Abstract

The balloonborne SPIRALE (a French acronym for infrared absorption spectroscopy by tunable diode lasers) instrument has been developed for in situ measurements of several tracer and chemically active species in the stratosphere. Laser absorption takes place in an open Herriott multipass cell located under the balloon gondola, with six lead salt diode lasers as light sources. One mirror is located at the extremity of a deployable mast 3.5 m below the gondola, enabling the measurement of very low abundance species throughout a very long absorption path (up to 544 m). Three successful flights have produced concentration measurements of O3, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, NO, HNO3, HCl, HOCl, COF2, and H2O2. Fast measurements (every 1.1 s) allow one to obtain a vertical resolution of 5 m for the profiles. A detection limit of a few tens of parts per trillion in volume has been demonstrated. Uncertainties of 3%–5% are estimated for the most abundant species rising to about 30% for the less abundant ones, mainly depending on the laser linewidth and the signal-to-noise ratio.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004 (1)

T. P. Marcy, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, P. J. Popp, E. C. Richard, T. L. Thompson, K. H. Rosenlof, E. A. Ray, R. J. Salawitch, C. S. Atherton, D. J. Bergmann, B. A. Ridley, A. J. Weinheimer, M. Loewenstein, E. M. Weinstock, M. J. Mahoney, “Quantifying stratospheric ozone in the upper troposphere with in situ measurements of HCl,” Science 304, 261–265 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, G. Berthet, J. B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, N. Huret, B. Knudsen, “On the interaction between nitrogen and halogen species in the arctic polar vortex during THESEO and THESEO 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Hoor, H. Fischer, L. Lange, J. Lelieveld, D. Brunner, “Seasonal variations of a mixing layer in the lowermost stratosphere as identified by the CO-O3correlation from in situ measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 40446 (2002).

F. W. Irion, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, A. Y. Chang, A. Eldering, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, E. J. Moyer, M. J. Newchurch, G. B. Osterman, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, B. Sen, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Experiment version 3 data retrievals,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6968–6979 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (4)

1998 (3)

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Correlations of stratospheric abundances of CH4and N2O derived from ATMOS measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2777–2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment time scales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, “Correlations of stratospheric abundances of NOy, O3, N2O and CH4derived from ATMOS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28347–28359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1990 (1)

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, R. Toumi, J. A. Pyle, “Active nitrogen partitioning and the nighttime formation of N2O5in the stratosphere: Simultaneous in situ measurements of NO, NO2, O3, and N2O using the BLISS diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13851–13866 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

1987 (2)

D. E. Cooper, R. E. Warren, “Two-tone optical heterodyne spectroscopy with diode lasers: theory of line shapes and experimental results,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 470–480 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, “Simultaneous in situ measurements and diurnal variations of NO, NO2, O3, NO2, CH4, H2O, and CO2in the 40- to 26-km region using an open path tunable diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 11931–11950 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (3)

1964 (1)

Anders, J.

Atherton, C. S.

T. P. Marcy, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, P. J. Popp, E. C. Richard, T. L. Thompson, K. H. Rosenlof, E. A. Ray, R. J. Salawitch, C. S. Atherton, D. J. Bergmann, B. A. Ridley, A. J. Weinheimer, M. Loewenstein, E. M. Weinstock, M. J. Mahoney, “Quantifying stratospheric ozone in the upper troposphere with in situ measurements of HCl,” Science 304, 261–265 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bechara, J.

H. I. Schiff, G. I. Mackay, J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, Vol. 127 of Chemical Analysis, H. W. Sigrist, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1994).

Bergmann, D. J.

T. P. Marcy, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, P. J. Popp, E. C. Richard, T. L. Thompson, K. H. Rosenlof, E. A. Ray, R. J. Salawitch, C. S. Atherton, D. J. Bergmann, B. A. Ridley, A. J. Weinheimer, M. Loewenstein, E. M. Weinstock, M. J. Mahoney, “Quantifying stratospheric ozone in the upper troposphere with in situ measurements of HCl,” Science 304, 261–265 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berthet, G.

