Abstract

We propose a scalable high-resolution autostereoscopic display that uses integral videography (IV) and a seamless multiprojection system. IV is an animated extension of integral photography (IP). Although IP and IV are ideal ways to display three-dimensional images, their spatial viewing resolution needs improvement; the pixel pitch of the display and the lens pitch are the main factors affecting IV image quality. We improved the quality by increasing the number and density of the pixels. Using multiple projectors, we create a scalable high-resolution image and project it onto a small screen using long-focal-length projection optics. To generate seamless IV images, we developed an image calibration method for geometric correction and color modulation. We also fabricated a lens array especially for the display device. Experiments were conducted with nine XGA projectors and nine PCs for parallel image rendering and displaying. A total of 2868 × 2150 pixels were displayed on a 241 mm × 181 mm (302.4 dots/in.) rear-projection screen. The lens pitch was 1.016 mm, corresponding to 12 pixels of the projected image. Measurement of the geometric accuracy of the reproduced IV images demonstrated that the spatial resolution of the display system matched that of the theoretical analysis.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

M. Bolas, I. McDowall, D. Corr, “New research and explorations into multiuser immersive display systems,” IEEE Comput. Graphics Applic. 24, 18–21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Liao, N. Hata, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, “Surgical navigation by autostereoscopic image overlay of integral videography,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 8, 114–121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

H. Liao, N. Hata, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, “An autostereoscopic display system for image-guided surgery using high-quality integral videography with high performance computing,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2879, 247–255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-S. Jang, B. Javidi, “Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging with nonstationary micro-optics,” Opt. Lett. 28, 324–326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, B. Javidi, B. Lee, “Enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging system by use of double display devices,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4186–4195 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Jung, J.-H. Park, H. Choi, B. Lee, “Wide-viewing integral three-dimensional imaging by use of orthogonal polarization switching,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2513–2520 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, B. Lee, “Study for wide-viewing integral photography using an aspheric Fresnel-lens array,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2572–2576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

H. Liao, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, E. Kobayashi, I. Sakuma, N. Yahagi, T. Dohi, “Intra-operative real-time 3-D information display system based on integral videography,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2208, 392–400 (2001).
[CrossRef]

L. Erdmann, K. J. Gabriel, “High-resolution digital integral photography by use of a scanning microlens array,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5592–5599 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakajima, K. Nakamura, K. Masamune, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, “Three-dimensional medical imaging display with computer-generated integral photography,” Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 25, 235–241 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Park, S.-W. Min, S. Jung, B. Lee, “Analysis of viewing parameters for two display methods based on integral photography,” Appl. Opt. 40, 5217–5232 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. W. Clark, P. Cook, S. Damianakis, G. Essl, A. Finkelstein, T. Funkhouser, T. Housel, A. Klein, Z. Liu, E. Praun, R. Samanta, B. Shedd, J. P. Singh, G. Tzanetakis, J. Zheng, “Building and using a scalable display wall system,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 20, 29–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

Y. Endo, M. Ono, T. Yamada, H. Kawamura, K. Kobara, T. Kawamura, “A study of antireflective and antistatic coating with ultrafine particles,” Adv. Powder Technol. 7, 131–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Y. Igarishi, H. Murata, M. Ueda, “3D display system using a computer generated integral photograph,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1683–1684 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

1968 (1)

1908 (1)

M. G. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversibles donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. (Paris) 7, 821–825 (1908).

Abaravichyus, A.

G. Bresnahan, R. Gasser, A. Abaravichyus, E. Brisson, M. Walterman, “Building a large-scale high-resolution tiled rear-projected passive stereo display system based on commodity components,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. J. Woods, M. T. Bolas, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE5006, 19–30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Arai, J.

Bolas, M.

M. Bolas, I. McDowall, D. Corr, “New research and explorations into multiuser immersive display systems,” IEEE Comput. Graphics Applic. 24, 18–21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bresnahan, G.

G. Bresnahan, R. Gasser, A. Abaravichyus, E. Brisson, M. Walterman, “Building a large-scale high-resolution tiled rear-projected passive stereo display system based on commodity components,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. J. Woods, M. T. Bolas, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE5006, 19–30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brisson, E.

G. Bresnahan, R. Gasser, A. Abaravichyus, E. Brisson, M. Walterman, “Building a large-scale high-resolution tiled rear-projected passive stereo display system based on commodity components,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. J. Woods, M. T. Bolas, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE5006, 19–30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Burckhardt, C. B.

