Abstract

High-energy femtosecond laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere undergo self-focusing resulting in the appearance of the phenomenon of filamentation. We observed an extra-attenuation of such (terawatt) femtosecond laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere when compared with long pulses (200 ps) with the same energy. This is because, in contrast to the linear propagation of the long pulse, the input femtosecond laser pulse is attenuated owing to either absorption through multiphoton ionization/tunnel ionization or to scattering on the laser-induced plasma; self-phase-modulation and self-steepening further convert partially the energy initially contained in the fundamental bandwidth into the broad side bands of the laser, becoming eventually a white-light laser pulse (supercontinuum). The experimental data allow us to extract an effective extra-attenuation coefficient for an exponential decay of the input pulse energy with the propagation distance. Such a coefficient allows us to estimate an upper bound of the filament length under the experimental conditions used. More generally, our observation leads to a new technique to remotely detect light filaments in the atmosphere.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2003 (6)

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B 77, 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Comtois, H. Pépin, F. Vidal, F. A. M. Rizk, C.-Y. Chien, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, F. Martin, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, Ph. Lalande, I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding of an upward positive leader from a ground rod with an ultrashort laser pulse. I. Experimental results,” and “II. Modeling,”IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 31, 377–386, 387–395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, V. P. Kandidov, “Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol),” Opt. Commun. 225, 195–211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Iwasakil, N. Aközbek, B. Ferland, Q. Luo, G. Roy, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “A LIDAR technique to measure the filament length generated by a high-peak power femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Appl Phys B 76, 231–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. AP 20, 183–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, G. Ange, R. Volk, S. Niedermeier, J. P. Wolf, J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, “Backward supercontinuum emission from a filament generated by ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 26, 533–535 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Akozbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “White light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 191, 353–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

N. Akozbek, C. M. Boweden, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in air: variational analysis,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 4540–4549 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Nidermeier, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, Y. B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1399–1402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

S. L. Chin, A. Brodeur, S. Petit, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation during the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in optical media (white light laser),” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 8, 121–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, “Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 171, 285–290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beam resulting from their propagation over long distance in air,” Phys. Plasma 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, R. Lange, J. F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Prade, G. Bonnaud, G. Riazuelo, A. Mysyrowicz, “Numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in gases,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6, 383–396 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

J. K. Ranka, R. W. Schirmer, A. L. Gaeta, “Obsevation of pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3783–3786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1984 (1)

1976 (1)

C. H. Lin, J. P. Heritage, T. K. Gustafson, R. Y. Chiao, J. P. McTague, “Birefringence arising from the reorientation of the polarization anisotropy of molecule in collisionless gas,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 813–829 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35–110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Akozbek, N.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B 77, 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Akozbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “White light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 191, 353–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Akozbek, C. M. Boweden, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in air: variational analysis,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 4540–4549 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Aközbek, N.

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Iwasakil, N. Aközbek, B. Ferland, Q. Luo, G. Roy, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “A LIDAR technique to measure the filament length generated by a high-peak power femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Appl Phys B 76, 231–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

André, Y. B.

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Nidermeier, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, Y. B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1399–1402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

André, Y.-B.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ange, G.

Becker, A.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B 77, 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bondiou-Clergerie, A.

D. Comtois, H. Pépin, F. Vidal, F. A. M. Rizk, C.-Y. Chien, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, F. Martin, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, Ph. Lalande, I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding of an upward positive leader from a ground rod with an ultrashort laser pulse. I. Experimental results,” and “II. Modeling,”IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 31, 377–386, 387–395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bonnaud, G.

A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, R. Lange, J. F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Prade, G. Bonnaud, G. Riazuelo, A. Mysyrowicz, “Numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in gases,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6, 383–396 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bourayou, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowden, C. M.

A. Iwasakil, N. Aközbek, B. Ferland, Q. Luo, G. Roy, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “A LIDAR technique to measure the filament length generated by a high-peak power femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Appl Phys B 76, 231–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B 77, 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Akozbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “White light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 191, 353–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Boweden, C. M.

N. Akozbek, C. M. Boweden, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in air: variational analysis,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 4540–4549 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Braun, A.

