of airborne measured and calculated spectral actinic flux and derived photolysis frequencies during the PEM Tropics B mission,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, A. H. McDaniel, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, J. G. Calvert, “Actinometer and Eppley radiometer measurements of the NO2 photolysis rate coefficient during the Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemistry Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 10,349–10,359 (1992).
[Crossref]

Martin, T.

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Martin, T. J.

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Marx, W. N.

F. C. Bahe, W. N. Marx, U. Schurath, E. P. Roth, “Determination of the absolute photolysis rate of ozone by sunlight at ground level,” Atmos. Environ. 13, 1515–1522 (1979).
[Crossref]

Mayer, B.

M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, B. Mayer, “Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi: (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Wendisch, B. Mayer, “Vertical distribution of spectral solar irradiance in the cloudless sky—a case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1183–1186 (2003).
[Crossref]

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

McDaniel, A. H.

R. E. Shetter, A. H. McDaniel, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, J. G. Calvert, “Actinometer and Eppley radiometer measurements of the NO2 photolysis rate coefficient during the Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemistry Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 10,349–10,359 (1992).
[Crossref]

McElroy, C. T.

C. T. McElroy, “A spectrometer for the measurement of direct and scattered solar irradiance from on board the NASA ER-2 high-altitude research aircraft,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1361–1364 (1995).
[Crossref]

McKenzie, R.

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Mertes, S.

M. Wendisch, S. Mertes, A. Ruggaber, T. Nakajima, “Vertical profiles of aerosol and radiation and the influence of a temperature inversion: measurements and radiative transfer calculations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 35, 1703–1715 (1996).
[Crossref]

Molina, M.

W. DeMore, S. Sander, D. Golden, R. Hampson, M. Kurylo, C. Howard, A. Ravishankara, C. Kolb, M. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling, evaluation number 12,” JPL Publ. 97-4 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1997).

Monks, P. S.

G. D. Edwards, P. S. Monks, “Performance of a single-monochromator diode array spectroradiometer for the determination of actinic flux and atmospheric photolysis frequencies,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8546, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Moortgart, G.

W. Junkermann, C. Brühl, D. Perner, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, B. Früh, R. Dlugi, T. Gori, A. Ruggaber, J. Reuder, M. Zelger, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, F. Rohrer, D. Brüning, G. Moortgart, A. Horowitz, J. Tadic, “Actinic radiation and photolysis processes in the lower troposphere: effect of clouds and aerosols,” J. Atmos. Chem. 42, 413–441 (2002).
[Crossref]

Muller, M.

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Müller, D.

M. Wendisch, D. Müller, D. Schell, J. Heintzenberg, “An airborne spectral albedometer with active horizontal stabilization,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 18, 1856–1866 (2001).
[Crossref]

Müller, M.

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Crawford, D. Davis, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Müller, J. Barrick, J. Olson, “An assessment of cloud effects on photolysis rate coefficients: Comparison of experimental and theoretical values,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D55725–5734 (1999).

R. E. Shetter, M. Müller, “Photolysis frequency measurements using actinic flux spectroradiometry during PEM-Tropics mission: Instrumentation description and some results,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D55647–5661 (1999).

A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, M. Müller, “Solar actinic spectroradiometry: a technique for measuring photolysis frequencies in the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4443–4460 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Müller, A. Kraus, A. Hofzumahaus, “O3→ O(1D) photolysis frequencies determined from spectroradiometer measurements of solar actinic UV radiation: comparison chemical actinometer measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 679–682 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nakajima, T.

M. Wendisch, S. Mertes, A. Ruggaber, T. Nakajima, “Vertical profiles of aerosol and radiation and the influence of a temperature inversion: measurements and radiative transfer calculations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 35, 1703–1715 (1996).
[Crossref]

Olson, J.

J. Crawford, D. Davis, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Müller, J. Barrick, J. Olson, “An assessment of cloud effects on photolysis rate coefficients: Comparison of experimental and theoretical values,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D55725–5734 (1999).

Pätz, H. W.

A. Volz-Thomas, A. Lerner, H. W. Pätz, M. Schultz, “Airborne measurements of the photolysis frequency of NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,613–18,627 (1996).
[Crossref]

Perner, D.