E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, G. Berthet, J. B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, N. Huret, B. Knudsen, “On the interaction between nitrogen and halogen species in the arctic polar vortex during THESEO and THESEO 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bevington, P. R.

P. R. Bevington, “Least-Squares Fit to an Arbitrary Function,” in Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969), Chap. 11.

Brassington, D. J.

D. J. Brassington, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for the measurement of atmospheric species,” in Spectroscopy in Environmental Science Vol. 24 of Advances in Spectroscopy, R. J. H. Clark, R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, London, 1995).

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, D.

P. Hoor, H. Fischer, L. Lange, J. Lelieveld, D. Brunner, “Seasonal variations of a mixing layer in the lowermost stratosphere as identified by the CO-O3correlation from in situ measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 40446 (2002).

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carlisle, C. B.

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chang, A. Y.

Chave, R. G.

Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Clerbaux, C.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cooper, D. E.

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dingler, F.

Durry, G.

Eldering, A.

Elkins, J. W.

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment time scales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fahey, D. W.

T. P. Marcy, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, P. J. Popp, E. C. Richard, T. L. Thompson, K. H. Rosenlof, E. A. Ray, R. J. Salawitch, C. S. Atherton, D. J. Bergmann, B. A. Ridley, A. J. Weinheimer, M. Loewenstein, E. M. Weinstock, M. J. Mahoney, “Quantifying stratospheric ozone in the upper troposphere with in situ measurements of HCl,” Science 304, 261–265 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, H.

P. Hoor, H. Fischer, L. Lange, J. Lelieveld, D. Brunner, “Seasonal variations of a mixing layer in the lowermost stratosphere as identified by the CO-O3correlation from in situ measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 40446 (2002).

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Flesch, G. J.

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gao, R. S.

T. P. Marcy, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, P. J. Popp, E. C. Richard, T. L. Thompson, K. H. Rosenlof, E. A. Ray, R. J. Salawitch, C. S. Atherton, D. J. Bergmann, B. A. Ridley, A. J. Weinheimer, M. Loewenstein, E. M. Weinstock, M. J. Mahoney, “Quantifying stratospheric ozone in the upper troposphere with in situ measurements of HCl,” Science 304, 261–265 (2004).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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F. W. Irion, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, A. Y. Chang, A. Eldering, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, E. J. Moyer, M. J. Newchurch, G. B. Osterman, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, B. Sen, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Experiment version 3 data retrievals,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6968–6979 (2002).
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H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Correlations of stratospheric abundances of CH4and N2O derived from ATMOS measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2777–2780 (1998).
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H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, “Correlations of stratospheric abundances of NOy, O3, N2O and CH4derived from ATMOS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28347–28359 (1998).
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Herman, R. L.

D. C. Scott, R. L. Herman, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, G. J. Flesch, E. J. Moyer, “Airborne Laser Infrared Absorption Spectrometer (ALIAS II) for in situ atmospheric measurements of N2O, CH4, CO, HCl, and NO2from balloon or remotely piloted aircraft platforms,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4609–4622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment time scales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
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Hoor, P.

P. Hoor, H. Fischer, L. Lange, J. Lelieveld, D. Brunner, “Seasonal variations of a mixing layer in the lowermost stratosphere as identified by the CO-O3correlation from in situ measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 40446 (2002).

Huret, N.

E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, G. Berthet, J. B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, N. Huret, B. Knudsen, “On the interaction between nitrogen and halogen species in the arctic polar vortex during THESEO and THESEO 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8311 (2002).
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Irion, F. W.

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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Kendall, J.

Knudsen, B.

E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, G. Berthet, J. B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, N. Huret, B. Knudsen, “On the interaction between nitrogen and halogen species in the arctic polar vortex during THESEO and THESEO 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8311 (2002).
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Kogelnik, H.