Brodeur, A.

S. L. Chin, A. Brodeur, S. Petit, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation during the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in optical media (white light laser),” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 8, 121–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, C.-Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 304–306 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiao, R. Y.

C. H. Lin, J. P. Heritage, T. K. Gustafson, R. Y. Chiao, J. P. McTague, “Birefringence arising from the reorientation of the polarization anisotropy of molecule in collisionless gas,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 813–829 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Chien, C. Y.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beam resulting from their propagation over long distance in air,” Phys. Plasma 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chien, C.-Y.

D. Comtois, H. Pépin, F. Vidal, F. A. M. Rizk, C.-Y. Chien, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, F. Martin, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, Ph. Lalande, I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding of an upward positive leader from a ground rod with an ultrashort laser pulse. I. Experimental results,” and “II. Modeling,”IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 31, 377–386, 387–395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, C.-Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 304–306 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chin, S. L.

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Iwasakil, N. Aközbek, B. Ferland, Q. Luo, G. Roy, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “A LIDAR technique to measure the filament length generated by a high-peak power femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Appl Phys B 76, 231–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, V. P. Kandidov, “Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol),” Opt. Commun. 225, 195–211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B 77, 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Akozbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “White light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 191, 353–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Akozbek, C. M. Boweden, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in air: variational analysis,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 4540–4549 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, “Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 171, 285–290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, A. Brodeur, S. Petit, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation during the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in optical media (white light laser),” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 8, 121–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, C.-Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 304–306 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiron, A.

A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, R. Lange, J. F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Prade, G. Bonnaud, G. Riazuelo, A. Mysyrowicz, “Numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in gases,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6, 383–396 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Comtois, D.

D. Comtois, H. Pépin, F. Vidal, F. A. M. Rizk, C.-Y. Chien, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, F. Martin, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, Ph. Lalande, I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding of an upward positive leader from a ground rod with an ultrashort laser pulse. I. Experimental results,” and “II. Modeling,”IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 31, 377–386, 387–395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beam resulting from their propagation over long distance in air,” Phys. Plasma 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Couture, P.

D. Comtois, H. Pépin, F. Vidal, F. A. M. Rizk, C.-Y. Chien, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, F. Martin, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, Ph. Lalande, I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding of an upward positive leader from a ground rod with an ultrashort laser pulse. I. Experimental results,” and “II. Modeling,”IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 31, 377–386, 387–395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Desparois, A.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beam resulting from their propagation over long distance in air,” Phys. Plasma 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Du, D.

Ferland, B.

A. Iwasakil, N. Aközbek, B. Ferland, Q. Luo, G. Roy, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “A LIDAR technique to measure the filament length generated by a high-peak power femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Appl Phys B 76, 231–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Franco, M.

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Nidermeier, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, Y. B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1399–1402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, R. Lange, J. F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Prade, G. Bonnaud, G. Riazuelo, A. Mysyrowicz, “Numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in gases,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6, 383–396 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Frey, S.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujii, T.

Gaeta, A. L.

J. K. Ranka, R. W. Schirmer, A. L. Gaeta, “Obsevation of pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3783–3786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gallimberti, I.

D. Comtois, H. Pépin, F. Vidal, F. A. M. Rizk, C.-Y. Chien, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, F. Martin, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, Ph. Lalande, I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding of an upward positive leader from a ground rod with an ultrashort laser pulse. I. Experimental results,” and “II. Modeling,”IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 31, 377–386, 387–395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Golubtsov, I. S.

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, V. P. Kandidov, “Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol),” Opt. Commun. 225, 195–211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B 77, 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gustafson, T. K.

C. H. Lin, J. P. Heritage, T. K. Gustafson, R. Y. Chiao, J. P. McTague, “Birefringence arising from the reorientation of the polarization anisotropy of molecule in collisionless gas,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 813–829 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Heritage, J. P.

C. H. Lin, J. P. Heritage, T. K. Gustafson, R. Y. Chiao, J. P. McTague, “Birefringence arising from the reorientation of the polarization anisotropy of molecule in collisionless gas,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 813–829 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hosseini, S. A.

