Abstract

By assessing the cerebral blood volume and the hemoglobin oxygen saturation level, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) probes brain oxygenation, which reflects cerebral activity. To develop a noninvasive method monitoring the brain of a songbird, we use an original NIRS device, i.e., a white laser coupled with an ultrafast spectrotemporal detector of optical signals without wavelength scanning. We perform in vivo measurements of the absorption coefficient and the reduced scattering coefficient of the caudal nidopallium area of the head of a songbird (the zebra finch).

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

C. Vignal, N. Mathevon, S. Mottin, “Audience drives male songbird response to partner’s voice,” Nature 430, 448–451 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Y. Bluestone, M. Stewart, J. Lasker, G. S. Abdoulaev, A. H. Hielscher, “Three-dimensional optical tomographic brain imaging in small animals. 1. Hypercapnia; 2. Unilateral carotid,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1046–1073 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Taroni, G. Danesini, A. Torricelli, A. Pifferi, L. Spinelli, R. Cubeddu, “Clinical trial of time-resolved scanning optical mammography at 4 wavelengths between 683 and 975 nm,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 464–473 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Y. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. M. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Reiner, D. J. Perkel, L. L. Bruce, A. B. Butler, A. Csillag, W. Kuenzel, L. Medina, G. Paxinos, T. Shimizu, J. M. Wild, G. F. Ball, S. Durand, O. Gunturkun, D. W. Lee, C. V. Mello, A. Powers, S. A. White, G. E. Hough, L. Kubikova, T. V. Smulders, K. Wada, J. Dugas-Ford, S. Husband, K. Yamamoto, J. Yu, C. Siang, E. D. Jarvis, “Revised nomenclature for avian telencephalon and some related brainstem nuclei,” J. Comp. Neurol. 473, 377–414 (2004).

C. Vignal, A. Joël, N. Mathevon, M. Beauchaud, “Background noise does not modify song-induced genic activation in the bird brain,” Behav. Brain. Res. 153, 241–248 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

E. Okada, D. T. Delpy, “Near-infrared light propagation in an adult head model. II. Effect of superficial tissue thickness on the sensitivity of the near-infrared spectroscopy signal,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2915–2922 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Nicklin, I. A. A. Hassan, Y. A. Wickramasinghe, S. A. Spencer, “The light still shines, but not that brightly? The current status of perinatal near infrared spectroscopy,” Arch. Dis. Child. 88, 263–268 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Mottin, P. Laporte, R. Cespuglio, “Inhibition of NADH oxidation by chloramphenicol in the freely moving rat measured by picosecond time-resolved emission spectroscopy,” J. Neurochem. 84, 633–642 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ramstein, S. Mottin, “Spectroscopie résolue en temps par continuum femtoseconde. Applications en neurobiologie,” J. Phys. IV 108, 127–130 (2003).

H. Obrig, A. Villringer, “Beyond the visible—imaging the human brain with light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 1–18 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical tomography of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in rat during focal ischemia,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911–924 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

C. V. Mello, “Mapping vocal communication pathways in birds with inducible gene expression,” J. Comp. Physiol. A 188, 943–959 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Van der Linden, M. Verhoye, V. Van Meir, I. Tindemans, M. Eens, P. Aabsil, J. Balthazart, “In vivo manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging reveals connections and functional properties of the songbird vocal control system,” Neuroscience 112, 467–474 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Plesnila, C. Putz, M. Rinecker, J. Wiezorrek, L. Schleinkofer, A. E. Goetz, W. M. Kuebler, “Measurement of absolute values of hemoglobin oxygenation in the brain of small rodents by near infrared reflection spectrophotometry,” J. Neurosci. Methods 114, 107–117 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. N. Yaroslavsky, P. C. Schulze, I. V. Yaroslavsky, R. Schober, F. Ulrich, H.-J. Schwarzmaier, “Optical properties of selective native and coagulated human brain tissues in vitro in the visible and near infrared spectral range,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 2059–2073 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

R. Stripling, A. A. Kruse, D. F. Clayton, “Development of song responses in the zebra finch caudomedial neostriatum: role of genomic and electrophysiological activities,” J. Neurobiol. 48, 163–180 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

R. Drezek, A. Dunn, R. Richards-Kortum, “A pulsed finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for calculating light scattering from biological cells over broad wavelength ranges,” Opt. Express 6, 147–157 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Marler, A. J. Doupe, “Singing in the brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97, 2965–2967 (2000).

1999

1998

G. F. Ball, T. Q. Gentner, “They’re playing our song: gene expression and birdsong perception,” Neurone 21, 271–274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

R. Stripling, S. Volman, D. F. Clayton, “Response modulation in the zebra finch neostriatum: relationship to nuclear gene regulation,” J. Neurosci. 17, 3883–3893 (1997).
[PubMed]

V. V. Tuchin, “Light scattering study of tissues,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 40, 495–515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Kienle, M. S. Patterson, “Improved solutions of the steady state and the time-resolved diffusion equations for reflectance from a semi-infinite turbid medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 246–254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. J. Chew, D. S. Vicario, F. Nottebohm, “A large-capacity memory system that recognizes the calls and songs of individual birds,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 1950–1955 (1996).

