Abstract

The spectral responsivity of two cryogenically cooled InSb detectors was observed to drift slowly with time. The origin of these drifts was investigated and was shown to occur due to a water-ice thin film that was deposited onto the active areas of the cold detectors. The presence of the ice film (which is itself a dielectric film) modifies the transmission characteristics of the antireflection coatings deposited on the active areas of the detectors, thus giving rise to the observed drifts. The magnitude of the drifts was drastically reduced by evacuating the detector dewars while baking them at 50 °C for approximately 48 h. All InSb detectors have antireflection coatings to reduce the Fresnel reflections and therefore enhance their spectral responsivity. This work demonstrates that InSb infrared detectors should be evacuated and baked at least annually and in some cases (depending on the quality of the dewar and the measurement uncertainty required) more frequently. These observations are particularly relevant to InSb detectors mounted in dewars that use rubber O rings since the ingress of moisture was found to be particularly serious in this type of dewar.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, “Reversible and apparent aging effects in infrared detectors,” Metrologia 40, S136–S140 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, “Infrared optical properties of water and ice spheres,” Icarus 8, 324–360 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. Theocharous, G. Hawkins, N. P. Fox, “Reversible aging effects in cryogenically-cooled infrared filter radiometers,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 46, 339–349 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, “Aging effects in cryogenically cooled InSb infrared filtered detectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 578–582, 2005.
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Theocharous, “Drifts exhibited by cryogenically cooled InSb infrared filtered detectors and their importance to the ATSR-2 and Landsat-5 Earth observation missions,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4181–4185 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. I. Kudman, Infrared Associates, 2851 SE Monroe Street, Stuart, Florida 34997 (private communication).
  7. L. W. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, The Infrared Handbook, 3rd ed. (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1989), Chap. 11.
  8. E. Theocharous, J. R. Birch, “Detectors for Mid- and Far-infrared Spectroscopy: Selection and Use,” in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J. M. Chalmers, P. R. Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 349–367.
  9. E. Theocharous, F. J. J. Clarke, L. J. Rodgers, N. P. Fox, “Latest techniques at NPL for the characterization of infrared detectors and materials,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 228–239 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Lehman, E. Theocharous, G. Eppeldauer, C. Pannel, “Gold-black coatings for freestanding pyroelectric detectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 916–922 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Velasquez, Judson Technologies Inc., Montgomeryville, Pennsylvania 18936 (private communication).

2005 (2)

2004 (1)

E. Theocharous, G. Hawkins, N. P. Fox, “Reversible aging effects in cryogenically-cooled infrared filter radiometers,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 46, 339–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, “Reversible and apparent aging effects in infrared detectors,” Metrologia 40, S136–S140 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, F. J. J. Clarke, L. J. Rodgers, N. P. Fox, “Latest techniques at NPL for the characterization of infrared detectors and materials,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 228–239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lehman, E. Theocharous, G. Eppeldauer, C. Pannel, “Gold-black coatings for freestanding pyroelectric detectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 916–922 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, “Infrared optical properties of water and ice spheres,” Icarus 8, 324–360 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Birch, J. R.

E. Theocharous, J. R. Birch, “Detectors for Mid- and Far-infrared Spectroscopy: Selection and Use,” in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J. M. Chalmers, P. R. Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 349–367.

Clarke, F. J. J.

E. Theocharous, F. J. J. Clarke, L. J. Rodgers, N. P. Fox, “Latest techniques at NPL for the characterization of infrared detectors and materials,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 228–239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eppeldauer, G.

J. Lehman, E. Theocharous, G. Eppeldauer, C. Pannel, “Gold-black coatings for freestanding pyroelectric detectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 916–922 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fox, N. P.

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, “Aging effects in cryogenically cooled InSb infrared filtered detectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 578–582, 2005.
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, G. Hawkins, N. P. Fox, “Reversible aging effects in cryogenically-cooled infrared filter radiometers,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 46, 339–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, “Reversible and apparent aging effects in infrared detectors,” Metrologia 40, S136–S140 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, F. J. J. Clarke, L. J. Rodgers, N. P. Fox, “Latest techniques at NPL for the characterization of infrared detectors and materials,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 228–239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hawkins, G.

E. Theocharous, G. Hawkins, N. P. Fox, “Reversible aging effects in cryogenically-cooled infrared filter radiometers,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 46, 339–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Irvine, W. M.

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, “Infrared optical properties of water and ice spheres,” Icarus 8, 324–360 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Kudman, I.

I. Kudman, Infrared Associates, 2851 SE Monroe Street, Stuart, Florida 34997 (private communication).

Lehman, J.