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ilkov, F. A.

Iwasakil, A.

A. Iwasakil, N. Aközbek, B. Ferland, Q. Luo, G. Roy, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “A LIDAR technique to measure the filament length generated by a high-peak power femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Appl Phys B 76, 231–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Z.

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beam resulting from their propagation over long distance in air,” Phys. Plasma 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Johnston, T. W.

D. Comtois, H. Pépin, F. Vidal, F. A. M. Rizk, C.-Y. Chien, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, F. Martin, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, Ph. Lalande, I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding of an upward positive leader from a ground rod with an ultrashort laser pulse. I. Experimental results,” and “II. Modeling,”IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 31, 377–386, 387–395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beam resulting from their propagation over long distance in air,” Phys. Plasma 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kalkner, W.

Kandidov, V. P.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B 77, 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, V. P. Kandidov, “Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol),” Opt. Commun. 225, 195–211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, A. Brodeur, S. Petit, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation during the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in optical media (white light laser),” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 8, 121–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, C.-Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 304–306 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kasparian, J.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. AP 20, 183–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, G. Ange, R. Volk, S. Niedermeier, J. P. Wolf, J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, “Backward supercontinuum emission from a filament generated by ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 26, 533–535 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Nidermeier, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, Y. B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1399–1402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kieffer, J.-C.

D. Comtois, H. Pépin, F. Vidal, F. A. M. Rizk, C.-Y. Chien, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, F. Martin, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, Ph. Lalande, I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding of an upward positive leader from a ground rod with an ultrashort laser pulse. I. Experimental results,” and “II. Modeling,”IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 31, 377–386, 387–395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beam resulting from their propagation over long distance in air,” Phys. Plasma 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Klingbeil, L.

Korn, G.

Kosareva, O.

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, V. P. Kandidov, “Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol),” Opt. Commun. 225, 195–211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kosareva, O. G.

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B 77, 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chin, A. Brodeur, S. Petit, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation during the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in optical media (white light laser),” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 8, 121–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Brodeur, C.-Y. Chien, F. A. Ilkov, S. L. Chin, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, “Moving focus in the propagation of ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 22, 304–306 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

La Fontaine, B.

D. Comtois, H. Pépin, F. Vidal, F. A. M. Rizk, C.-Y. Chien, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, F. Martin, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, Ph. Lalande, I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding of an upward positive leader from a ground rod with an ultrashort laser pulse. I. Experimental results,” and “II. Modeling,”IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 31, 377–386, 387–395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beam resulting from their propagation over long distance in air,” Phys. Plasma 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lalande, Ph.

D. Comtois, H. Pépin, F. Vidal, F. A. M. Rizk, C.-Y. Chien, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, F. Martin, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, Ph. Lalande, I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding of an upward positive leader from a ground rod with an ultrashort laser pulse. I. Experimental results,” and “II. Modeling,”IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 31, 377–386, 387–395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lamouroux, B.

A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, R. Lange, J. F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Prade, G. Bonnaud, G. Riazuelo, A. Mysyrowicz, “Numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in gases,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6, 383–396 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lange, R.

A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, R. Lange, J. F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Prade, G. Bonnaud, G. Riazuelo, A. Mysyrowicz, “Numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in gases,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6, 383–396 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

C. H. Lin, J. P. Heritage, T. K. Gustafson, R. Y. Chiao, J. P. McTague, “Birefringence arising from the reorientation of the polarization anisotropy of molecule in collisionless gas,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 813–829 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Liu, W.

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, V. P. Kandidov, “Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol),” Opt. Commun. 225, 195–211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B 77, 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Luo, Q.

A. Iwasakil, N. Aközbek, B. Ferland, Q. Luo, G. Roy, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “A LIDAR technique to measure the filament length generated by a high-peak power femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Appl Phys B 76, 231–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Marburger, J. H.

J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35–110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Martin, F.

D. Comtois, H. Pépin, F. Vidal, F. A. M. Rizk, C.-Y. Chien, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, F. Martin, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, Ph. Lalande, I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding of an upward positive leader from a ground rod with an ultrashort laser pulse. I. Experimental results,” and “II. Modeling,”IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 31, 377–386, 387–395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

McTague, J. P.