1995

B. Beauvoit, S. M. Evans, T. W. Jenkins, E. E. Miller, B. Chance, “Correlation between the light scattering and the mitochondrial content of normal tissues and transplantable rodent tumors,” Anal. Biochem. 226, 167–174 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

M. Watanabe, M. Koishi, M. Fujiwara, T. Takeshita, W. Cieslik, “Development of a new fluorescence decay measurement system using two-dimensional single-photon counting,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 80, 429–432 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

1992

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531–1560 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).

1977

F. F. Jöbsis, “Noninvasive, infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198, 1264–1267 (1977).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976

T. M. Stokes, C. M. Leonard, F. Nottebohm, “The telencephalon, diencephalon, and mesencephalon of the canary, Serinus canaria, in stereotaxic coordinates,” J. Comp. Neurol. 156, 337–374 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Aabsil, P.

A. Van der Linden, M. Verhoye, V. Van Meir, I. Tindemans, M. Eens, P. Aabsil, J. Balthazart, “In vivo manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging reveals connections and functional properties of the songbird vocal control system,” Neuroscience 112, 467–474 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abdoulaev, G. S.

A. Y. Bluestone, M. Stewart, J. Lasker, G. S. Abdoulaev, A. H. Hielscher, “Three-dimensional optical tomographic brain imaging in small animals. 1. Hypercapnia; 2. Unilateral carotid,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1046–1073 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano, Supercontinuum Laser Source (Springer-Verlag, 1989).
[CrossRef]

Andersson-Engels, S.

Arridge, S.

D. T. Delpy, M. Cope, P. Van der Zee, S. Arridge, S. Wray, J. Wyatt, “Estimation of optical pathlength through tissue from direct time of flight measurement,” Phys. Med. Biol. 33, 1433–1442 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arridge, S. R.

S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “The theoretical basis for the determination of optical pathlengths in tissue: temporal and frequency analysis,” Phys. Med. Biol. 37, 1531–1560 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Avrillier, S.

S. Avrillier, E. Tinet, J. M. Tualle, J. Prat, D. Ettori, “Propagation d’impulsions ultracourtes dans les milieux diffusants. Application au diagnostic medical,” in Systèmes Femtosecondes, P. Laporte, F. Salin, S. Mottin, eds. (Publications de l’Université de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne, France, 2001), pp. 295–310.

Ball, G. F.

A. Reiner, D. J. Perkel, L. L. Bruce, A. B. Butler, A. Csillag, W. Kuenzel, L. Medina, G. Paxinos, T. Shimizu, J. M. Wild, G. F. Ball, S. Durand, O. Gunturkun, D. W. Lee, C. V. Mello, A. Powers, S. A. White, G. E. Hough, L. Kubikova, T. V. Smulders, K. Wada, J. Dugas-Ford, S. Husband, K. Yamamoto, J. Yu, C. Siang, E. D. Jarvis, “Revised nomenclature for avian telencephalon and some related brainstem nuclei,” J. Comp. Neurol. 473, 377–414 (2004).

G. F. Ball, T. Q. Gentner, “They’re playing our song: gene expression and birdsong perception,” Neurone 21, 271–274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Balthazart, J.

A. Van der Linden, M. Verhoye, V. Van Meir, I. Tindemans, M. Eens, P. Aabsil, J. Balthazart, “In vivo manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging reveals connections and functional properties of the songbird vocal control system,” Neuroscience 112, 467–474 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beauchaud, M.

C. Vignal, A. Joël, N. Mathevon, M. Beauchaud, “Background noise does not modify song-induced genic activation in the bird brain,” Behav. Brain. Res. 153, 241–248 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Beauvoit, B.

B. Beauvoit, S. M. Evans, T. W. Jenkins, E. E. Miller, B. Chance, “Correlation between the light scattering and the mitochondrial content of normal tissues and transplantable rodent tumors,” Anal. Biochem. 226, 167–174 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berg, R.

Bluestone, A. Y.

A. Y. Bluestone, M. Stewart, J. Lasker, G. S. Abdoulaev, A. H. Hielscher, “Three-dimensional optical tomographic brain imaging in small animals. 1. Hypercapnia; 2. Unilateral carotid,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 1046–1073 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boretsky, R.

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).

Brodeur, A.

Bruce, L. L.

A. Reiner, D. J. Perkel, L. L. Bruce, A. B. Butler, A. Csillag, W. Kuenzel, L. Medina, G. Paxinos, T. Shimizu, J. M. Wild, G. F. Ball, S. Durand, O. Gunturkun, D. W. Lee, C. V. Mello, A. Powers, S. A. White, G. E. Hough, L. Kubikova, T. V. Smulders, K. Wada, J. Dugas-Ford, S. Husband, K. Yamamoto, J. Yu, C. Siang, E. D. Jarvis, “Revised nomenclature for avian telencephalon and some related brainstem nuclei,” J. Comp. Neurol. 473, 377–414 (2004).

