Abstract

Spectral statistical-analysis techniques were developed and applied to high-spectral-resolution infrared measurements of the sea surface. The effective incidence angle of a ship-borne instrument in typical at-sea conditions was found to introduce errors of up to 0.7 K in sea-surface temperature retrievals at a 55° view angle. The sea-surface emissivity was determined over the 8–12-μm window at view angles of 40° and 55° and at wind speeds up to 13 ms−1. The emissivity was found to increase in magnitude with increasing wind speed, rather than decrease, as predicted by widely used parameterizations. Use of these parameterizations can cause significant bias in remote sensing of sea-surface temperature in noncalm conditions.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. K. Shay, G. J. Goni, P. G. Black, “Effects of a warm oceanic feature on Hurricane Opal,” Mon. Weather Rev. 128, 1366–1383 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. R. Allen, C. T. Mutlow, G. M. C. Blumberg, J. R. Christy, R. T. McNider, D. T. Llewellyn-Jones, “Global change detection,” Nature 370, 24–25 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. S. Godfrey, R. A. Houze, R. H. Johnson, R. Lukas, J. L. Redelsperger, A. Sumi, R. Weller, “Coupled ocean–atmosphere response experiment: an interim report,” J. Geo-phys. Res. [Oceans] 103, 14395–14450 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. C. Walton, W. G. Pichel, J. F. Sapper, “The development and operational application of nonlinear algorithms for the measurement of sea surface temperatures with the NOAA polar-orbiting environmental satellites,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27999–28012 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. J. Barton, A. M. Zavody, D. M. O’Brien, D. R. Cutten, R. W. Saunders, D. T. Llewellyn-Jones, “Theoretical algorithms for satellite-derived sea surface temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 3365–3375 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. A. Van Scoy, K. P. Morris, J. E. Robertson, A. J. Watson, “Thermal skin effect and the air–sea flux of carbon dioxide: a seasonal high-resolution estimate,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 9, pp. 253–262 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. A. Donelan, “Air–sea interaction,” in The Sea: Ocean Engineering Science (Wiley, New York, 1990).
  9. K. Masuda, T. Takashima, Y. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure and sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 24, 313–329 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. D. Watts, M. R. Allen, T. J. Nightingale, “Wind speed effects on sea surface emission and reflection for the along track scanning radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 126–141 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, O. B. Brown, “The marine–atmosphere emitted radiance interferometer (M-AERI): a high-accuracy, sea-going infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Ocean. Atmos. Technol. 18, 994–1013 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. A. Hanafin, “On properties and characteristics of the sea surface in the infrared,” Ph.D. Thesis (University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla., 2002).
  14. L. W. Pinkley, P. P. Sethna, D. Williams, “Optical constants of water in the infrared: influence of temperature,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 67, 494–499 (1977).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. E. Bertie, Z. Lan, “Infrared intensities of liquids. XX. The intensity of the OH stretching band of liquid water revisited and the best current values of the optical constants of H2O (1) at 25C between 15,000 and 1 cm−1,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 1047–1057 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. W. Pinkley, D. Williams, “Optical properties of sea water in the infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 66, 554–558 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. Lyman, R. H. Fleming, “Composition of sea water,” J. Marine Res. 3, 134–146 (1940).
  18. X. Wu, W. L. Smith, “Emissivity of rough sea surface for 8–13 μm: modeling and verification,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2609–2619 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. L. Pontier, C. Dechambenoy, “Determination des constantes optiques de l’eau liquide entre 1 et 40microns. Application au calcul de son pouvoir reflecteur et de son emissivite,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 633–641 (1966).
  20. D. J. Segelstein, “The complex refractive index of water,” M.Sc. thesis (University of Missouri-Kansas City, Mo., 1981).
  21. D. M. Wieliczka, S. Weng, M. R. Querry, “Wedge shaped cell for highly absorbent liquids: infrared optical constants of water,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1714–1719 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. A. Shaw, “The effect of instrument polarization sensitivity on sea surface remote sensing with infrared spectroradiometers,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 820–827 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. A. Shaw, “Degree of linear polarization in spectral radiances from water-viewing infrared radiometers,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3157–3165 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. A. Shaw, “Polarimetric measurements of long-wave infrared spectral radiance from water,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5985–5990 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. W. Salisbury, D. M. D’Aria, “Emissivity of terrestrial materials in the 8–14–μm atmospheric window,” Remote Sens. Environ. 42, 83–106 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. J. Donlon, T. J. Nightingale, “The effect of atmospheric radiance errors in radiometric sea surface skin temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 80, 1656–1661 (2000).
  27. C. J. Donlon, S. J. Keogh, D. J. Baldwin, I. S. Robinson, I. Ridley, T. Sheasby, I. J. Barton, E. F. Bradley, T. J. Nightingale, W. Emergy, “Solid-state radiometer measurements of sea surface skin temperature,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 775–787 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. B. Kahle, R. E. Alley, “Separation of temperature and emissance in remotely sensed radiance measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 42, 107–111 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  29. C. Cox, W. Munk, “Measurement of the roughness of the sea surface from photographs of the sun’s glitter,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 838–850 (1954).
    [CrossRef]
  30. T. Takashima, Y. Takayama, “Emissivity and reflectance of the model sea surface for the use of AVHRR data of NOAA satellites,” Papers Meteorol. Geophys. 32, 267–274 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. Sidran, “Broadband reflectance and emissivity of specular and rough water surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3176–3183 (1981).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. G. M. Hale, M. R. Querry, “Optical constants of water in the 200nm–200 μm wavelength region,” Appl. Opt. 12, 555–563 (1973).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. D. Friedman, “Infrared characteristics of ocean water (1.5–15 microns),” Appl. Opt. 8, 2073–2078 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. J. A. Shaw, J. H. Churnside, “Scanning laser glint measurements of sea-surface slope statistics,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4202–4213 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. A. Shaw, “The effect of instrument polarization sensitivity on sea surface remote sensing with infrared spectroradiometers,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 820–827 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, O. B. Brown, “The marine–atmosphere emitted radiance interferometer (M-AERI): a high-accuracy, sea-going infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Ocean. Atmos. Technol. 18, 994–1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Shaw, “Polarimetric measurements of long-wave infrared spectral radiance from water,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5985–5990 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