J. Lehman, E. Theocharous, G. Eppeldauer, C. Pannel, “Gold-black coatings for freestanding pyroelectric detectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 916–922 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pannel, C.

J. Lehman, E. Theocharous, G. Eppeldauer, C. Pannel, “Gold-black coatings for freestanding pyroelectric detectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 916–922 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pollack, J. B.

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, “Infrared optical properties of water and ice spheres,” Icarus 8, 324–360 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Rodgers, L. J.

E. Theocharous, F. J. J. Clarke, L. J. Rodgers, N. P. Fox, “Latest techniques at NPL for the characterization of infrared detectors and materials,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 228–239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Theocharous, E.

E. Theocharous, “Drifts exhibited by cryogenically cooled InSb infrared filtered detectors and their importance to the ATSR-2 and Landsat-5 Earth observation missions,” Appl. Opt. 44, 4181–4185 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, “Aging effects in cryogenically cooled InSb infrared filtered detectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 578–582, 2005.
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, G. Hawkins, N. P. Fox, “Reversible aging effects in cryogenically-cooled infrared filter radiometers,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 46, 339–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, “Reversible and apparent aging effects in infrared detectors,” Metrologia 40, S136–S140 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, F. J. J. Clarke, L. J. Rodgers, N. P. Fox, “Latest techniques at NPL for the characterization of infrared detectors and materials,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 228–239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Lehman, E. Theocharous, G. Eppeldauer, C. Pannel, “Gold-black coatings for freestanding pyroelectric detectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 916–922 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Theocharous, J. R. Birch, “Detectors for Mid- and Far-infrared Spectroscopy: Selection and Use,” in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J. M. Chalmers, P. R. Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 349–367.

Velasquez, A.

A. Velasquez, Judson Technologies Inc., Montgomeryville, Pennsylvania 18936 (private communication).

Wolfe, L. W.

L. W. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, The Infrared Handbook, 3rd ed. (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1989), Chap. 11.

Zissis, G. J.

L. W. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, The Infrared Handbook, 3rd ed. (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1989), Chap. 11.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Icarus (1)

W. M. Irvine, J. B. Pollack, “Infrared optical properties of water and ice spheres,” Icarus 8, 324–360 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

E. Theocharous, G. Hawkins, N. P. Fox, “Reversible aging effects in cryogenically-cooled infrared filter radiometers,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 46, 339–349 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (2)

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, “Aging effects in cryogenically cooled InSb infrared filtered detectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 16, 578–582, 2005.
[CrossRef]

J. Lehman, E. Theocharous, G. Eppeldauer, C. Pannel, “Gold-black coatings for freestanding pyroelectric detectors,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 14, 916–922 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

E. Theocharous, N. P. Fox, “Reversible and apparent aging effects in infrared detectors,” Metrologia 40, S136–S140 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

E. Theocharous, F. J. J. Clarke, L. J. Rodgers, N. P. Fox, “Latest techniques at NPL for the characterization of infrared detectors and materials,” Proc. SPIE 5209, 228–239 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

I. Kudman, Infrared Associates, 2851 SE Monroe Street, Stuart, Florida 34997 (private communication).

L. W. Wolfe, G. J. Zissis, The Infrared Handbook, 3rd ed. (Office of Naval Research, Washington, D.C., 1989), Chap. 11.

E. Theocharous, J. R. Birch, “Detectors for Mid- and Far-infrared Spectroscopy: Selection and Use,” in Handbook of Vibrational Spectroscopy, J. M. Chalmers, P. R. Griffiths, eds. (Wiley, 2002), Vol. 1, pp. 349–367.

A. Velasquez, Judson Technologies Inc., Montgomeryville, Pennsylvania 18936 (private communication).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Normalized response of the InSb A detector, monitoring radiation at 1.3 (top left), 2.2 (bottom left), 3.1 (top right), and 4.7 μm (bottom right), starting immediately after cooling the detector to 77 K.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Percent drift of the spectral responsivity of the InSb A detector taken at 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 3 h, and 4 h, starting immediately after it was cooled to 77 K.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Normalized response of the InSb A detector at 4.7 μm as a function of time after the dewar was evacuated and baked.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized response of the InSb B detector monitoring radiation at 1.3 (top left), 3.1 (bottom left), and 4.0 μm (top right), starting immediately after cooling the detector to 77 K.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Percent drift of the spectral responsivity of the InSb B detector taken at 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 3 h, and 4 h and with radiation peaks at 1.3 (top left), 3.1 (bottom left), and 4.0 μm (top right), starting immediately after the detector was cooled to 77 K.

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