Abstract

Silicon oxynitride thin films are prepared by ion-beam sputtering, and the optical properties and surface chemical composition are studied by spectrophotometric and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. It is seen that the films sputtered by use of nitrogen alone as the sputtering species from a silicon nitride target are completely transparent (k < 0.005) and have a refractive-index dispersion from 1.85 to 1.71 over the visible and near-infrared spectral regions, and the films show distinct spectral lines that are due to silicon, Si(2s), nitrogen, N(1s), and oxygen, O(1s). Sputter deposition of argon and of argon and nitrogen produces silicon-rich silicon oxynitride films that are absorbent and have high refractive indices. These films have a direct electronic transition, with a threshold energy of 1.75 eV. Electron irradiation transforms optically transparent silicon oxynitride films into silicon-rich silicon oxynitride films that have higher refractive indices and are optically absorbing owing to the presence of nonsaturated silicon in the irradiated films. The degradation in current responsivity of silicon photodetectors, under electron irradiation, is within 3% over the wavelength region from 450 to 750 nm, which is entirely due to the degradation of optical properties of silicon oxynitride antireflection coatings.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2004

Y. Wang, X. Cheng, Z. Lin, C. Zhang, H. Xiao, S. Zou, “A study of silicon oxy-nitride film prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Mater. Lett. 58, 2261–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

H. Kato, N. Kashio, Y. Okhi, K. S. Seol, T. Noma, “Band tail photoluminescence in hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxy-nitride and silicon nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 239–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

S. Hasegawa, S. Sakamori, M. Futatsudera, T. Inokuma, Y. Kurata, “Structure of defects in silicon oxy-nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2598–2605 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

1997

1996

1993

1992

C. L. Nagendra, G. K. M. Thutupalli, “Optical constants of infrared (IR) materials in the IR region,” J. Spacecraft Technol. 2, 7–17 (1992).

1991

H. Tsubomura, H. Kobayashi, “Solar cells,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mat. Sci. 18, 261–326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Kanicki, W. L. Warren, C. H. Seager, M. S. Crowder, P. M. Lenahan, “Microscopic origin of the light-induced defects in hydrogenated nitrogen rich amorphous silicon nitride films,” J. Noncryst. Solids 137 & 138, 291–294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

J. L. Bischoff, F. Lutz, L. Kubler, D. Bolomont, “Heterogeneous Si3N4 growth during SiNx film deposition and thermal nitridation of Si(100): an x-ray photoemission spectroscopy study,” Thin Solid Films 187, 101–109 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988

K. J. Reeson, P. L. F. Hemment, C. D. Meekison, C. D. Marsh, G. R. Booker, R. J. Chater, J. A. Kilner, J. Davis, “Buried layers of silicon oxy-nitride by ion beam synthesis,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 52, 427–432 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

S. Hasegawa, T. Tsukao, P. C. Zalm, “Bonding and electronic structures of amorphous SiNx:H,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 2916–2920 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

1984

Ajith Kumar, S.

Annapurna, M. N.

Bischoff, J. L.

J. L. Bischoff, F. Lutz, L. Kubler, D. Bolomont, “Heterogeneous Si3N4 growth during SiNx film deposition and thermal nitridation of Si(100): an x-ray photoemission spectroscopy study,” Thin Solid Films 187, 101–109 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bolomont, D.

J. L. Bischoff, F. Lutz, L. Kubler, D. Bolomont, “Heterogeneous Si3N4 growth during SiNx film deposition and thermal nitridation of Si(100): an x-ray photoemission spectroscopy study,” Thin Solid Films 187, 101–109 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Booker, G. R.

K. J. Reeson, P. L. F. Hemment, C. D. Meekison, C. D. Marsh, G. R. Booker, R. J. Chater, J. A. Kilner, J. Davis, “Buried layers of silicon oxy-nitride by ion beam synthesis,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 52, 427–432 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bovard, B. G.