Chen, H.

K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. W. Clark, P. Cook, S. Damianakis, G. Essl, A. Finkelstein, T. Funkhouser, T. Housel, A. Klein, Z. Liu, E. Praun, R. Samanta, B. Shedd, J. P. Singh, G. Tzanetakis, J. Zheng, “Building and using a scalable display wall system,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 20, 29–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. W. Clark, P. Cook, S. Damianakis, G. Essl, A. Finkelstein, T. Funkhouser, T. Housel, A. Klein, Z. Liu, E. Praun, R. Samanta, B. Shedd, J. P. Singh, G. Tzanetakis, J. Zheng, “Building and using a scalable display wall system,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 20, 29–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H.

Clark, D. W.

K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. W. Clark, P. Cook, S. Damianakis, G. Essl, A. Finkelstein, T. Funkhouser, T. Housel, A. Klein, Z. Liu, E. Praun, R. Samanta, B. Shedd, J. P. Singh, G. Tzanetakis, J. Zheng, “Building and using a scalable display wall system,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 20, 29–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cook, P.

K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. W. Clark, P. Cook, S. Damianakis, G. Essl, A. Finkelstein, T. Funkhouser, T. Housel, A. Klein, Z. Liu, E. Praun, R. Samanta, B. Shedd, J. P. Singh, G. Tzanetakis, J. Zheng, “Building and using a scalable display wall system,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 20, 29–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Corr, D.

M. Bolas, I. McDowall, D. Corr, “New research and explorations into multiuser immersive display systems,” IEEE Comput. Graphics Applic. 24, 18–21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cruz-Neira, C.

C. Cruz-Neira, D. J. Sandin, T. A. DeFanti, “Surround-screen projection-based virtual reality: the design and implementation of the CAVE,” in Proceedings of the AMC SIGGRAPH 20th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM Press, New York, 1993), pp. 135–142.
[CrossRef]

Damianakis, S.

K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. W. Clark, P. Cook, S. Damianakis, G. Essl, A. Finkelstein, T. Funkhouser, T. Housel, A. Klein, Z. Liu, E. Praun, R. Samanta, B. Shedd, J. P. Singh, G. Tzanetakis, J. Zheng, “Building and using a scalable display wall system,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 20, 29–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

DeFanti, T. A.

C. Cruz-Neira, D. J. Sandin, T. A. DeFanti, “Surround-screen projection-based virtual reality: the design and implementation of the CAVE,” in Proceedings of the AMC SIGGRAPH 20th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM Press, New York, 1993), pp. 135–142.
[CrossRef]

Dohi, T.

H. Liao, N. Hata, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, “Surgical navigation by autostereoscopic image overlay of integral videography,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 8, 114–121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liao, N. Hata, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, “An autostereoscopic display system for image-guided surgery using high-quality integral videography with high performance computing,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2879, 247–255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakajima, K. Nakamura, K. Masamune, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, “Three-dimensional medical imaging display with computer-generated integral photography,” Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 25, 235–241 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liao, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, E. Kobayashi, I. Sakuma, N. Yahagi, T. Dohi, “Intra-operative real-time 3-D information display system based on integral videography,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2208, 392–400 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, T. Koike, Y. Momoi, T. Minakawa, M. Yamasaki, F. Tajima, H. Takeda, “High-resolution integral videography autostereoscopic display using multi-projector,” in The Proceedings of the Ninth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, Hiroshima, Japan, 2002), pp. 1229–1232.

Endo, Y.

Y. Endo, M. Ono, T. Yamada, H. Kawamura, K. Kobara, T. Kawamura, “A study of antireflective and antistatic coating with ultrafine particles,” Adv. Powder Technol. 7, 131–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Erdmann, L.

Essl, G.

K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. W. Clark, P. Cook, S. Damianakis, G. Essl, A. Finkelstein, T. Funkhouser, T. Housel, A. Klein, Z. Liu, E. Praun, R. Samanta, B. Shedd, J. P. Singh, G. Tzanetakis, J. Zheng, “Building and using a scalable display wall system,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 20, 29–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Finkelstein, A.