W. Junkermann, C. Brühl, D. Perner, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, B. Früh, R. Dlugi, T. Gori, A. Ruggaber, J. Reuder, M. Zelger, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, F. Rohrer, D. Brüning, G. Moortgart, A. Horowitz, J. Tadic, “Actinic radiation and photolysis processes in the lower troposphere: effect of clouds and aerosols,” J. Atmos. Chem. 42, 413–441 (2002).
[Crossref]

E. Eckstein, D. Perner, Ch. Brühl, T. Trautmann, “A new 4π-spectroradiometer: instrument design and application to clear sky and broken cloud conditions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 2, 1939–1977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pfister, G.

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Pilewskie, P.

M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, B. Mayer, “Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi: (2004).
[Crossref]

Platt, U.

W. Junkermann, U. Platt, A. Volz-Thomas, “A photoelectric detector for the measurement of photolysis frequencies of ozone and other atmospheric molecules,” J. Atmos. Chem. 8, 203–227 (1989).
[Crossref]

Podgorny, I.

T. Trautmann, I. Podgorny, J. Landgraf, P. J. Crutzen, “Actinic fluxes and photodissociation coefficients in cloud fields embedded in realistic atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30,173–30,192 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pommier, J.

M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, B. Mayer, “Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi: (2004).
[Crossref]

Ravishankara, A.

W. DeMore, S. Sander, D. Golden, R. Hampson, M. Kurylo, C. Howard, A. Ravishankara, C. Kolb, M. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling, evaluation number 12,” JPL Publ. 97-4 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1997).

Reuder, J.

W. Junkermann, C. Brühl, D. Perner, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, B. Früh, R. Dlugi, T. Gori, A. Ruggaber, J. Reuder, M. Zelger, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, F. Rohrer, D. Brüning, G. Moortgart, A. Horowitz, J. Tadic, “Actinic radiation and photolysis processes in the lower troposphere: effect of clouds and aerosols,” J. Atmos. Chem. 42, 413–441 (2002).
[Crossref]

Roeth, E. P.

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Rohrer, F.

W. Junkermann, C. Brühl, D. Perner, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, B. Früh, R. Dlugi, T. Gori, A. Ruggaber, J. Reuder, M. Zelger, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, F. Rohrer, D. Brüning, G. Moortgart, A. Horowitz, J. Tadic, “Actinic radiation and photolysis processes in the lower troposphere: effect of clouds and aerosols,” J. Atmos. Chem. 42, 413–441 (2002).
[Crossref]

Roth, E. P.

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

F. C. Bahe, W. N. Marx, U. Schurath, E. P. Roth, “Determination of the absolute photolysis rate of ozone by sunlight at ground level,” Atmos. Environ. 13, 1515–1522 (1979).
[Crossref]

Ruggaber, A.

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Junkermann, C. Brühl, D. Perner, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, B. Früh, R. Dlugi, T. Gori, A. Ruggaber, J. Reuder, M. Zelger, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, F. Rohrer, D. Brüning, G. Moortgart, A. Horowitz, J. Tadic, “Actinic radiation and photolysis processes in the lower troposphere: effect of clouds and aerosols,” J. Atmos. Chem. 42, 413–441 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Wendisch, S. Mertes, A. Ruggaber, T. Nakajima, “Vertical profiles of aerosol and radiation and the influence of a temperature inversion: measurements and radiative transfer calculations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 35, 1703–1715 (1996).
[Crossref]

Russel, R. R.

P. Kelley, R. R. Russel, W. T. Luke, G. L. Kok, “Rate of NO2 photolysis from the surface to 7.6 km altitude in clear sky and clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2621–2624 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sander, S.

W. DeMore, S. Sander, D. Golden, R. Hampson, M. Kurylo, C. Howard, A. Ravishankara, C. Kolb, M. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling, evaluation number 12,” JPL Publ. 97-4 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1997).

Schell, D.

M. Wendisch, D. Müller, D. Schell, J. Heintzenberg, “An airborne spectral albedometer with active horizontal stabilization,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 18, 1856–1866 (2001).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, S.

M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, B. Mayer, “Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi: (2004).
[Crossref]

Schmitt, R.

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Schröder, M.

M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, B. Mayer, “Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi: (2004).
[Crossref]

Schultz, M.