C. J. Donlon, T. J. Nightingale, “The effect of atmospheric radiance errors in radiometric sea surface skin temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 80, 1656–1661 (2000).

L. K. Shay, G. J. Goni, P. G. Black, “Effects of a warm oceanic feature on Hurricane Opal,” Mon. Weather Rev. 128, 1366–1383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

1998

J. S. Godfrey, R. A. Houze, R. H. Johnson, R. Lukas, J. L. Redelsperger, A. Sumi, R. Weller, “Coupled ocean–atmosphere response experiment: an interim report,” J. Geo-phys. Res. [Oceans] 103, 14395–14450 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Walton, W. G. Pichel, J. F. Sapper, “The development and operational application of nonlinear algorithms for the measurement of sea surface temperatures with the NOAA polar-orbiting environmental satellites,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27999–28012 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Donlon, S. J. Keogh, D. J. Baldwin, I. S. Robinson, I. Ridley, T. Sheasby, I. J. Barton, E. F. Bradley, T. J. Nightingale, W. Emergy, “Solid-state radiometer measurements of sea surface skin temperature,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 775–787 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Bertie, Z. Lan, “Infrared intensities of liquids. XX. The intensity of the OH stretching band of liquid water revisited and the best current values of the optical constants of H2O (1) at 25C between 15,000 and 1 cm−1,” Appl. Spectrosc. 50, 1047–1057 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Watts, M. R. Allen, T. J. Nightingale, “Wind speed effects on sea surface emission and reflection for the along track scanning radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 126–141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

K. A. Van Scoy, K. P. Morris, J. E. Robertson, A. J. Watson, “Thermal skin effect and the air–sea flux of carbon dioxide: a seasonal high-resolution estimate,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 9, pp. 253–262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. R. Allen, C. T. Mutlow, G. M. C. Blumberg, J. R. Christy, R. T. McNider, D. T. Llewellyn-Jones, “Global change detection,” Nature 370, 24–25 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992

J. W. Salisbury, D. M. D’Aria, “Emissivity of terrestrial materials in the 8–14–μm atmospheric window,” Remote Sens. Environ. 42, 83–106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Kahle, R. E. Alley, “Separation of temperature and emissance in remotely sensed radiance measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 42, 107–111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989

D. M. Wieliczka, S. Weng, M. R. Querry, “Wedge shaped cell for highly absorbent liquids: infrared optical constants of water,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1714–1719 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. J. Barton, A. M. Zavody, D. M. O’Brien, D. R. Cutten, R. W. Saunders, D. T. Llewellyn-Jones, “Theoretical algorithms for satellite-derived sea surface temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 3365–3375 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, Y. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure and sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 24, 313–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981