K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. W. Clark, P. Cook, S. Damianakis, G. Essl, A. Finkelstein, T. Funkhouser, T. Housel, A. Klein, Z. Liu, E. Praun, R. Samanta, B. Shedd, J. P. Singh, G. Tzanetakis, J. Zheng, “Building and using a scalable display wall system,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 20, 29–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Funkhouser, T.

K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. W. Clark, P. Cook, S. Damianakis, G. Essl, A. Finkelstein, T. Funkhouser, T. Housel, A. Klein, Z. Liu, E. Praun, R. Samanta, B. Shedd, J. P. Singh, G. Tzanetakis, J. Zheng, “Building and using a scalable display wall system,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 20, 29–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Samanta, J. Zheng, T. Funkhouser, K. Li, J. P. Singh, “Load balancing for multi-projector rendering systems,” in Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Workshop on Graphics Hardware (ACM Press, New York, 1999), pp. 107–116.
[CrossRef]

Gabriel, K. J.

Gasser, R.

G. Bresnahan, R. Gasser, A. Abaravichyus, E. Brisson, M. Walterman, “Building a large-scale high-resolution tiled rear-projected passive stereo display system based on commodity components,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. J. Woods, M. T. Bolas, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE5006, 19–30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, J. J.

J. J. Gibson, The Perception of the Visual World (Houghton Mifflin, New York, 1950).

Hanrahan, P.

G. Humphreys, P. Hanrahan, “A distributed graphics system for large tiled displays,” in Proceedings IEEE Visualization 1999 (ACM Press, New York, 1999), pp. 215–223.

Hata, N.

H. Liao, N. Hata, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, “Surgical navigation by autostereoscopic image overlay of integral videography,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 8, 114–121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liao, N. Hata, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, “An autostereoscopic display system for image-guided surgery using high-quality integral videography with high performance computing,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2879, 247–255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, T. Koike, Y. Momoi, T. Minakawa, M. Yamasaki, F. Tajima, H. Takeda, “High-resolution integral videography autostereoscopic display using multi-projector,” in The Proceedings of the Ninth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, Hiroshima, Japan, 2002), pp. 1229–1232.

Hoshino, H.

Housel, T.

K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. W. Clark, P. Cook, S. Damianakis, G. Essl, A. Finkelstein, T. Funkhouser, T. Housel, A. Klein, Z. Liu, E. Praun, R. Samanta, B. Shedd, J. P. Singh, G. Tzanetakis, J. Zheng, “Building and using a scalable display wall system,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 20, 29–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Humphreys, G.

G. Humphreys, P. Hanrahan, “A distributed graphics system for large tiled displays,” in Proceedings IEEE Visualization 1999 (ACM Press, New York, 1999), pp. 215–223.

Igarishi, Y.

Y. Igarishi, H. Murata, M. Ueda, “3D display system using a computer generated integral photograph,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1683–1684 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Isono, H.

Iwahara, M.

H. Liao, N. Hata, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, “Surgical navigation by autostereoscopic image overlay of integral videography,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 8, 114–121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liao, N. Hata, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, “An autostereoscopic display system for image-guided surgery using high-quality integral videography with high performance computing,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2879, 247–255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Liao, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, E. Kobayashi, I. Sakuma, N. Yahagi, T. Dohi, “Intra-operative real-time 3-D information display system based on integral videography,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2208, 392–400 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, T. Koike, Y. Momoi, T. Minakawa, M. Yamasaki, F. Tajima, H. Takeda, “High-resolution integral videography autostereoscopic display using multi-projector,” in The Proceedings of the Ninth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, Hiroshima, Japan, 2002), pp. 1229–1232.

Jang, J.-S.

J.-S. Jang, B. Javidi, “Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging with nonstationary micro-optics,” Opt. Lett. 28, 324–326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

J.-S. Jang, B. Javidi, “Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging with nonstationary micro-optics,” Opt. Lett. 28, 324–326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S.-W. Min, B. Javidi, B. Lee, “Enhanced three-dimensional integral imaging system by use of double display devices,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4186–4195 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, S.

Kawamura, H.

Y. Endo, M. Ono, T. Yamada, H. Kawamura, K. Kobara, T. Kawamura, “A study of antireflective and antistatic coating with ultrafine particles,” Adv. Powder Technol. 7, 131–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, T.

Y. Endo, M. Ono, T. Yamada, H. Kawamura, K. Kobara, T. Kawamura, “A study of antireflective and antistatic coating with ultrafine particles,” Adv. Powder Technol. 7, 131–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Klein, A.