Chater, R. J.

K. J. Reeson, P. L. F. Hemment, C. D. Meekison, C. D. Marsh, G. R. Booker, R. J. Chater, J. A. Kilner, J. Davis, “Buried layers of silicon oxy-nitride by ion beam synthesis,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 52, 427–432 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chaton, P.

M. Ida, P. Chaton, B. Rafin, “Control of silicon oxynitrides refractive index by reactive assisted ion beam sputter deposition,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 404–423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.-L.

Cheng, X.

Y. Wang, X. Cheng, Z. Lin, C. Zhang, H. Xiao, S. Zou, “A study of silicon oxy-nitride film prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Mater. Lett. 58, 2261–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chuang, S. L.

S. L. Chuang, Physics of Opto-Electronic Devices (Wiley, 1995), p. 583.

Colligon, J. S.

Crowder, M. S.

J. Kanicki, W. L. Warren, C. H. Seager, M. S. Crowder, P. M. Lenahan, “Microscopic origin of the light-induced defects in hydrogenated nitrogen rich amorphous silicon nitride films,” J. Noncryst. Solids 137 & 138, 291–294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J.

K. J. Reeson, P. L. F. Hemment, C. D. Meekison, C. D. Marsh, G. R. Booker, R. J. Chater, J. A. Kilner, J. Davis, “Buried layers of silicon oxy-nitride by ion beam synthesis,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 52, 427–432 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Eriksson, T. S.

T. S. Eriksson, C. G. Granquist, “Infrared optical properties of silicon oxynitride films: experimental data and theoretical interpretation,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 2081–2090 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Futatsudera, M.

S. Hasegawa, S. Sakamori, M. Futatsudera, T. Inokuma, Y. Kurata, “Structure of defects in silicon oxy-nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2598–2605 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Granquist, C. G.

T. S. Eriksson, C. G. Granquist, “Infrared optical properties of silicon oxynitride films: experimental data and theoretical interpretation,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 2081–2090 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, K. H.

Hanselmann, F.

Hasegawa, S.

S. Hasegawa, S. Sakamori, M. Futatsudera, T. Inokuma, Y. Kurata, “Structure of defects in silicon oxy-nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2598–2605 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Hasegawa, T. Tsukao, P. C. Zalm, “Bonding and electronic structures of amorphous SiNx:H,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 2916–2920 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Heavens, O. S.

O. S. Heavens, Measurement of Optical Constants of Thin Films, Vol. 2 of Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, eds. (Academic, 1964), p. 193.

Hemment, P. L. F.

K. J. Reeson, P. L. F. Hemment, C. D. Meekison, C. D. Marsh, G. R. Booker, R. J. Chater, J. A. Kilner, J. Davis, “Buried layers of silicon oxy-nitride by ion beam synthesis,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 52, 427–432 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ho, F. C.

Hora, R.

Hsu, J.-C.

Huter, M.

E. Rille, M. Huter, “Optical properties of Si3N4thin films produced by reactive dc-magnetron sputtering,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 1338–1342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ida, M.

M. Ida, P. Chaton, B. Rafin, “Control of silicon oxynitrides refractive index by reactive assisted ion beam sputter deposition,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 404–423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Inokuma, T.

S. Hasegawa, S. Sakamori, M. Futatsudera, T. Inokuma, Y. Kurata, “Structure of defects in silicon oxy-nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2598–2605 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kanicki, J.

J. Kanicki, W. L. Warren, C. H. Seager, M. S. Crowder, P. M. Lenahan, “Microscopic origin of the light-induced defects in hydrogenated nitrogen rich amorphous silicon nitride films,” J. Noncryst. Solids 137 & 138, 291–294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kashio, N.

H. Kato, N. Kashio, Y. Okhi, K. S. Seol, T. Noma, “Band tail photoluminescence in hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxy-nitride and silicon nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 239–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kato, H.