T. Takashima, Y. Takayama, “Emissivity and reflectance of the model sea surface for the use of AVHRR data of NOAA satellites,” Papers Meteorol. Geophys. 32, 267–274 (1981).
[CrossRef]

M. Sidran, “Broadband reflectance and emissivity of specular and rough water surfaces,” Appl. Opt. 20, 3176–3183 (1981).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1977

1976

1973

1969

1966

L. Pontier, C. Dechambenoy, “Determination des constantes optiques de l’eau liquide entre 1 et 40microns. Application au calcul de son pouvoir reflecteur et de son emissivite,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 633–641 (1966).

1954

1940

J. Lyman, R. H. Fleming, “Composition of sea water,” J. Marine Res. 3, 134–146 (1940).

Allen, M. R.

P. D. Watts, M. R. Allen, T. J. Nightingale, “Wind speed effects on sea surface emission and reflection for the along track scanning radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 126–141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Allen, C. T. Mutlow, G. M. C. Blumberg, J. R. Christy, R. T. McNider, D. T. Llewellyn-Jones, “Global change detection,” Nature 370, 24–25 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Alley, R. E.

A. B. Kahle, R. E. Alley, “Separation of temperature and emissance in remotely sensed radiance measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 42, 107–111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, D. J.

C. J. Donlon, S. J. Keogh, D. J. Baldwin, I. S. Robinson, I. Ridley, T. Sheasby, I. J. Barton, E. F. Bradley, T. J. Nightingale, W. Emergy, “Solid-state radiometer measurements of sea surface skin temperature,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 775–787 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barton, I. J.

C. J. Donlon, S. J. Keogh, D. J. Baldwin, I. S. Robinson, I. Ridley, T. Sheasby, I. J. Barton, E. F. Bradley, T. J. Nightingale, W. Emergy, “Solid-state radiometer measurements of sea surface skin temperature,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 775–787 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Barton, A. M. Zavody, D. M. O’Brien, D. R. Cutten, R. W. Saunders, D. T. Llewellyn-Jones, “Theoretical algorithms for satellite-derived sea surface temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 3365–3375 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Baudin, F.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Benech, F.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bertie, J. E.

Best, F. A.

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, O. B. Brown, “The marine–atmosphere emitted radiance interferometer (M-AERI): a high-accuracy, sea-going infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Ocean. Atmos. Technol. 18, 994–1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Black, P. G.

L. K. Shay, G. J. Goni, P. G. Black, “Effects of a warm oceanic feature on Hurricane Opal,” Mon. Weather Rev. 128, 1366–1383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Blumberg, G. M. C.

M. R. Allen, C. T. Mutlow, G. M. C. Blumberg, J. R. Christy, R. T. McNider, D. T. Llewellyn-Jones, “Global change detection,” Nature 370, 24–25 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bradley, E. F.

C. J. Donlon, S. J. Keogh, D. J. Baldwin, I. S. Robinson, I. Ridley, T. Sheasby, I. J. Barton, E. F. Bradley, T. J. Nightingale, W. Emergy, “Solid-state radiometer measurements of sea surface skin temperature,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 775–787 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brenguier, J. L.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brown, J.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brown, O. B.

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, O. B. Brown, “The marine–atmosphere emitted radiance interferometer (M-AERI): a high-accuracy, sea-going infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Ocean. Atmos. Technol. 18, 994–1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Camus, Y.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Caniaux, G.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Christy, J. R.

M. R. Allen, C. T. Mutlow, G. M. C. Blumberg, J. R. Christy, R. T. McNider, D. T. Llewellyn-Jones, “Global change detection,” Nature 370, 24–25 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Churnside, J. H.

Cox, C.

Cutten, D. R.

I. J. Barton, A. M. Zavody, D. M. O’Brien, D. R. Cutten, R. W. Saunders, D. T. Llewellyn-Jones, “Theoretical algorithms for satellite-derived sea surface temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 3365–3375 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D’Aria, D. M.

J. W. Salisbury, D. M. D’Aria, “Emissivity of terrestrial materials in the 8–14–μm atmospheric window,” Remote Sens. Environ. 42, 83–106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

De Mey, P.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dechambenoy, C.

L. Pontier, C. Dechambenoy, “Determination des constantes optiques de l’eau liquide entre 1 et 40microns. Application au calcul de son pouvoir reflecteur et de son emissivite,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 633–641 (1966).