Kompfner, R.

Lafferty, W. J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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Lange, L.

P. Hoor, H. Fischer, L. Lange, J. Lelieveld, D. Brunner, “Seasonal variations of a mixing layer in the lowermost stratosphere as identified by the CO-O3correlation from in situ measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 40446 (2002).

Lelieveld, J.

P. Hoor, H. Fischer, L. Lange, J. Lelieveld, D. Brunner, “Seasonal variations of a mixing layer in the lowermost stratosphere as identified by the CO-O3correlation from in situ measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 40446 (2002).

Loewenstein, M.

T. P. Marcy, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, P. J. Popp, E. C. Richard, T. L. Thompson, K. H. Rosenlof, E. A. Ray, R. J. Salawitch, C. S. Atherton, D. J. Bergmann, B. A. Ridley, A. J. Weinheimer, M. Loewenstein, E. M. Weinstock, M. J. Mahoney, “Quantifying stratospheric ozone in the upper troposphere with in situ measurements of HCl,” Science 304, 261–265 (2004).
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Mackay, G. I.

H. I. Schiff, G. I. Mackay, J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, Vol. 127 of Chemical Analysis, H. W. Sigrist, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1994).

Mahieu, E.

Mahoney, M. J.

T. P. Marcy, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, P. J. Popp, E. C. Richard, T. L. Thompson, K. H. Rosenlof, E. A. Ray, R. J. Salawitch, C. S. Atherton, D. J. Bergmann, B. A. Ridley, A. J. Weinheimer, M. Loewenstein, E. M. Weinstock, M. J. Mahoney, “Quantifying stratospheric ozone in the upper troposphere with in situ measurements of HCl,” Science 304, 261–265 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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Manney, G. L.

F. W. Irion, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, A. Y. Chang, A. Eldering, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, E. J. Moyer, M. J. Newchurch, G. B. Osterman, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, B. Sen, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Experiment version 3 data retrievals,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6968–6979 (2002).
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H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Correlations of stratospheric abundances of CH4and N2O derived from ATMOS measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2777–2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, “Correlations of stratospheric abundances of NOy, O3, N2O and CH4derived from ATMOS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28347–28359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marcy, T. P.

T. P. Marcy, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, P. J. Popp, E. C. Richard, T. L. Thompson, K. H. Rosenlof, E. A. Ray, R. J. Salawitch, C. S. Atherton, D. J. Bergmann, B. A. Ridley, A. J. Weinheimer, M. Loewenstein, E. M. Weinstock, M. J. Mahoney, “Quantifying stratospheric ozone in the upper troposphere with in situ measurements of HCl,” Science 304, 261–265 (2004).
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Margitan, J. J.

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment time scales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
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Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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May, R. D.

D. C. Scott, R. L. Herman, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, G. J. Flesch, E. J. Moyer, “Airborne Laser Infrared Absorption Spectrometer (ALIAS II) for in situ atmospheric measurements of N2O, CH4, CO, HCl, and NO2from balloon or remotely piloted aircraft platforms,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4609–4622 (1999).
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R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment time scales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
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C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Trimble, R. G. Chave, J. Kendall, “Aircraft (ER-2) laser infrared absorption spectrometer (ALIAS) for in-situ stratospheric measurements of HCl, N2O, CH4, NO2, and HNO3,” Appl. Opt. 33, 454–472 (1994).
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C. R. Webster, R. D. May, R. Toumi, J. A. Pyle, “Active nitrogen partitioning and the nighttime formation of N2O5in the stratosphere: Simultaneous in situ measurements of NO, NO2, O3, and N2O using the BLISS diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13851–13866 (1990).
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C. R. Webster, R. D. May, “Simultaneous in situ measurements and diurnal variations of NO, NO2, O3, NO2, CH4, H2O, and CO2in the 40- to 26-km region using an open path tunable diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 11931–11950 (1987).
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Mazzinghi, P.