K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. W. Clark, P. Cook, S. Damianakis, G. Essl, A. Finkelstein, T. Funkhouser, T. Housel, A. Klein, Z. Liu, E. Praun, R. Samanta, B. Shedd, J. P. Singh, G. Tzanetakis, J. Zheng, “Building and using a scalable display wall system,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 20, 29–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kobara, K.

Y. Endo, M. Ono, T. Yamada, H. Kawamura, K. Kobara, T. Kawamura, “A study of antireflective and antistatic coating with ultrafine particles,” Adv. Powder Technol. 7, 131–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, E.

H. Liao, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, E. Kobayashi, I. Sakuma, N. Yahagi, T. Dohi, “Intra-operative real-time 3-D information display system based on integral videography,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2208, 392–400 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koike, T.

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, T. Koike, Y. Momoi, T. Minakawa, M. Yamasaki, F. Tajima, H. Takeda, “High-resolution integral videography autostereoscopic display using multi-projector,” in The Proceedings of the Ninth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, Hiroshima, Japan, 2002), pp. 1229–1232.

Lee, B.

Li, K.

K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. W. Clark, P. Cook, S. Damianakis, G. Essl, A. Finkelstein, T. Funkhouser, T. Housel, A. Klein, Z. Liu, E. Praun, R. Samanta, B. Shedd, J. P. Singh, G. Tzanetakis, J. Zheng, “Building and using a scalable display wall system,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 20, 29–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Samanta, J. Zheng, T. Funkhouser, K. Li, J. P. Singh, “Load balancing for multi-projector rendering systems,” in Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Workshop on Graphics Hardware (ACM Press, New York, 1999), pp. 107–116.
[CrossRef]

Liao, H.

H. Liao, N. Hata, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, “Surgical navigation by autostereoscopic image overlay of integral videography,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 8, 114–121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liao, N. Hata, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, “An autostereoscopic display system for image-guided surgery using high-quality integral videography with high performance computing,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2879, 247–255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Liao, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, E. Kobayashi, I. Sakuma, N. Yahagi, T. Dohi, “Intra-operative real-time 3-D information display system based on integral videography,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2208, 392–400 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, T. Koike, Y. Momoi, T. Minakawa, M. Yamasaki, F. Tajima, H. Takeda, “High-resolution integral videography autostereoscopic display using multi-projector,” in The Proceedings of the Ninth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, Hiroshima, Japan, 2002), pp. 1229–1232.

Lippmann, M. G.

M. G. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversibles donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. (Paris) 7, 821–825 (1908).

Liu, Z.

K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. W. Clark, P. Cook, S. Damianakis, G. Essl, A. Finkelstein, T. Funkhouser, T. Housel, A. Klein, Z. Liu, E. Praun, R. Samanta, B. Shedd, J. P. Singh, G. Tzanetakis, J. Zheng, “Building and using a scalable display wall system,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 20, 29–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Masamune, K.

S. Nakajima, K. Nakamura, K. Masamune, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, “Three-dimensional medical imaging display with computer-generated integral photography,” Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 25, 235–241 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDowall, I.

M. Bolas, I. McDowall, D. Corr, “New research and explorations into multiuser immersive display systems,” IEEE Comput. Graphics Applic. 24, 18–21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Min, S.-W.

Minakawa, T.

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, T. Koike, Y. Momoi, T. Minakawa, M. Yamasaki, F. Tajima, H. Takeda, “High-resolution integral videography autostereoscopic display using multi-projector,” in The Proceedings of the Ninth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, Hiroshima, Japan, 2002), pp. 1229–1232.

Momoi, Y.

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, T. Koike, Y. Momoi, T. Minakawa, M. Yamasaki, F. Tajima, H. Takeda, “High-resolution integral videography autostereoscopic display using multi-projector,” in The Proceedings of the Ninth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, Hiroshima, Japan, 2002), pp. 1229–1232.

Murata, H.

Y. Igarishi, H. Murata, M. Ueda, “3D display system using a computer generated integral photograph,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1683–1684 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, S.