Dombrowski, E.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Donelan, M. A.

M. A. Donelan, “Air–sea interaction,” in The Sea: Ocean Engineering Science (Wiley, New York, 1990).

Donlon, C. J.

C. J. Donlon, T. J. Nightingale, “The effect of atmospheric radiance errors in radiometric sea surface skin temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 80, 1656–1661 (2000).

C. J. Donlon, S. J. Keogh, D. J. Baldwin, I. S. Robinson, I. Ridley, T. Sheasby, I. J. Barton, E. F. Bradley, T. J. Nightingale, W. Emergy, “Solid-state radiometer measurements of sea surface skin temperature,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 775–787 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Druilhet, A.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dupuis, H.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Durand, P.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Emergy, W.

C. J. Donlon, S. J. Keogh, D. J. Baldwin, I. S. Robinson, I. Ridley, T. Sheasby, I. J. Barton, E. F. Bradley, T. J. Nightingale, W. Emergy, “Solid-state radiometer measurements of sea surface skin temperature,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 775–787 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eymard, L.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Feltz, W.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ferret, B.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, C.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Flamant, P.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, R. H.

J. Lyman, R. H. Fleming, “Composition of sea water,” J. Marine Res. 3, 134–146 (1940).

Friedman, D.

Godfrey, J. S.

J. S. Godfrey, R. A. Houze, R. H. Johnson, R. Lukas, J. L. Redelsperger, A. Sumi, R. Weller, “Coupled ocean–atmosphere response experiment: an interim report,” J. Geo-phys. Res. [Oceans] 103, 14395–14450 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goni, G. J.

L. K. Shay, G. J. Goni, P. G. Black, “Effects of a warm oceanic feature on Hurricane Opal,” Mon. Weather Rev. 128, 1366–1383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hale, G. M.

Hanafin, J. A.

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, O. B. Brown, “The marine–atmosphere emitted radiance interferometer (M-AERI): a high-accuracy, sea-going infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Ocean. Atmos. Technol. 18, 994–1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Hanafin, “On properties and characteristics of the sea surface in the infrared,” Ph.D. Thesis (University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla., 2002).

Hauser, D.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hernandez, F.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Houze, R. A.

J. S. Godfrey, R. A. Houze, R. H. Johnson, R. Lukas, J. L. Redelsperger, A. Sumi, R. Weller, “Coupled ocean–atmosphere response experiment: an interim report,” J. Geo-phys. Res. [Oceans] 103, 14395–14450 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Howell, H. B.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, R. H.

J. S. Godfrey, R. A. Houze, R. H. Johnson, R. Lukas, J. L. Redelsperger, A. Sumi, R. Weller, “Coupled ocean–atmosphere response experiment: an interim report,” J. Geo-phys. Res. [Oceans] 103, 14395–14450 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jourdan, D.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kahle, A. B.

A. B. Kahle, R. E. Alley, “Separation of temperature and emissance in remotely sensed radiance measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 42, 107–111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Katsaros, K. B.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keogh, S. J.

C. J. Donlon, S. J. Keogh, D. J. Baldwin, I. S. Robinson, I. Ridley, T. Sheasby, I. J. Barton, E. F. Bradley, T. J. Nightingale, W. Emergy, “Solid-state radiometer measurements of sea surface skin temperature,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 775–787 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knuteson, R. O.

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, O. B. Brown, “The marine–atmosphere emitted radiance interferometer (M-AERI): a high-accuracy, sea-going infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Ocean. Atmos. Technol. 18, 994–1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lambert, D.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lan, Z.

Le Borgne, P.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Le Squere, B.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Le Traon, P. Y.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lefevre, J. M.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.

M. R. Allen, C. T. Mutlow, G. M. C. Blumberg, J. R. Christy, R. T. McNider, D. T. Llewellyn-Jones, “Global change detection,” Nature 370, 24–25 (1994).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Barton, A. M. Zavody, D. M. O’Brien, D. R. Cutten, R. W. Saunders, D. T. Llewellyn-Jones, “Theoretical algorithms for satellite-derived sea surface temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 3365–3375 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lukas, R.

J. S. Godfrey, R. A. Houze, R. H. Johnson, R. Lukas, J. L. Redelsperger, A. Sumi, R. Weller, “Coupled ocean–atmosphere response experiment: an interim report,” J. Geo-phys. Res. [Oceans] 103, 14395–14450 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lyman, J.