A. Volz-Thomas, A. Lerner, H. W. Pätz, M. Schultz, “Airborne measurements of the photolysis frequency of NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,613–18,627 (1996).
[Crossref]

Schurath, U.

F. C. Bahe, W. N. Marx, U. Schurath, E. P. Roth, “Determination of the absolute photolysis rate of ozone by sunlight at ground level,” Atmos. Environ. 13, 1515–1522 (1979).
[Crossref]

Schwander, H.

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Shetter, R.

J. Crawford, D. Davis, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Müller, J. Barrick, J. Olson, “An assessment of cloud effects on photolysis rate coefficients: Comparison of experimental and theoretical values,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D55725–5734 (1999).

Shetter, R. E.

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, L. Cinquini, B. L. Lefer, S. R. Hall, S. Madronich, “Comparison of airborne measured and calculated spectral actinic flux and derived photolysis frequencies during the PEM Tropics B mission,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, M. Müller, “Photolysis frequency measurements using actinic flux spectroradiometry during PEM-Tropics mission: Instrumentation description and some results,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D55647–5661 (1999).

R. E. Shetter, A. H. McDaniel, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, J. G. Calvert, “Actinometer and Eppley radiometer measurements of the NO2 photolysis rate coefficient during the Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemistry Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 10,349–10,359 (1992).
[Crossref]

Stamnes, K. S.

Stedman, D. H.

S. T. Bairai, D. H. Stedman, “Actinometric measurement of the J[O3− O(1D)] using a luminol detector,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 2047–2050 (1992).
[Crossref]

R. R. Dickerson, D. H. Stedman, A. C. Delany, “Direct measurement of ozone and nitrogen dioxide photolysis rates in the troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4933–4946 (1982).
[Crossref]

Swartz, W. H.

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Tadic, J.

W. Junkermann, C. Brühl, D. Perner, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, B. Früh, R. Dlugi, T. Gori, A. Ruggaber, J. Reuder, M. Zelger, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, F. Rohrer, D. Brüning, G. Moortgart, A. Horowitz, J. Tadic, “Actinic radiation and photolysis processes in the lower troposphere: effect of clouds and aerosols,” J. Atmos. Chem. 42, 413–441 (2002).
[Crossref]

Trautmann, T.

B. Früh, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, M. Wendisch, M. Fiebig, U. Feister, “Ground-based measured and calculated spectra of actinic flux density and downward UV irradiance in cloudless conditions and their sensitivity to aerosol microphysical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

W. Junkermann, C. Brühl, D. Perner, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, B. Früh, R. Dlugi, T. Gori, A. Ruggaber, J. Reuder, M. Zelger, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, F. Rohrer, D. Brüning, G. Moortgart, A. Horowitz, J. Tadic, “Actinic radiation and photolysis processes in the lower troposphere: effect of clouds and aerosols,” J. Atmos. Chem. 42, 413–441 (2002).
[Crossref]

E. Eckstein, D. Perner, Ch. Brühl, T. Trautmann, “A new 4π-spectroradiometer: instrument design and application to clear sky and broken cloud conditions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 2, 1939–1977 (2002).
[Crossref]

B. Früh, T. Trautmann, M. Wendisch, A. Keil, “Comparison of observed and simulated NO2 photodissociation frequencies in a cloudless atmosphere and in continental boundary layer clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, D89843–9857 (2000).

T. Trautmann, I. Podgorny, J. Landgraf, P. J. Crutzen, “Actinic fluxes and photodissociation coefficients in cloud fields embedded in realistic atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30,173–30,192 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tsay, S.

van Weele, M.

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

M. van Weele, J. V.-G. de Arellano, F. Kuik, “Combined measurements of UV-A actinic flux, UV-A irradiance and global radiation in relation to photodissociation rates,” Tellus 47, 353–364 (1995).
[Crossref]

Volz-Thomas, A.

A. Volz-Thomas, A. Lerner, H. W. Pätz, M. Schultz, “Airborne measurements of the photolysis frequency of NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,613–18,627 (1996).
[Crossref]

W. Junkermann, U. Platt, A. Volz-Thomas, “A photoelectric detector for the measurement of photolysis frequencies of ozone and other atmospheric molecules,” J. Atmos. Chem. 8, 203–227 (1989).
[Crossref]

Webb, A. R.