H. Liao, N. Hata, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, “Surgical navigation by autostereoscopic image overlay of integral videography,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 8, 114–121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Nakajima, K. Nakamura, K. Masamune, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, “Three-dimensional medical imaging display with computer-generated integral photography,” Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 25, 235–241 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liao, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, E. Kobayashi, I. Sakuma, N. Yahagi, T. Dohi, “Intra-operative real-time 3-D information display system based on integral videography,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2208, 392–400 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

S. Nakajima, K. Nakamura, K. Masamune, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, “Three-dimensional medical imaging display with computer-generated integral photography,” Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 25, 235–241 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okano, F.

Okoshi, T.

Ono, M.

Y. Endo, M. Ono, T. Yamada, H. Kawamura, K. Kobara, T. Kawamura, “A study of antireflective and antistatic coating with ultrafine particles,” Adv. Powder Technol. 7, 131–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Park, J.-H.

Praun, E.

K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. W. Clark, P. Cook, S. Damianakis, G. Essl, A. Finkelstein, T. Funkhouser, T. Housel, A. Klein, Z. Liu, E. Praun, R. Samanta, B. Shedd, J. P. Singh, G. Tzanetakis, J. Zheng, “Building and using a scalable display wall system,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 20, 29–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sakuma, I.

H. Liao, N. Hata, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, “Surgical navigation by autostereoscopic image overlay of integral videography,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 8, 114–121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liao, N. Hata, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, “An autostereoscopic display system for image-guided surgery using high-quality integral videography with high performance computing,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2879, 247–255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakajima, K. Nakamura, K. Masamune, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, “Three-dimensional medical imaging display with computer-generated integral photography,” Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 25, 235–241 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Liao, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, E. Kobayashi, I. Sakuma, N. Yahagi, T. Dohi, “Intra-operative real-time 3-D information display system based on integral videography,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2208, 392–400 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, T. Koike, Y. Momoi, T. Minakawa, M. Yamasaki, F. Tajima, H. Takeda, “High-resolution integral videography autostereoscopic display using multi-projector,” in The Proceedings of the Ninth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, Hiroshima, Japan, 2002), pp. 1229–1232.

Samanta, R.

K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. W. Clark, P. Cook, S. Damianakis, G. Essl, A. Finkelstein, T. Funkhouser, T. Housel, A. Klein, Z. Liu, E. Praun, R. Samanta, B. Shedd, J. P. Singh, G. Tzanetakis, J. Zheng, “Building and using a scalable display wall system,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 20, 29–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Samanta, J. Zheng, T. Funkhouser, K. Li, J. P. Singh, “Load balancing for multi-projector rendering systems,” in Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Workshop on Graphics Hardware (ACM Press, New York, 1999), pp. 107–116.
[CrossRef]

Sandin, D. J.

C. Cruz-Neira, D. J. Sandin, T. A. DeFanti, “Surround-screen projection-based virtual reality: the design and implementation of the CAVE,” in Proceedings of the AMC SIGGRAPH 20th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM Press, New York, 1993), pp. 135–142.
[CrossRef]

Shedd, B.

K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. W. Clark, P. Cook, S. Damianakis, G. Essl, A. Finkelstein, T. Funkhouser, T. Housel, A. Klein, Z. Liu, E. Praun, R. Samanta, B. Shedd, J. P. Singh, G. Tzanetakis, J. Zheng, “Building and using a scalable display wall system,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 20, 29–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Singh, J. P.

K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. W. Clark, P. Cook, S. Damianakis, G. Essl, A. Finkelstein, T. Funkhouser, T. Housel, A. Klein, Z. Liu, E. Praun, R. Samanta, B. Shedd, J. P. Singh, G. Tzanetakis, J. Zheng, “Building and using a scalable display wall system,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 20, 29–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Samanta, J. Zheng, T. Funkhouser, K. Li, J. P. Singh, “Load balancing for multi-projector rendering systems,” in Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Workshop on Graphics Hardware (ACM Press, New York, 1999), pp. 107–116.
[CrossRef]

Tajima, F.

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, T. Koike, Y. Momoi, T. Minakawa, M. Yamasaki, F. Tajima, H. Takeda, “High-resolution integral videography autostereoscopic display using multi-projector,” in The Proceedings of the Ninth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, Hiroshima, Japan, 2002), pp. 1229–1232.

Takeda, H.

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, T. Koike, Y. Momoi, T. Minakawa, M. Yamasaki, F. Tajima, H. Takeda, “High-resolution integral videography autostereoscopic display using multi-projector,” in The Proceedings of the Ninth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, Hiroshima, Japan, 2002), pp. 1229–1232.