J. Lyman, R. H. Fleming, “Composition of sea water,” J. Marine Res. 3, 134–146 (1940).

Marsouin, A.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, K.

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, Y. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure and sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 24, 313–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

McKeown, W.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McNider, R. T.

M. R. Allen, C. T. Mutlow, G. M. C. Blumberg, J. R. Christy, R. T. McNider, D. T. Llewellyn-Jones, “Global change detection,” Nature 370, 24–25 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Menzel, W. P.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Minnett, P.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Minnett, P. J.

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, O. B. Brown, “The marine–atmosphere emitted radiance interferometer (M-AERI): a high-accuracy, sea-going infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Ocean. Atmos. Technol. 18, 994–1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morris, K. P.

K. A. Van Scoy, K. P. Morris, J. E. Robertson, A. J. Watson, “Thermal skin effect and the air–sea flux of carbon dioxide: a seasonal high-resolution estimate,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 9, pp. 253–262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Munk, W.

Mutlow, C. T.

M. R. Allen, C. T. Mutlow, G. M. C. Blumberg, J. R. Christy, R. T. McNider, D. T. Llewellyn-Jones, “Global change detection,” Nature 370, 24–25 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nalli, N. R.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nightingale, T. J.

C. J. Donlon, T. J. Nightingale, “The effect of atmospheric radiance errors in radiometric sea surface skin temperature measurements,” Appl. Opt. 80, 1656–1661 (2000).

C. J. Donlon, S. J. Keogh, D. J. Baldwin, I. S. Robinson, I. Ridley, T. Sheasby, I. J. Barton, E. F. Bradley, T. J. Nightingale, W. Emergy, “Solid-state radiometer measurements of sea surface skin temperature,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 775–787 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Watts, M. R. Allen, T. J. Nightingale, “Wind speed effects on sea surface emission and reflection for the along track scanning radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 126–141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, D. M.

I. J. Barton, A. M. Zavody, D. M. O’Brien, D. R. Cutten, R. W. Saunders, D. T. Llewellyn-Jones, “Theoretical algorithms for satellite-derived sea surface temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 3365–3375 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Osborne, B. J.

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, O. B. Brown, “The marine–atmosphere emitted radiance interferometer (M-AERI): a high-accuracy, sea-going infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Ocean. Atmos. Technol. 18, 994–1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pelon, J.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pichel, W. G.

C. C. Walton, W. G. Pichel, J. F. Sapper, “The development and operational application of nonlinear algorithms for the measurement of sea surface temperatures with the NOAA polar-orbiting environmental satellites,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27999–28012 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pinkley, L. W.

Planton, S.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pontier, L.

L. Pontier, C. Dechambenoy, “Determination des constantes optiques de l’eau liquide entre 1 et 40microns. Application au calcul de son pouvoir reflecteur et de son emissivite,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 633–641 (1966).

Prieur, L.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

Redelsperger, J. L.

J. S. Godfrey, R. A. Houze, R. H. Johnson, R. Lukas, J. L. Redelsperger, A. Sumi, R. Weller, “Coupled ocean–atmosphere response experiment: an interim report,” J. Geo-phys. Res. [Oceans] 103, 14395–14450 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Revercomb, H. E.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ridley, I.

C. J. Donlon, S. J. Keogh, D. J. Baldwin, I. S. Robinson, I. Ridley, T. Sheasby, I. J. Barton, E. F. Bradley, T. J. Nightingale, W. Emergy, “Solid-state radiometer measurements of sea surface skin temperature,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 775–787 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, J. E.

K. A. Van Scoy, K. P. Morris, J. E. Robertson, A. J. Watson, “Thermal skin effect and the air–sea flux of carbon dioxide: a seasonal high-resolution estimate,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 9, pp. 253–262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, I. S.

C. J. Donlon, S. J. Keogh, D. J. Baldwin, I. S. Robinson, I. Ridley, T. Sheasby, I. J. Barton, E. F. Bradley, T. J. Nightingale, W. Emergy, “Solid-state radiometer measurements of sea surface skin temperature,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 775–787 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rolland, J.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Roquet, H.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Salisbury, J. W.

J. W. Salisbury, D. M. D’Aria, “Emissivity of terrestrial materials in the 8–14–μm atmospheric window,” Remote Sens. Environ. 42, 83–106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sapper, J. F.