A. R. Webb, A. Kylling, M. Wendisch, E. Jäkel, “Airborne measurements of ground and cloud spectral albedos under low aerosol loads,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[Crossref]

Wendisch, M.

A. R. Webb, A. Kylling, M. Wendisch, E. Jäkel, “Airborne measurements of ground and cloud spectral albedos under low aerosol loads,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, B. Mayer, “Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi: (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Wendisch, B. Mayer, “Vertical distribution of spectral solar irradiance in the cloudless sky—a case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1183–1186 (2003).
[Crossref]

B. Früh, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, M. Wendisch, M. Fiebig, U. Feister, “Ground-based measured and calculated spectra of actinic flux density and downward UV irradiance in cloudless conditions and their sensitivity to aerosol microphysical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Wendisch, D. Müller, D. Schell, J. Heintzenberg, “An airborne spectral albedometer with active horizontal stabilization,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 18, 1856–1866 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. Keil, M. Wendisch, E. Brüggemann, “Measured profiles of aerosol particle absorption and its influence on clear-sky solar radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 1237–1247 (2001).
[Crossref]

B. Früh, T. Trautmann, M. Wendisch, A. Keil, “Comparison of observed and simulated NO2 photodissociation frequencies in a cloudless atmosphere and in continental boundary layer clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, D89843–9857 (2000).

M. Wendisch, S. Mertes, A. Ruggaber, T. Nakajima, “Vertical profiles of aerosol and radiation and the influence of a temperature inversion: measurements and radiative transfer calculations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 35, 1703–1715 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wiscombe, W.

Zelger, M.

W. Junkermann, C. Brühl, D. Perner, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, B. Früh, R. Dlugi, T. Gori, A. Ruggaber, J. Reuder, M. Zelger, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, F. Rohrer, D. Brüning, G. Moortgart, A. Horowitz, J. Tadic, “Actinic radiation and photolysis processes in the lower troposphere: effect of clouds and aerosols,” J. Atmos. Chem. 42, 413–441 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. (1)

E. Eckstein, D. Perner, Ch. Brühl, T. Trautmann, “A new 4π-spectroradiometer: instrument design and application to clear sky and broken cloud conditions,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 2, 1939–1977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Environ. (1)

F. C. Bahe, W. N. Marx, U. Schurath, E. P. Roth, “Determination of the absolute photolysis rate of ozone by sunlight at ground level,” Atmos. Environ. 13, 1515–1522 (1979).
[Crossref]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (5)

P. Kelley, R. R. Russel, W. T. Luke, G. L. Kok, “Rate of NO2 photolysis from the surface to 7.6 km altitude in clear sky and clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2621–2624 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. T. McElroy, “A spectrometer for the measurement of direct and scattered solar irradiance from on board the NASA ER-2 high-altitude research aircraft,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1361–1364 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. Wendisch, B. Mayer, “Vertical distribution of spectral solar irradiance in the cloudless sky—a case study,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 30, 1183–1186 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. T. Bairai, D. H. Stedman, “Actinometric measurement of the J[O3− O(1D)] using a luminol detector,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 2047–2050 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Müller, A. Kraus, A. Hofzumahaus, “O3→ O(1D) photolysis frequencies determined from spectroradiometer measurements of solar actinic UV radiation: comparison chemical actinometer measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 679–682 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Meteorol. (1)

M. Wendisch, S. Mertes, A. Ruggaber, T. Nakajima, “Vertical profiles of aerosol and radiation and the influence of a temperature inversion: measurements and radiative transfer calculations,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 35, 1703–1715 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Chem. (3)

W. Junkermann, C. Brühl, D. Perner, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, B. Früh, R. Dlugi, T. Gori, A. Ruggaber, J. Reuder, M. Zelger, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Kraus, F. Rohrer, D. Brüning, G. Moortgart, A. Horowitz, J. Tadic, “Actinic radiation and photolysis processes in the lower troposphere: effect of clouds and aerosols,” J. Atmos. Chem. 42, 413–441 (2002).
[Crossref]

W. Junkermann, U. Platt, A. Volz-Thomas, “A photoelectric detector for the measurement of photolysis frequencies of ozone and other atmospheric molecules,” J. Atmos. Chem. 8, 203–227 (1989).
[Crossref]