Tzanetakis, G.

K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. W. Clark, P. Cook, S. Damianakis, G. Essl, A. Finkelstein, T. Funkhouser, T. Housel, A. Klein, Z. Liu, E. Praun, R. Samanta, B. Shedd, J. P. Singh, G. Tzanetakis, J. Zheng, “Building and using a scalable display wall system,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 20, 29–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, M.

Y. Igarishi, H. Murata, M. Ueda, “3D display system using a computer generated integral photograph,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1683–1684 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Walterman, M.

G. Bresnahan, R. Gasser, A. Abaravichyus, E. Brisson, M. Walterman, “Building a large-scale high-resolution tiled rear-projected passive stereo display system based on commodity components,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. J. Woods, M. T. Bolas, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE5006, 19–30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yahagi, N.

H. Liao, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, E. Kobayashi, I. Sakuma, N. Yahagi, T. Dohi, “Intra-operative real-time 3-D information display system based on integral videography,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2208, 392–400 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, T.

Y. Endo, M. Ono, T. Yamada, H. Kawamura, K. Kobara, T. Kawamura, “A study of antireflective and antistatic coating with ultrafine particles,” Adv. Powder Technol. 7, 131–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamasaki, M.

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, T. Koike, Y. Momoi, T. Minakawa, M. Yamasaki, F. Tajima, H. Takeda, “High-resolution integral videography autostereoscopic display using multi-projector,” in The Proceedings of the Ninth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, Hiroshima, Japan, 2002), pp. 1229–1232.

Yuyama, I.

Zheng, J.

K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. W. Clark, P. Cook, S. Damianakis, G. Essl, A. Finkelstein, T. Funkhouser, T. Housel, A. Klein, Z. Liu, E. Praun, R. Samanta, B. Shedd, J. P. Singh, G. Tzanetakis, J. Zheng, “Building and using a scalable display wall system,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 20, 29–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Samanta, J. Zheng, T. Funkhouser, K. Li, J. P. Singh, “Load balancing for multi-projector rendering systems,” in Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Workshop on Graphics Hardware (ACM Press, New York, 1999), pp. 107–116.
[CrossRef]

Adv. Powder Technol. (1)

Y. Endo, M. Ono, T. Yamada, H. Kawamura, K. Kobara, T. Kawamura, “A study of antireflective and antistatic coating with ultrafine particles,” Adv. Powder Technol. 7, 131–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. (1)

S. Nakajima, K. Nakamura, K. Masamune, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, “Three-dimensional medical imaging display with computer-generated integral photography,” Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 25, 235–241 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. (1)

K. Li, H. Chen, Y. Chen, D. W. Clark, P. Cook, S. Damianakis, G. Essl, A. Finkelstein, T. Funkhouser, T. Housel, A. Klein, Z. Liu, E. Praun, R. Samanta, B. Shedd, J. P. Singh, G. Tzanetakis, J. Zheng, “Building and using a scalable display wall system,” IEEE Comput. Graph. Appl. 20, 29–37 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Comput. Graphics Applic. (1)

M. Bolas, I. McDowall, D. Corr, “New research and explorations into multiuser immersive display systems,” IEEE Comput. Graphics Applic. 24, 18–21 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. (1)

H. Liao, N. Hata, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, “Surgical navigation by autostereoscopic image overlay of integral videography,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Technol. Biomed. 8, 114–121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Phys. (Paris) (1)

M. G. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversibles donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. (Paris) 7, 821–825 (1908).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Igarishi, H. Murata, M. Ueda, “3D display system using a computer generated integral photograph,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 17, 1683–1684 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. (2)

H. Liao, S. Nakajima, M. Iwahara, E. Kobayashi, I. Sakuma, N. Yahagi, T. Dohi, “Intra-operative real-time 3-D information display system based on integral videography,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2208, 392–400 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Liao, N. Hata, M. Iwahara, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, “An autostereoscopic display system for image-guided surgery using high-quality integral videography with high performance computing,” Lect. Notes Comput. Sci. 2879, 247–255 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S.-W. Min, S. Jung, J.-H. Park, B. Lee, “Study for wide-viewing integral photography using an aspheric Fresnel-lens array,” Opt. Eng. 41, 2572–2576 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

J.-S. Jang, B. Javidi, “Improved viewing resolution of three-dimensional integral imaging with nonstationary micro-optics,” Opt. Lett. 28, 324–326 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

J. J. Gibson, The Perception of the Visual World (Houghton Mifflin, New York, 1950).

G. Humphreys, P. Hanrahan, “A distributed graphics system for large tiled displays,” in Proceedings IEEE Visualization 1999 (ACM Press, New York, 1999), pp. 215–223.