H. Kato, N. Kashio, Y. Okhi, K. S. Seol, T. Noma, “Band tail photoluminescence in hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxy-nitride and silicon nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 239–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kilner, J. A.

K. J. Reeson, P. L. F. Hemment, C. D. Meekison, C. D. Marsh, G. R. Booker, R. J. Chater, J. A. Kilner, J. Davis, “Buried layers of silicon oxy-nitride by ion beam synthesis,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 52, 427–432 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, H.

H. Tsubomura, H. Kobayashi, “Solar cells,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mat. Sci. 18, 261–326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kubler, L.

J. L. Bischoff, F. Lutz, L. Kubler, D. Bolomont, “Heterogeneous Si3N4 growth during SiNx film deposition and thermal nitridation of Si(100): an x-ray photoemission spectroscopy study,” Thin Solid Films 187, 101–109 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, L.-C.

Kurata, Y.

S. Hasegawa, S. Sakamori, M. Futatsudera, T. Inokuma, Y. Kurata, “Structure of defects in silicon oxy-nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2598–2605 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lambrinos, M. F.

Lee, C.-C.

Lenahan, P. M.

J. Kanicki, W. L. Warren, C. H. Seager, M. S. Crowder, P. M. Lenahan, “Microscopic origin of the light-induced defects in hydrogenated nitrogen rich amorphous silicon nitride films,” J. Noncryst. Solids 137 & 138, 291–294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Z.

Y. Wang, X. Cheng, Z. Lin, C. Zhang, H. Xiao, S. Zou, “A study of silicon oxy-nitride film prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Mater. Lett. 58, 2261–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lutz, F.

J. L. Bischoff, F. Lutz, L. Kubler, D. Bolomont, “Heterogeneous Si3N4 growth during SiNx film deposition and thermal nitridation of Si(100): an x-ray photoemission spectroscopy study,” Thin Solid Films 187, 101–109 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Marsh, C. D.

K. J. Reeson, P. L. F. Hemment, C. D. Meekison, C. D. Marsh, G. R. Booker, R. J. Chater, J. A. Kilner, J. Davis, “Buried layers of silicon oxy-nitride by ion beam synthesis,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 52, 427–432 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. J.

Meekison, C. D.

K. J. Reeson, P. L. F. Hemment, C. D. Meekison, C. D. Marsh, G. R. Booker, R. J. Chater, J. A. Kilner, J. Davis, “Buried layers of silicon oxy-nitride by ion beam synthesis,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 52, 427–432 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Nagendra, C. L.

H. G. Shanbhogue, C. L. Nagendra, M. N. Annapurna, S. Ajith Kumar, G. K. M. Thutupalli, “Multilayer antireflection coatings for the visible and near-infrared regions,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6339–6351 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Nagendra, G. K. M. Thutupalli, “Optical constants of infrared (IR) materials in the IR region,” J. Spacecraft Technol. 2, 7–17 (1992).

Netterfield, R. P.

Noma, T.

H. Kato, N. Kashio, Y. Okhi, K. S. Seol, T. Noma, “Band tail photoluminescence in hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxy-nitride and silicon nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 239–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Okhi, Y.

H. Kato, N. Kashio, Y. Okhi, K. S. Seol, T. Noma, “Band tail photoluminescence in hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxy-nitride and silicon nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 239–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Partain, L. D.

L. D. Partain, Solar Cells and Their Applications (Wiley, 1995), p. 99.

Rafin, B.

M. Ida, P. Chaton, B. Rafin, “Control of silicon oxynitrides refractive index by reactive assisted ion beam sputter deposition,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 404–423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ranm, J.

Reeson, K. J.

K. J. Reeson, P. L. F. Hemment, C. D. Meekison, C. D. Marsh, G. R. Booker, R. J. Chater, J. A. Kilner, J. Davis, “Buried layers of silicon oxy-nitride by ion beam synthesis,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 52, 427–432 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rille, E.