T. Brauers, A. Hofzumahaus, “Latitudinal variation of measured NO2 photolysis frequencies over the Atlantic Ocean between 50°N and 30°S,” J. Atmos. Chem. 15, 269–282 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (1)

M. Wendisch, D. Müller, D. Schell, J. Heintzenberg, “An airborne spectral albedometer with active horizontal stabilization,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 18, 1856–1866 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Geophys. Res. (15)

R. E. Shetter, A. H. McDaniel, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, J. G. Calvert, “Actinometer and Eppley radiometer measurements of the NO2 photolysis rate coefficient during the Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemistry Experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 97, 10,349–10,359 (1992).
[Crossref]

M. Wendisch, P. Pilewskie, E. Jäkel, S. Schmidt, J. Pommier, S. Howard, H. H. Jonsson, H. Guan, M. Schröder, B. Mayer, “Airborne measurements of areal spectral surface albedo over different sea and land surfaces,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, D08203, doi: (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Volz-Thomas, A. Lerner, H. W. Pätz, M. Schultz, “Airborne measurements of the photolysis frequency of NO2,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 18,613–18,627 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. R. Webb, A. Kylling, M. Wendisch, E. Jäkel, “Airborne measurements of ground and cloud spectral albedos under low aerosol loads,” J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi: (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Keil, M. Wendisch, E. Brüggemann, “Measured profiles of aerosol particle absorption and its influence on clear-sky solar radiative forcing,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 1237–1247 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Trautmann, I. Podgorny, J. Landgraf, P. J. Crutzen, “Actinic fluxes and photodissociation coefficients in cloud fields embedded in realistic atmospheres,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30,173–30,192 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. R. Dickerson, D. H. Stedman, A. C. Delany, “Direct measurement of ozone and nitrogen dioxide photolysis rates in the troposphere,” J. Geophys. Res. 87, 4933–4946 (1982).
[Crossref]

G. D. Edwards, P. S. Monks, “Performance of a single-monochromator diode array spectroradiometer for the determination of actinic flux and atmospheric photolysis frequencies,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8546, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, L. Cinquini, B. L. Lefer, S. R. Hall, S. Madronich, “Comparison of airborne measured and calculated spectral actinic flux and derived photolysis frequencies during the PEM Tropics B mission,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[Crossref]

A. F. Bais, S. Madronich, J. Crawford, S. R. Hall, B. Mayer, M. van Weele, J. Lenoble, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, R. E. Shetter, A. Hofzumahaus, P. Koepke, P. S. Monks, G. Frost, R. McKenzie, N. Krotkov, A. Kylling, W. H. Swartz, S. Lloyd, G. Pfister, T. J. Martin, E. P. Roeth, E. Griffioen, A. Ruggaber, M. Krol, A. Kraus, G. D. Edwards, M. Müller, B. L. Lefer, P. Johnston, H. Schwander, D. Flittner, B. G. Gardiner, J. Barrick, R. Schmitt, “International photolysis frequency measurement and model intercomparison: spectral actinic solar flux measurements and modeling,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, W. Junkermann, W. H. Swartz, G. J. Frost, J. H. Crawford, B. L. Lefer, J. D. Barrick, S. R. Hall, A. Hofzumahaus, A. Bais, J. G. Calvert, C. A. Cantrell, S. Madronich, M. Muller, A. Kraus, P. S. Monks, G. D. Edwards, R. McKenzie, P. Johnston, R. Schmitt, E. Griffioen, M. Krol, A. Kylling, R. R. Dickerson, S. A. Lloyd, T. Martin, B. Gardiner, B. Mayer, G. Pfister, E. P. Roth, P. Koepke, A. Ruggaber, H. Schwander, M. van Weele, “Photolysis frequency of NO2: measurement and modeling during the International Photolysis Frequency Measurement and Modeling Intercomparison (IPMMI),” J. Geophys. Res. 108, D16, 8544, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

R. E. Shetter, M. Müller, “Photolysis frequency measurements using actinic flux spectroradiometry during PEM-Tropics mission: Instrumentation description and some results,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D55647–5661 (1999).

J. Crawford, D. Davis, G. Chen, R. Shetter, M. Müller, J. Barrick, J. Olson, “An assessment of cloud effects on photolysis rate coefficients: Comparison of experimental and theoretical values,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, D55725–5734 (1999).