G. Toci, P. Mazzinghi, M. Vanini, “A diode laser spectrometer for the in situ measurement of the HNO3content of polar stratospheric clouds,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1295–1302 (1999).
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Michelsen, H. A.

F. W. Irion, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, A. Y. Chang, A. Eldering, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, E. J. Moyer, M. J. Newchurch, G. B. Osterman, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, B. Sen, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Experiment version 3 data retrievals,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6968–6979 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, “Correlations of stratospheric abundances of NOy, O3, N2O and CH4derived from ATMOS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28347–28359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Correlations of stratospheric abundances of CH4and N2O derived from ATMOS measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2777–2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment time scales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
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Miller, M. D.

Moreau, G.

G. Moreau, C. Robert, “Etude des variations d’un faisceau lumineux dans une cellule à passages multiples,” J. Opt. (Paris) 16, 177–183 (1985).
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Moyer, E. J.

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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Newchurch, M. J.

Newnham, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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Osterman, G. B.

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
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Pirre, M.

E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, G. Berthet, J. B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, N. Huret, B. Knudsen, “On the interaction between nitrogen and halogen species in the arctic polar vortex during THESEO and THESEO 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Popp, P. J.

T. P. Marcy, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, P. J. Popp, E. C. Richard, T. L. Thompson, K. H. Rosenlof, E. A. Ray, R. J. Salawitch, C. S. Atherton, D. J. Bergmann, B. A. Ridley, A. J. Weinheimer, M. Loewenstein, E. M. Weinstock, M. J. Mahoney, “Quantifying stratospheric ozone in the upper troposphere with in situ measurements of HCl,” Science 304, 261–265 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Preier, H.

Pyle, J. A.

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, R. Toumi, J. A. Pyle, “Active nitrogen partitioning and the nighttime formation of N2O5in the stratosphere: Simultaneous in situ measurements of NO, NO2, O3, and N2O using the BLISS diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13851–13866 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ray, E. A.

T. P. Marcy, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, P. J. Popp, E. C. Richard, T. L. Thompson, K. H. Rosenlof, E. A. Ray, R. J. Salawitch, C. S. Atherton, D. J. Bergmann, B. A. Ridley, A. J. Weinheimer, M. Loewenstein, E. M. Weinstock, M. J. Mahoney, “Quantifying stratospheric ozone in the upper troposphere with in situ measurements of HCl,” Science 304, 261–265 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renard, J. B.

E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, G. Berthet, J. B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, N. Huret, B. Knudsen, “On the interaction between nitrogen and halogen species in the arctic polar vortex during THESEO and THESEO 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Richard, E. C.

T. P. Marcy, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, P. J. Popp, E. C. Richard, T. L. Thompson, K. H. Rosenlof, E. A. Ray, R. J. Salawitch, C. S. Atherton, D. J. Bergmann, B. A. Ridley, A. J. Weinheimer, M. Loewenstein, E. M. Weinstock, M. J. Mahoney, “Quantifying stratospheric ozone in the upper troposphere with in situ measurements of HCl,” Science 304, 261–265 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ridley, B. A.

T. P. Marcy, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, P. J. Popp, E. C. Richard, T. L. Thompson, K. H. Rosenlof, E. A. Ray, R. J. Salawitch, C. S. Atherton, D. J. Bergmann, B. A. Ridley, A. J. Weinheimer, M. Loewenstein, E. M. Weinstock, M. J. Mahoney, “Quantifying stratospheric ozone in the upper troposphere with in situ measurements of HCl,” Science 304, 261–265 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Riedel, W. J.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Irion, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, A. Y. Chang, A. Eldering, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, E. J. Moyer, M. J. Newchurch, G. B. Osterman, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, B. Sen, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Experiment version 3 data retrievals,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6968–6979 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Correlations of stratospheric abundances of CH4and N2O derived from ATMOS measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2777–2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rivière, E. D.