C. H. Lin, J. P. Heritage, T. K. Gustafson, R. Y. Chiao, J. P. McTague, “Birefringence arising from the reorientation of the polarization anisotropy of molecule in collisionless gas,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 813–829 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Measures, R. M.

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, New York, 1992).

Méjean, G.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mercure, H. P.

D. Comtois, H. Pépin, F. Vidal, F. A. M. Rizk, C.-Y. Chien, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, F. Martin, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, Ph. Lalande, I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding of an upward positive leader from a ground rod with an ultrashort laser pulse. I. Experimental results,” and “II. Modeling,”IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 31, 377–386, 387–395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beam resulting from their propagation over long distance in air,” Phys. Plasma 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mondelain, D.

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. AP 20, 183–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, G. Ange, R. Volk, S. Niedermeier, J. P. Wolf, J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, “Backward supercontinuum emission from a filament generated by ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 26, 533–535 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Nidermeier, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, Y. B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1399–1402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

Mysyrowicz, A.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. AP 20, 183–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Nidermeier, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, Y. B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1399–1402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, R. Lange, J. F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Prade, G. Bonnaud, G. Riazuelo, A. Mysyrowicz, “Numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in gases,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6, 383–396 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nidermeier, S.

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Nidermeier, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, Y. B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1399–1402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Niedermeier, S.

Pépin, H.

D. Comtois, H. Pépin, F. Vidal, F. A. M. Rizk, C.-Y. Chien, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, F. Martin, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, Ph. Lalande, I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding of an upward positive leader from a ground rod with an ultrashort laser pulse. I. Experimental results,” and “II. Modeling,”IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 31, 377–386, 387–395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beam resulting from their propagation over long distance in air,” Phys. Plasma 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Petit, S.

S. L. Chin, A. Brodeur, S. Petit, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation during the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in optical media (white light laser),” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 8, 121–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, “Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 171, 285–290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Potvin, C.

D. Comtois, H. Pépin, F. Vidal, F. A. M. Rizk, C.-Y. Chien, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, F. Martin, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, Ph. Lalande, I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding of an upward positive leader from a ground rod with an ultrashort laser pulse. I. Experimental results,” and “II. Modeling,”IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 31, 377–386, 387–395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Prade, B.

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Nidermeier, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, Y. B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1399–1402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, R. Lange, J. F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Prade, G. Bonnaud, G. Riazuelo, A. Mysyrowicz, “Numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in gases,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6, 383–396 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

J. K. Ranka, R. W. Schirmer, A. L. Gaeta, “Obsevation of pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3783–3786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rethmeier, K.

Riazuelo, G.

A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, R. Lange, J. F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Prade, G. Bonnaud, G. Riazuelo, A. Mysyrowicz, “Numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in gases,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6, 383–396 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ripoche, J. F.

A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, R. Lange, J. F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Prade, G. Bonnaud, G. Riazuelo, A. Mysyrowicz, “Numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in gases,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6, 383–396 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rizk, F. A. M.

D. Comtois, H. Pépin, F. Vidal, F. A. M. Rizk, C.-Y. Chien, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, F. Martin, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, Ph. Lalande, I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding of an upward positive leader from a ground rod with an ultrashort laser pulse. I. Experimental results,” and “II. Modeling,”IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 31, 377–386, 387–395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rodriguez, M.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. AP 20, 183–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Nidermeier, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, Y. B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1399–1402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Roy, G.

A. Iwasakil, N. Aközbek, B. Ferland, Q. Luo, G. Roy, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “A LIDAR technique to measure the filament length generated by a high-peak power femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Appl Phys B 76, 231–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, E.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. AP 20, 183–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, G. Ange, R. Volk, S. Niedermeier, J. P. Wolf, J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, “Backward supercontinuum emission from a filament generated by ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 26, 533–535 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Nidermeier, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, Y. B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1399–1402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scalora, M.

N. Akozbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “White light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 191, 353–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schirmer, R. W.