E. Rille, M. Huter, “Optical properties of Si3N4thin films produced by reactive dc-magnetron sputtering,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 1338–1342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ritter, E.

E. Ritter, Dielectric Materials for Optical Applications, Vol. 8 of Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, M. H. Francombe, R. W. Hoffman, eds. (Academic, 1975), p. 1.

Sainty, W. G.

Sakamori, S.

S. Hasegawa, S. Sakamori, M. Futatsudera, T. Inokuma, Y. Kurata, “Structure of defects in silicon oxy-nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2598–2605 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Seager, C. H.

J. Kanicki, W. L. Warren, C. H. Seager, M. S. Crowder, P. M. Lenahan, “Microscopic origin of the light-induced defects in hydrogenated nitrogen rich amorphous silicon nitride films,” J. Noncryst. Solids 137 & 138, 291–294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Seol, K. S.

H. Kato, N. Kashio, Y. Okhi, K. S. Seol, T. Noma, “Band tail photoluminescence in hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxy-nitride and silicon nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 239–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shanbhogue, H. G.

Thutupalli, G. K. M.

H. G. Shanbhogue, C. L. Nagendra, M. N. Annapurna, S. Ajith Kumar, G. K. M. Thutupalli, “Multilayer antireflection coatings for the visible and near-infrared regions,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6339–6351 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Nagendra, G. K. M. Thutupalli, “Optical constants of infrared (IR) materials in the IR region,” J. Spacecraft Technol. 2, 7–17 (1992).

Tien, C.-L.

Tsai, R.-Y.

Tsubomura, H.

H. Tsubomura, H. Kobayashi, “Solar cells,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mat. Sci. 18, 261–326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tsukao, T.

S. Hasegawa, T. Tsukao, P. C. Zalm, “Bonding and electronic structures of amorphous SiNx:H,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 2916–2920 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Valzadeh, R.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, X. Cheng, Z. Lin, C. Zhang, H. Xiao, S. Zou, “A study of silicon oxy-nitride film prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Mater. Lett. 58, 2261–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Warren, W. L.

J. Kanicki, W. L. Warren, C. H. Seager, M. S. Crowder, P. M. Lenahan, “Microscopic origin of the light-induced defects in hydrogenated nitrogen rich amorphous silicon nitride films,” J. Noncryst. Solids 137 & 138, 291–294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, H.

Y. Wang, X. Cheng, Z. Lin, C. Zhang, H. Xiao, S. Zou, “A study of silicon oxy-nitride film prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Mater. Lett. 58, 2261–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zalm, P. C.

S. Hasegawa, T. Tsukao, P. C. Zalm, “Bonding and electronic structures of amorphous SiNx:H,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 2916–2920 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Y. Wang, X. Cheng, Z. Lin, C. Zhang, H. Xiao, S. Zou, “A study of silicon oxy-nitride film prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Mater. Lett. 58, 2261–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zou, S.

Y. Wang, X. Cheng, Z. Lin, C. Zhang, H. Xiao, S. Zou, “A study of silicon oxy-nitride film prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Mater. Lett. 58, 2261–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Crit. Rev. Solid State Mat. Sci.

H. Tsubomura, H. Kobayashi, “Solar cells,” Crit. Rev. Solid State Mat. Sci. 18, 261–326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. Kato, N. Kashio, Y. Okhi, K. S. Seol, T. Noma, “Band tail photoluminescence in hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxy-nitride and silicon nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 239–244 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Hasegawa, S. Sakamori, M. Futatsudera, T. Inokuma, Y. Kurata, “Structure of defects in silicon oxy-nitride films,” J. Appl. Phys. 89, 2598–2605 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Eriksson, C. G. Granquist, “Infrared optical properties of silicon oxynitride films: experimental data and theoretical interpretation,” J. Appl. Phys. 60, 2081–2090 (1986).
[CrossRef]

S. Hasegawa, T. Tsukao, P. C. Zalm, “Bonding and electronic structures of amorphous SiNx:H,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 2916–2920 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Noncryst. Solids

J. Kanicki, W. L. Warren, C. H. Seager, M. S. Crowder, P. M. Lenahan, “Microscopic origin of the light-induced defects in hydrogenated nitrogen rich amorphous silicon nitride films,” J. Noncryst. Solids 137 & 138, 291–294 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Spacecraft Technol.