C. C. Walton, W. G. Pichel, J. F. Sapper, “The development and operational application of nonlinear algorithms for the measurement of sea surface temperatures with the NOAA polar-orbiting environmental satellites,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27999–28012 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saunders, R. W.

I. J. Barton, A. M. Zavody, D. M. O’Brien, D. R. Cutten, R. W. Saunders, D. T. Llewellyn-Jones, “Theoretical algorithms for satellite-derived sea surface temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 3365–3375 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Segelstein, D. J.

D. J. Segelstein, “The complex refractive index of water,” M.Sc. thesis (University of Missouri-Kansas City, Mo., 1981).

Sethna, P. P.

Shaw, J. A.

Shay, L. K.

L. K. Shay, G. J. Goni, P. G. Black, “Effects of a warm oceanic feature on Hurricane Opal,” Mon. Weather Rev. 128, 1366–1383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sheasby, T.

C. J. Donlon, S. J. Keogh, D. J. Baldwin, I. S. Robinson, I. Ridley, T. Sheasby, I. J. Barton, E. F. Bradley, T. J. Nightingale, W. Emergy, “Solid-state radiometer measurements of sea surface skin temperature,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 775–787 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sidran, M.

Smith, W. L.

X. Wu, W. L. Smith, “Emissivity of rough sea surface for 8–13 μm: modeling and verification,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2609–2619 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sumi, A.

J. S. Godfrey, R. A. Houze, R. H. Johnson, R. Lukas, J. L. Redelsperger, A. Sumi, R. Weller, “Coupled ocean–atmosphere response experiment: an interim report,” J. Geo-phys. Res. [Oceans] 103, 14395–14450 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takashima, T.

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, Y. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure and sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 24, 313–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Takashima, Y. Takayama, “Emissivity and reflectance of the model sea surface for the use of AVHRR data of NOAA satellites,” Papers Meteorol. Geophys. 32, 267–274 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Takayama, Y.

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, Y. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure and sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 24, 313–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Takashima, Y. Takayama, “Emissivity and reflectance of the model sea surface for the use of AVHRR data of NOAA satellites,” Papers Meteorol. Geophys. 32, 267–274 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tournadre, J.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Trouillet, V.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Van Scoy, K. A.

K. A. Van Scoy, K. P. Morris, J. E. Robertson, A. J. Watson, “Thermal skin effect and the air–sea flux of carbon dioxide: a seasonal high-resolution estimate,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 9, pp. 253–262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Walton, C. C.

C. C. Walton, W. G. Pichel, J. F. Sapper, “The development and operational application of nonlinear algorithms for the measurement of sea surface temperatures with the NOAA polar-orbiting environmental satellites,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27999–28012 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Watson, A. J.

K. A. Van Scoy, K. P. Morris, J. E. Robertson, A. J. Watson, “Thermal skin effect and the air–sea flux of carbon dioxide: a seasonal high-resolution estimate,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 9, pp. 253–262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Watts, P. D.

P. D. Watts, M. R. Allen, T. J. Nightingale, “Wind speed effects on sea surface emission and reflection for the along track scanning radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 126–141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weill, A.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weller, R.

J. S. Godfrey, R. A. Houze, R. H. Johnson, R. Lukas, J. L. Redelsperger, A. Sumi, R. Weller, “Coupled ocean–atmosphere response experiment: an interim report,” J. Geo-phys. Res. [Oceans] 103, 14395–14450 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Weng, S.

Wieliczka, D. M.

Williams, D.

Wu, X.

Zakardjian, B.

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zavody, A. M.

I. J. Barton, A. M. Zavody, D. M. O’Brien, D. R. Cutten, R. W. Saunders, D. T. Llewellyn-Jones, “Theoretical algorithms for satellite-derived sea surface temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 3365–3375 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Geophys.

L. Pontier, C. Dechambenoy, “Determination des constantes optiques de l’eau liquide entre 1 et 40microns. Application au calcul de son pouvoir reflecteur et de son emissivite,” Ann. Geophys. 22, 633–641 (1966).

Ann. Geophys. [Paris]

L. Eymard, S. Planton, P. Durand, Y. Camus, P. Y. Le Traon, L. Prieur, A. Weill, D. Hauser, B. Le Squere, J. Rolland, J. Pelon, F. Baudin, F. Benech, J. L. Brenguier, G. Caniaux, P. De Mey, E. Dombrowski, A. Druilhet, H. Dupuis, B. Ferret, C. Flamant, P. Flamant, F. Hernandez, D. Jourdan, K. B. Katsaros, D. Lambert, J. M. Lefevre, P. Le Borgne, A. Marsouin, H. Roquet, J. Tournadre, V. Trouillet, B. Zakardjian, “Study of the air–sea interactions at the mesoscale: the SEMAPHORE experiment,” Ann. Geophys. [Paris] 14, 986–1015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Spectrosc.