B. Früh, T. Trautmann, M. Wendisch, A. Keil, “Comparison of observed and simulated NO2 photodissociation frequencies in a cloudless atmosphere and in continental boundary layer clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, D89843–9857 (2000).

B. Früh, E. Eckstein, T. Trautmann, M. Wendisch, M. Fiebig, U. Feister, “Ground-based measured and calculated spectra of actinic flux density and downward UV irradiance in cloudless conditions and their sensitivity to aerosol microphysical properties,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[Crossref]

Tellus (1)

M. van Weele, J. V.-G. de Arellano, F. Kuik, “Combined measurements of UV-A actinic flux, UV-A irradiance and global radiation in relation to photodissociation rates,” Tellus 47, 353–364 (1995).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

W. DeMore, S. Sander, D. Golden, R. Hampson, M. Kurylo, C. Howard, A. Ravishankara, C. Kolb, M. Molina, “Chemical kinetics and photochemical data for use in stratospheric modeling, evaluation number 12,” JPL Publ. 97-4 (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., 1997).

A manuscript to be called “Spectral actinic flux in the lower troposphere: measurement and 1-D simulations for cloudless, broken cloud, and overcast situations,” is being prepared by A. Kylling, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, 2027 Kjeller, Norway.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the AFDM: MCS, multichannel spectrometer; optical inlets for A↓, downwelling and B↑, upwelling actinic flux density measurements; DAS, data acquisition.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Actinic (right) and irradiance (left) optical inlets mounted on the top (a) and on the bottom (b) of an aircraft.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relative angular response ZP of optical inlets A↓ and B↑ as functions (a) of zenith angle θ and (b) of wavelength λ. In (a) the angular response is wavelength averaged; in (b) the angular response is displayed for two zenith angles, 40° and 70°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Correction function ZH↓ of optical inlet A↓ as a function of wavelength λ. (a) Correction function for an altitude of 2 km above the ground surface, which has a wavelength-averaged albedo of 0.08 at two SZAs (45°, 60°). (b) ZH↓ plotted for 0- and 2-km altitudes, a cloud top albedo (CTA) of 0.9, and a surface albedo (SA) of 0.08 at a solar zenith angle of 45°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Correction function ZH↑ of optical inlet B↑ as a function of wavelength λ for a surface albedo (SA) of 0.08 and two cloud albedo (CTA) values (0.9, 0.6) at 1- and 2-km altitudes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a), (c) Averaged downwelling and upwelling actinic flux densities measured above land and sea at a flight altitude of 2000 m at a mean SZA of 56°. (b), (d) RV (ratio of standard deviation and average).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Averaged upwelling spectral actinic flux densities measured above a stratus layer (lighter curve) and above a scattered cloud layer (darker curve) at mean SZAs of 50° and 53°, respectively. As in Figs. 6(c) and 6(d) the RV is plotted in the bottom part of the figure.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Vertical profile of the liquid water content (LWC, shaded area) and (a) the downwelling and upwelling actinic flux density and (b) the photolysis frequency of NO2 measured at a descending flight leg through a stratus cloud layer.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Wavelength-dependent effects of a stratus cloud on the downwelling actinic flux density calculated at several different altitudes (top to bottom: 1200, 1000, 800 and 300 m).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters of Correction Function ZH

Tables Icon

Table 2 Estimated Measurement Uncertainties (%)

Tables Icon

Table 3 Table Instrument Specification

Tables Icon

Table 4 AV, SDV, and RV of the NO2 Photolysis Frequency Calculated for Different Cloud Conditions

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F a + F a = F a ( λ ) ,
Z P ( θ , ϕ , λ ) = I λ ( θ , ϕ ) I λ ( θ = 0 ° , ϕ ) ,
for A :             Z H = α Z P + γ 2 π UH Z P d ω + β 2 π LH Z P d ω ,
for B :             Z H = γ 2 π UH Z P d ω + 1 2 π LH Z P d ω ,
I λ ( λ ) = D 0 ( λ ) F a ( λ ) ,
D 0 ( λ ) = I λ ( λ ) E λ ( λ ) .
I λ ( λ ) = const ( z 0 + Δ z ) - 2 ,

Metrics