R. Samanta, J. Zheng, T. Funkhouser, K. Li, J. P. Singh, “Load balancing for multi-projector rendering systems,” in Proceedings of the ACM SIGGRAPH/Eurographics Workshop on Graphics Hardware (ACM Press, New York, 1999), pp. 107–116.
[CrossRef]

G. Bresnahan, R. Gasser, A. Abaravichyus, E. Brisson, M. Walterman, “Building a large-scale high-resolution tiled rear-projected passive stereo display system based on commodity components,” in Stereoscopic Displays and Virtual Reality Systems X, A. J. Woods, M. T. Bolas, J. O. Merritt, S. A. Benton, eds., Proc. SPIE5006, 19–30 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-H. Park, S. Jung, H. Choi, B. Lee, “Integral imaging with multiple image planes using a uniaxial crystal plate,” Opt. Exp.11, 1862–1873 (2003), www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

S. Kishk, B. Javidi, “Improved resolution 3D object sensing and recognition using time multiplexed computational integral imaging,” Opt. Exp.11, 3528–3541 (2003), www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

C. Cruz-Neira, D. J. Sandin, T. A. DeFanti, “Surround-screen projection-based virtual reality: the design and implementation of the CAVE,” in Proceedings of the AMC SIGGRAPH 20th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques (ACM Press, New York, 1993), pp. 135–142.
[CrossRef]

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, T. Dohi, “High-quality integral videography using a multiprojector,” Opt. Exp.12, 1067–1076 (2004), www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef]

H. Liao, M. Iwahara, N. Hata, I. Sakuma, T. Dohi, T. Koike, Y. Momoi, T. Minakawa, M. Yamasaki, F. Tajima, H. Takeda, “High-resolution integral videography autostereoscopic display using multi-projector,” in The Proceedings of the Ninth International Display Workshops (Society for Information Display, Hiroshima, Japan, 2002), pp. 1229–1232.

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spatial frequency of IV.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Multiple projectors arranged in 3 × 3 configuration to create high-resolution images.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

System configuration and image calibration procedure for seamless multiprojection IV. DSP, digital signal processor.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Gray code patterns used for (a) horizontal and (b) vertical measurements of the relationships between the positions of the projected images and the lenses.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Actual and designed position relationship between the microlens and the projected pixels.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Block diagram of the digital signal processor image processing hardware.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Multiprojection IV autostereoscopic display device: (a) external appearance, (b) configuration of nine XGA projectors and corresponding mirrors, (c) screen and projected IV image, (d) projector.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Displayed image (a) before and (b) after calibration and correction.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Effect on image quality when a diffusion sheet is placed in front of the display.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Lattices projected in front of display at different depths (25 mm for the one shown). The photograph on the right shows a seamless IV image and achieved spatial geometric accuracy.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Spatial geometric accuracy of a seamless multiprojection IV image.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Measured IV image spatial resolution. The numbers are the image depths on the front side of (real IV image) and behind (virtual IV image) the lens array. The quadrilateral shows a real IV image of stripes projected from single projector.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Theoretical and measured spatial resolution of virtual and real IV images.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Theoretical and experimental angle resolution βmax versus viewer–image distance zi for a viewing distance of 800 mm, where βi max is the maximum viewing spatial frequency.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Motion parallax of IV autostereoscopic skull images taken from various directions. The numbers denote the relative position of the observer: (1) upper left, (2) upper right, (3) lower left, (4) lower right.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Main Specifications of the Seamless Multiprojection IV Display System

Tables Icon

Table 2 Relative Alignment Error of the Seamless Multiprojection IV Display System

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

β i max = α i max z i L - z i ,
β Nyq = L / 2 p .
β max = β Nyq min ( D z i L - z i ,             1 ) .
D = α i max β Nyq .
x p + n ( δ p + ξ p ) = a ( x c + n δ c ) , ( n = ± 1 , 2 , 3 , ) ,

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