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

W. L. Smith, R. O. Knuteson, H. E. Revercomb, W. Feltz, H. B. Howell, W. P. Menzel, N. R. Nalli, O. Brown, J. Brown, P. Minnett, W. McKeown, “Observations of the infrared radiative properties of the ocean: implications for the measurement of sea surface temperature via satellite remote sensing,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 41–52 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Global Biogeochem. Cycles

K. A. Van Scoy, K. P. Morris, J. E. Robertson, A. J. Watson, “Thermal skin effect and the air–sea flux of carbon dioxide: a seasonal high-resolution estimate,” Global Biogeochem. Cycles 9, pp. 253–262 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol.

P. D. Watts, M. R. Allen, T. J. Nightingale, “Wind speed effects on sea surface emission and reflection for the along track scanning radiometer,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 126–141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.

C. J. Donlon, S. J. Keogh, D. J. Baldwin, I. S. Robinson, I. Ridley, T. Sheasby, I. J. Barton, E. F. Bradley, T. J. Nightingale, W. Emergy, “Solid-state radiometer measurements of sea surface skin temperature,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 15, 775–787 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Shaw, “The effect of instrument polarization sensitivity on sea surface remote sensing with infrared spectroradiometers,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19, 820–827 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Geo-phys. Res. [Oceans]

J. S. Godfrey, R. A. Houze, R. H. Johnson, R. Lukas, J. L. Redelsperger, A. Sumi, R. Weller, “Coupled ocean–atmosphere response experiment: an interim report,” J. Geo-phys. Res. [Oceans] 103, 14395–14450 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

C. C. Walton, W. G. Pichel, J. F. Sapper, “The development and operational application of nonlinear algorithms for the measurement of sea surface temperatures with the NOAA polar-orbiting environmental satellites,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 27999–28012 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. J. Barton, A. M. Zavody, D. M. O’Brien, D. R. Cutten, R. W. Saunders, D. T. Llewellyn-Jones, “Theoretical algorithms for satellite-derived sea surface temperatures,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 3365–3375 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Marine Res.

J. Lyman, R. H. Fleming, “Composition of sea water,” J. Marine Res. 3, 134–146 (1940).

J. Ocean. Atmos. Technol.

P. J. Minnett, R. O. Knuteson, F. A. Best, B. J. Osborne, J. A. Hanafin, O. B. Brown, “The marine–atmosphere emitted radiance interferometer (M-AERI): a high-accuracy, sea-going infrared spectroradiometer,” J. Ocean. Atmos. Technol. 18, 994–1013 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

Mon. Weather Rev.

L. K. Shay, G. J. Goni, P. G. Black, “Effects of a warm oceanic feature on Hurricane Opal,” Mon. Weather Rev. 128, 1366–1383 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nature

M. R. Allen, C. T. Mutlow, G. M. C. Blumberg, J. R. Christy, R. T. McNider, D. T. Llewellyn-Jones, “Global change detection,” Nature 370, 24–25 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Papers Meteorol. Geophys.

T. Takashima, Y. Takayama, “Emissivity and reflectance of the model sea surface for the use of AVHRR data of NOAA satellites,” Papers Meteorol. Geophys. 32, 267–274 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Remote Sens. Environ.

A. B. Kahle, R. E. Alley, “Separation of temperature and emissance in remotely sensed radiance measurements,” Remote Sens. Environ. 42, 107–111 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Salisbury, D. M. D’Aria, “Emissivity of terrestrial materials in the 8–14–μm atmospheric window,” Remote Sens. Environ. 42, 83–106 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Masuda, T. Takashima, Y. Takayama, “Emissivity of pure and sea waters for the model sea surface in the infrared window regions,” Remote Sens. Environ. 24, 313–329 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. A. Hanafin, “On properties and characteristics of the sea surface in the infrared,” Ph.D. Thesis (University of Miami, Coral Gables, Fla., 2002).