Butler, A. B.

A. Reiner, D. J. Perkel, L. L. Bruce, A. B. Butler, A. Csillag, W. Kuenzel, L. Medina, G. Paxinos, T. Shimizu, J. M. Wild, G. F. Ball, S. Durand, O. Gunturkun, D. W. Lee, C. V. Mello, A. Powers, S. A. White, G. E. Hough, L. Kubikova, T. V. Smulders, K. Wada, J. Dugas-Ford, S. Husband, K. Yamamoto, J. Yu, C. Siang, E. D. Jarvis, “Revised nomenclature for avian telencephalon and some related brainstem nuclei,” J. Comp. Neurol. 473, 377–414 (2004).

Cespuglio, R.

S. Mottin, P. Laporte, R. Cespuglio, “Inhibition of NADH oxidation by chloramphenicol in the freely moving rat measured by picosecond time-resolved emission spectroscopy,” J. Neurochem. 84, 633–642 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

B. Beauvoit, S. M. Evans, T. W. Jenkins, E. E. Miller, B. Chance, “Correlation between the light scattering and the mitochondrial content of normal tissues and transplantable rodent tumors,” Anal. Biochem. 226, 167–174 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, J. S. Leigh, H. Miyake, D. S. Smith, S. Nioka, R. Greenfeld, M. Finander, K. Kaufmann, W. Levy, M. Young, P. Cohen, H. Yoshioka, R. Boretsky, “Comparison of time-resolved and -unresolved measurements of deoxyhemoglobin in brain,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 85, 4971–4975 (1988).

Cheong, W. F.

W. F. Cheong, S. A. Prahl, A. J. Welch, “Review of the optical properties of biological tissues,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 2166–2185 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, C.

J. P. Culver, T. Durduran, D. Furuya, C. Cheung, J. H. Greenberg, G. Yodh, “Diffuse optical tomography of cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in rat during focal ischemia,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 23, 911–924 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chew, S. J.

S. J. Chew, D. S. Vicario, F. Nottebohm, “A large-capacity memory system that recognizes the calls and songs of individual birds,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 1950–1955 (1996).

Chin, S. L.

Choi, J. H.

J. H. Choi, M. Wolf, V. Y. Toronov, U. Wolf, C. Polzonetti, D. M. Hueber, L. P. Safonova, R. Gupta, A. Michalos, W. W. Mantulin, E. Gratton, “Noninvasive determination of the optical properties of adult brain: near-infrared spectroscopy approach,” J. Biomed. Opt. 9, 221–229 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cieslik, W.

M. Watanabe, M. Koishi, M. Fujiwara, T. Takeshita, W. Cieslik, “Development of a new fluorescence decay measurement system using two-dimensional single-photon counting,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 80, 429–432 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Clayton, D. F.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Stereotaxy of the zebra finch for broadband time-resolved spectroscopy. To clarify the stereotaxy, we observe the position of the head of the bird on a head previously plucked and fixed with formaldehyde. Plane 0 is the vertical plane passing through the interaural line and the external visible caudal bump corresponding to the origin point (0,0,0), also intersecting the sagittal midline. The first optical fiber (F1) guiding the effects of the white laser is placed closer to the rostrum than the second optical fiber (F2), collecting the light after propagation but on the same sagittal line. (b) Positions of the new anatomical internal references, of the caudal nidopallium and of the cerebellum according to our origin point on a sagittal section of an entire bird’s head previously fixed with formaldehyde. (c) Top view of the head of the zebra finch, showing the positions of the optic fibers according to the origin point. Axes X and Y used for the stereotaxic coordinates are shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for bird head transillumination. After chirped pulse amplification (CPA), a white-light continuum is generated and injected into the bird’s head via an optical fiber. Another optical fiber collects the propagated light and leads it toward a broadband time-resolved spectrometer, which is composed of a polychromator and a single-shot streak camera.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical streak-camera image of the IRF. The X axis of the image corresponds to a spectral window from 672.5 to 845.3 nm. The Y axis is a deflection time with a full scale of 1.921 ns. The gray level of the Z axis gives the number of single photoelectron (SPE) counts for each pixel.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal shape of the IRF from 768 to 776 nm. This is one of the 20 mean temporal point-spread functions of the spectral window. The FWHM of 25 ps gives the temporal resolution of the device.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectrum of the IRF. It was obtained by time integration of the spectrotemporal image.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Typical streak-camera image of a bird’s brain. The interfiber distance is 5 mm. The X axis of the image corresponds to a spectral window from 672.5 to 845.3 nm. The Y axis is a deflection time with a full scale of 1.921 ns. The gray level of the Z axis gives the number of SPE counts for each pixel.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Spectra of homogenized reduced scattering coefficients of a zebra finch head. Three measurements for each of the four birds in the experiment are presented as lighter curves. The darker curve gives the mean and the standard deviation calculated from these 12 measurements.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Spectra of homogenized absorption coefficients of a zebra finch head. Three measurements for each of the four birds in the experiment are presented as lighter curves. The darker curve gives the mean and the standard deviation calculated from these 12 measurements.

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