E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, G. Berthet, J. B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, N. Huret, B. Knudsen, “On the interaction between nitrogen and halogen species in the arctic polar vortex during THESEO and THESEO 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Robert, C.

G. Moreau, C. Robert, “Etude des variations d’un faisceau lumineux dans une cellule à passages multiples,” J. Opt. (Paris) 16, 177–183 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Rosenlof, K. H.

T. P. Marcy, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, P. J. Popp, E. C. Richard, T. L. Thompson, K. H. Rosenlof, E. A. Ray, R. J. Salawitch, C. S. Atherton, D. J. Bergmann, B. A. Ridley, A. J. Weinheimer, M. Loewenstein, E. M. Weinstock, M. J. Mahoney, “Quantifying stratospheric ozone in the upper troposphere with in situ measurements of HCl,” Science 304, 261–265 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment time scales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Salawitch, R. J.

T. P. Marcy, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, P. J. Popp, E. C. Richard, T. L. Thompson, K. H. Rosenlof, E. A. Ray, R. J. Salawitch, C. S. Atherton, D. J. Bergmann, B. A. Ridley, A. J. Weinheimer, M. Loewenstein, E. M. Weinstock, M. J. Mahoney, “Quantifying stratospheric ozone in the upper troposphere with in situ measurements of HCl,” Science 304, 261–265 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. W. Irion, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, A. Y. Chang, A. Eldering, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, E. J. Moyer, M. J. Newchurch, G. B. Osterman, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, B. Sen, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Experiment version 3 data retrievals,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6968–6979 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment time scales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schiff, H. I.

H. I. Schiff, G. I. Mackay, J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, Vol. 127 of Chemical Analysis, H. W. Sigrist, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1994).

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Scott, D. C.

D. C. Scott, R. L. Herman, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, G. J. Flesch, E. J. Moyer, “Airborne Laser Infrared Absorption Spectrometer (ALIAS II) for in situ atmospheric measurements of N2O, CH4, CO, HCl, and NO2from balloon or remotely piloted aircraft platforms,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4609–4622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment time scales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sen, B.

F. W. Irion, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, A. Y. Chang, A. Eldering, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, E. J. Moyer, M. J. Newchurch, G. B. Osterman, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, B. Sen, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Experiment version 3 data retrievals,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6968–6979 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment time scales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, K. M.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tang, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Taupin, F. G.

E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, G. Berthet, J. B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, N. Huret, B. Knudsen, “On the interaction between nitrogen and halogen species in the arctic polar vortex during THESEO and THESEO 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, T. L.

T. P. Marcy, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, P. J. Popp, E. C. Richard, T. L. Thompson, K. H. Rosenlof, E. A. Ray, R. J. Salawitch, C. S. Atherton, D. J. Bergmann, B. A. Ridley, A. J. Weinheimer, M. Loewenstein, E. M. Weinstock, M. J. Mahoney, “Quantifying stratospheric ozone in the upper troposphere with in situ measurements of HCl,” Science 304, 261–265 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toci, G.

G. Toci, P. Mazzinghi, M. Vanini, “A diode laser spectrometer for the in situ measurement of the HNO3content of polar stratospheric clouds,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1295–1302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Toon, G. C.

F. W. Irion, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, A. Y. Chang, A. Eldering, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, E. J. Moyer, M. J. Newchurch, G. B. Osterman, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, B. Sen, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Experiment version 3 data retrievals,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6968–6979 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment time scales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Toumi, R.

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, R. Toumi, J. A. Pyle, “Active nitrogen partitioning and the nighttime formation of N2O5in the stratosphere: Simultaneous in situ measurements of NO, NO2, O3, and N2O using the BLISS diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13851–13866 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Trimble, C. A.

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Vanini, M.

G. Toci, P. Mazzinghi, M. Vanini, “A diode laser spectrometer for the in situ measurement of the HNO3content of polar stratospheric clouds,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1295–1302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

von Lucke, H.