M. A. Donelan, “Air–sea interaction,” in The Sea: Ocean Engineering Science (Wiley, New York, 1990).

D. J. Segelstein, “The complex refractive index of water,” M.Sc. thesis (University of Missouri-Kansas City, Mo., 1981).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of M-AERI viewing geometry on a typical deployment at sea. The sea and sky radiances, R, are measured from a height, h, with an instrument pointing angle of θi and an effective incidence angle of θie at the sea surface.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Sample of M-AERI radiance data (upper panel) and its equivalent brightness temperature (BT) (lower panel). Atmospheric window regions are evident, as sky BT is colder in these regions, with warmer spikes corresponding to absorption and emission by atmospheric gases.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cruise tracks for Nauru99 and GasEx 2001.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Angular dependence of emissivity across the IR spectrum calculated from Fresnel equations using refractive-index data15 for incidence angles of 30°–70°.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sample of M-AERI radiance and corresponding BT showing high degree of correlation between upwelling uncorrected BT and downwelling radiance and reduction of BT variance from ±0.5 K to ±0.05 K when the correction for reflected radiance is applied.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of the capability of different published refractive-index data to predict θie for a calm water surface on a stable platform at an instrument pointing angle of 55°. The dashed curve indicates the mean, and the dotted curve is the variance.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Measurements of water-surface spectral emissivity. (a) The emissivity was averaged in 5 K bins, centered on 22.5 °C (dark blue), 27.5 °C (green), 32.5 °C (yellow), and 37.5 °C (red). The dashed curve shows the emissivity predicted from Fresnel equations and the refractive index of water.15 (b) Ratio of measured reflectances of 22.5 °C, 32.5 °C, and 37.5 °C water to 27.5 °C water.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Reflectance ratio of mean 56° (calm condition mean θie) spectral sea-surface reflectivity/DEWS spectral fresh-water reflectivity.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Time series of θie computed for Nauru99 and GasEx 2001. The mean is plotted as a solid line and the variance as a dashed line.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Histogram of θie for Nauru99 and GasEx 2001, showing negative skewness.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Scatter plot of θie with wind speed.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Spectral sea-surface emissivity from 800–1200 cm−1 (12.5–8.33 μm) computed using a piecewise linear variance minimization technique from GasEx 2001 data at viewing angles of 55° and 40° and Nauru99 data at a 55° view angle. The standard deviations are plotted as a dashed curve.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Nauru99 and GasEx 2001 55° measured 910- and 1100-cm−1 emissivity values plotted (a) as a function of retrieved effective incidence angle θie and (b) sea-surface emissivity from 40° and 55° instrument pointing angles as a function of wind speed.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Histogram of θie in (a) low, (b) moderate, and (c) moderate-high wind-speed regimes. The effect of waves becomes apparent in (b) and (c) as a negative skewness and spreading of θie away from the median.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

(a) Observed mean (solid curves) and standard deviation (dashed curves) of sea-surface emissivity in 1 ms−1 wind-speed bins for 9 μm and 11 μm at 40° and 55° incidence angles. Values are given in Table 5. (b) Wind-speed dependence of sea-surface emissivity at 11 μm as measured by this study (solid curves) at 40° (upper) and 55° (lower) incidence angles and that predicted by the Watts model (dot-dashed curve) at 52°–55° and the Masuda model (dotted curves) at 40° (♢), 50° (□), and 60° (*).

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Statistics of Meteorological Variables during Nauru99 and GasEx 2001 Field Campaigns

Tables Icon

Table 2 Sensitivity of Retrieved BT to θie and ∊ at 55° and 40° Incidence Angles and Water Temperature of 295 K

Tables Icon

Table 3 Results of Refractive-Index Comparison Using DEWS Data

Tables Icon

Table 4 Statistics of θie as Measured on Two Field Campaigns

Tables Icon

Table 5 Mean and Standard Deviation of Sea-Surface Emissivity Calculated in 1-ms−1 Wind-Speed Bins at 9 μm and 11 μm and 55° and 40° Viewing Angles

Tables Icon

Table 6 Ratios of 11-μm Reflectivity and Emissivity at Different Incidence Angles

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R ( λ ) = ( λ ) R ( λ ) + ρ ( λ ) R ( λ ) ,
ρ = ( ρ + ρ ) / 2 , ρ = r 2 = ( n t cos θ i - n i cos θ t n i cos θ i + n t cos θ t ) 2 , ρ = r 2 = ( n i cos θ i - n t cos θ t n i cos θ i + n t cos θ t ) 2 ,
= R OBS - R OBS R SEA - R OBS ,
B T SEA = B - 1 [ R OBS - ( 1 - ) R OBS ] .

Metrics