J. K. Ranka, R. W. Schirmer, A. L. Gaeta, “Obsevation of pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3783–3786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, Y. R.

Squier, J.

Talebpour, A.

N. Akozbek, C. M. Boweden, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in air: variational analysis,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 4540–4549 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, “Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 171, 285–290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tzortzakis, S.

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Nidermeier, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, Y. B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1399–1402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Vidal, F.

D. Comtois, H. Pépin, F. Vidal, F. A. M. Rizk, C.-Y. Chien, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, F. Martin, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, Ph. Lalande, I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding of an upward positive leader from a ground rod with an ultrashort laser pulse. I. Experimental results,” and “II. Modeling,”IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 31, 377–386, 387–395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beam resulting from their propagation over long distance in air,” Phys. Plasma 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Volk, R.

Wille, H.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. AP 20, 183–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Nidermeier, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, Y. B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1399–1402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J. P.

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, G. Ange, R. Volk, S. Niedermeier, J. P. Wolf, J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, “Backward supercontinuum emission from a filament generated by ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 26, 533–535 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Nidermeier, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, Y. B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1399–1402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, J.-P.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. AP 20, 183–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wöste, L.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. AP 20, 183–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Nidermeier, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, Y. B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1399–1402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

Yu, J.

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Rodriguez, R. Sauerbrey, H. Wille, L. Wöste, T. Fujii, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, L. Klingbeil, K. Rethmeier, W. Kalkner, J. Kasparian, E. Salmon, J. Yu, J.-P. Wolf, “Triggering and guiding megavolt discharges by use of laser-induced ionized filaments,” Opt. Lett. 27, 772–774 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. AP 20, 183–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Yu, D. Mondelain, G. Ange, R. Volk, S. Niedermeier, J. P. Wolf, J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, “Backward supercontinuum emission from a filament generated by ultrashort laser pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 26, 533–535 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kasparian, R. Sauerbrey, D. Mondelain, S. Nidermeier, J. Yu, J. P. Wolf, Y. B. André, M. Franco, B. Prade, S. Tzortzakis, A. Mysyrowicz, M. Rodriguez, H. Wille, L. Wöste, “Infrared extension of the supercontinuum generated by femtosecond terawatt laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere,” Opt. Lett. 25, 1399–1402 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl Phys B (1)

A. Iwasakil, N. Aközbek, B. Ferland, Q. Luo, G. Roy, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “A LIDAR technique to measure the filament length generated by a high-peak power femtosecond laser pulse in air,” Appl Phys B 76, 231–236 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

V. P. Kandidov, O. G. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, W. Liu, A. Becker, N. Akozbek, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “Self-transformation of a powerful femtosecond laser pulse into a white-light laser pulse in bulk optical media (or supercontinuum generation),” Appl. Phys. B 77, 149–165 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Hosseini, Q. Luo, B. Ferland, W. Liu, N. Aközbek, G. Roy, S. L. Chin, “Effective length of filaments measurement using backscattered fluorescence from nitrogen molecules,” Appl. Phys. B 77, 697–702 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. AP (1)

H. Wille, M. Rodriguez, J. Kasparian, D. Mondelain, J. Yu, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “Teramobile: a mobile femtosecond-terawatt laser and detection system,” Eur. Phys. J. AP 20, 183–190 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

A. Chiron, B. Lamouroux, R. Lange, J. F. Ripoche, M. Franco, B. Prade, G. Bonnaud, G. Riazuelo, A. Mysyrowicz, “Numerical simulations of the nonlinear propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in gases,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6, 383–396 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (1)

D. Comtois, H. Pépin, F. Vidal, F. A. M. Rizk, C.-Y. Chien, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, B. La Fontaine, F. Martin, C. Potvin, P. Couture, H. P. Mercure, A. Bondiou-Clergerie, Ph. Lalande, I. Gallimberti, “Triggering and guiding of an upward positive leader from a ground rod with an ultrashort laser pulse. I. Experimental results,” and “II. Modeling,”IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 31, 377–386, 387–395 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

S. L. Chin, A. Brodeur, S. Petit, O. G. Kosareva, V. P. Kandidov, “Filamentation and supercontinuum generation during the propagation of powerful ultrashort laser pulses in optical media (white light laser),” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 8, 121–146 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