C. L. Nagendra, G. K. M. Thutupalli, “Optical constants of infrared (IR) materials in the IR region,” J. Spacecraft Technol. 2, 7–17 (1992).

Mater. Lett.

Y. Wang, X. Cheng, Z. Lin, C. Zhang, H. Xiao, S. Zou, “A study of silicon oxy-nitride film prepared by ion beam assisted deposition,” Mater. Lett. 58, 2261–2265 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B

K. J. Reeson, P. L. F. Hemment, C. D. Meekison, C. D. Marsh, G. R. Booker, R. J. Chater, J. A. Kilner, J. Davis, “Buried layers of silicon oxy-nitride by ion beam synthesis,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 52, 427–432 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

J. L. Bischoff, F. Lutz, L. Kubler, D. Bolomont, “Heterogeneous Si3N4 growth during SiNx film deposition and thermal nitridation of Si(100): an x-ray photoemission spectroscopy study,” Thin Solid Films 187, 101–109 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. Ritter, Dielectric Materials for Optical Applications, Vol. 8 of Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, M. H. Francombe, R. W. Hoffman, eds. (Academic, 1975), p. 1.

L. D. Partain, Solar Cells and Their Applications (Wiley, 1995), p. 99.

M. Ida, P. Chaton, B. Rafin, “Control of silicon oxynitrides refractive index by reactive assisted ion beam sputter deposition,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 404–423 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Rille, M. Huter, “Optical properties of Si3N4thin films produced by reactive dc-magnetron sputtering,” in Optical Interference Coatings, F. Abeles, ed., Proc. SPIE2253, 1338–1342 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Briggs, M. P. Seah, eds., Practical Surface Analysis of Auger and X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (Wiley, 1983).

O. S. Heavens, Measurement of Optical Constants of Thin Films, Vol. 2 of Physics of Thin Films, G. Hass, R. E. Thun, eds. (Academic, 1964), p. 193.

S. L. Chuang, Physics of Opto-Electronic Devices (Wiley, 1995), p. 583.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Influence of sputtering gas composition on the refractive index of ion-beam-sputtered silicon oxynitride thin films.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Influence of sputtering gas composition on the absorption index of ion-beam-sputtered silicon oxynitride thin films.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

X-ray photoelectron spectra of SN1 film.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plot of (Enα)2 versus photon energy E for SN2 and SN3 films.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of high-energy electron irradiation on the refractive index of a SN1 film.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of high-energy electron irradiation on the absorption index of a SN1 film.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photoelectron spectra of unirradiated and irradiated silicon oxynitride films.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of theoretical and experimental results of degradation in responsivity of a silicon photodetector owing to high-energy electron irradiation.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Deposition Parameters for Silicon Oxynitride Films

Equations (7)

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Q = A / ( A - B ) ,
X NSi = [ I N ( 1 s ) / I Si ( 2 p ) ] [ σ Si ( 2 p ) / σ N ( 1 s ) ] × [ GE Si ( 2 p ) / GE N ( 1 s ) ] [ λ Si ( 2 p ) / λ N ( 1 s ) ] ,
δ R / R ( λ ) = { ( T UIR - T IR ) / T UIR } × 100 ,
R ( λ ) = I ph / ϕ o ,
I ph = q η I T G ϕ o ,
R ( λ ) = q η I T G .
δ R / R ( λ ) = [ ( T UIR - T IR ) / T UIR ] × 100.

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