N. Akozbek, M. Scalora, C. M. Bowden, S. L. Chin, “White light continuum generation and filamentation during the propagation of ultra-short laser pulses in air,” Opt. Commun. 191, 353–362 (2001).
[CrossRef]

W. Liu, S. L. Chin, O. Kosareva, I. S. Golubtsov, V. P. Kandidov, “Multiple refocusing of a femtosecond laser pulse in a dispersive liquid (methanol),” Opt. Commun. 225, 195–211 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Talebpour, S. Petit, S. L. Chin, “Re-focusing during the propagation of a focused femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser pulse in air,” Opt. Commun. 171, 285–290 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Plasma (1)

B. La Fontaine, F. Vidal, Z. Jiang, C. Y. Chien, D. Comtois, A. Desparois, T. W. Johnston, J.-C. Kieffer, H. Pépin, H. P. Mercure, “Filamentation of ultrashort pulse laser beam resulting from their propagation over long distance in air,” Phys. Plasma 6, 1615–1621 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. H. Lin, J. P. Heritage, T. K. Gustafson, R. Y. Chiao, J. P. McTague, “Birefringence arising from the reorientation of the polarization anisotropy of molecule in collisionless gas,” Phys. Rev. A 13, 813–829 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

N. Akozbek, C. M. Boweden, A. Talebpour, S. L. Chin, “Femtosecond pulse propagation in air: variational analysis,” Phys. Rev. E 61, 4540–4549 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. K. Ranka, R. W. Schirmer, A. L. Gaeta, “Obsevation of pulse splitting in nonlinear dispersive media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3783–3786 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. H. Marburger, “Self-focusing: theory,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 4, 35–110 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. Kasparian, M. Rodriguez, G. Méjean, J. Yu, E. Salmon, H. Wille, R. Bourayou, S. Frey, Y.-B. André, A. Mysyrowicz, R. Sauerbrey, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, “White-light filaments for atmospheric analysis,” Science 301, 61–64 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

R. M. Measures, Laser Remote Sensing (Wiley, New York, 1992).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Lidar return signals for 51-mJ, 200-ps uncompressed pulses: (a) signal from the PMT with the baseline removed; (b) signal presented in (a) corrected with the detection range (multiplied by R2).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Lidar return signals for 51-mJ, 45-fs compressed pulses: (a) signal from the PMT with the baseline removed; (b) signal presented in (a) corrected with the detection range (multiplied by R2).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Range-corrected lidar signal for 51-mJ, 45-fs compressed pulses presented in a logarithmic vertical scale, with the turbulence contribution subtracted. We show also in the figure the fits with exponentially decreasing functions: A exp[−α(RDS)]. We fix DS = 100 m and find A = 1.3 and three values of α = 0.0065, 0.0077, and 0.0089 m−1, respectively, corresponding to the minimal, the mean, and the maximal values of the extra-attenuation coefficient: α = (0.0077 ± 0.0012)m−1.

Equations (6)

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E Lin ( λ , R ) = A 0 R 2 β ( λ , R ) ξ ( R ) E i exp { - 0 R [ κ 1 ( λ , R ) + κ 2 ( λ , R ) ] d R } ,
E Lin ( λ , R ) = A 0 R 2 β ( λ ) E i exp [ - 2 κ ¯ ( λ ) R ] .
κ ¯ ( λ ) = - 1 2 d ln [ E Lin ( λ , R ) × R 2 ] d R .
E NLin ( λ , r ) = A 0 R 2 β ( λ , R ) ξ ( R ) E i exp { - D S R [ κ 1 ( λ , R ) ] + κ e ( λ , R ) + κ 2 ( λ , R ) ] d R } .
E NLin ( λ , R ) = A 0 R 2 β ¯ ( λ ) E i exp { - [ 2 κ ¯ ( λ ) + κ ¯ e ( λ ) ] × ( R - D S ) } .
κ ¯ e ( λ ) = - d ln [ E NLin ( λ , R ) × R 2 ] d R - 2 κ ¯ ( λ ) .

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