Warren, R. E.

Webster, C. R.

D. C. Scott, R. L. Herman, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, G. J. Flesch, E. J. Moyer, “Airborne Laser Infrared Absorption Spectrometer (ALIAS II) for in situ atmospheric measurements of N2O, CH4, CO, HCl, and NO2from balloon or remotely piloted aircraft platforms,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4609–4622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment time scales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Trimble, R. G. Chave, J. Kendall, “Aircraft (ER-2) laser infrared absorption spectrometer (ALIAS) for in-situ stratospheric measurements of HCl, N2O, CH4, NO2, and HNO3,” Appl. Opt. 33, 454–472 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, R. Toumi, J. A. Pyle, “Active nitrogen partitioning and the nighttime formation of N2O5in the stratosphere: Simultaneous in situ measurements of NO, NO2, O3, and N2O using the BLISS diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13851–13866 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, “Simultaneous in situ measurements and diurnal variations of NO, NO2, O3, NO2, CH4, H2O, and CO2in the 40- to 26-km region using an open path tunable diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 11931–11950 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, “Brewster plate spoiler: a novel method for reducing the amplitude of fringes that limit tunable-laser absorption sensitivities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1464–1470 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Weinheimer, A. J.

T. P. Marcy, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, P. J. Popp, E. C. Richard, T. L. Thompson, K. H. Rosenlof, E. A. Ray, R. J. Salawitch, C. S. Atherton, D. J. Bergmann, B. A. Ridley, A. J. Weinheimer, M. Loewenstein, E. M. Weinstock, M. J. Mahoney, “Quantifying stratospheric ozone in the upper troposphere with in situ measurements of HCl,” Science 304, 261–265 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weinstock, E. M.

T. P. Marcy, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, P. J. Popp, E. C. Richard, T. L. Thompson, K. H. Rosenlof, E. A. Ray, R. J. Salawitch, C. S. Atherton, D. J. Bergmann, B. A. Ridley, A. J. Weinheimer, M. Loewenstein, E. M. Weinstock, M. J. Mahoney, “Quantifying stratospheric ozone in the upper troposphere with in situ measurements of HCl,” Science 304, 261–265 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, H.

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yung, Y. L.

F. W. Irion, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, A. Y. Chang, A. Eldering, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, E. J. Moyer, M. J. Newchurch, G. B. Osterman, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, B. Sen, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Experiment version 3 data retrievals,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6968–6979 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment time scales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zander, R.

F. W. Irion, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, A. Y. Chang, A. Eldering, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, E. J. Moyer, M. J. Newchurch, G. B. Osterman, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, B. Sen, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Experiment version 3 data retrievals,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6968–6979 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Correlations of stratospheric abundances of CH4and N2O derived from ATMOS measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2777–2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, “Correlations of stratospheric abundances of NOy, O3, N2O and CH4derived from ATMOS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28347–28359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (8)

D. Herriott, H. Kogelnik, R. Kompfner, “Off-axis paths in spherical mirror interferometers,” Appl. Opt. 3, 523–526 (1964).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Hastie, M. D. Miller, “Balloon-borne tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer for multispecies trace gas measurements in the stratosphere,” Appl. Opt. 24, 3694–3701 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. B. Carlisle, D. E. Cooper, H. Preier, “Quantum noise-limited FM spectroscopy with a lead-salt diode laser,” Appl. Opt. 28, 2567–2575 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, C. A. Trimble, R. G. Chave, J. Kendall, “Aircraft (ER-2) laser infrared absorption spectrometer (ALIAS) for in-situ stratospheric measurements of HCl, N2O, CH4, NO2, and HNO3,” Appl. Opt. 33, 454–472 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. C. Scott, R. L. Herman, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, G. J. Flesch, E. J. Moyer, “Airborne Laser Infrared Absorption Spectrometer (ALIAS II) for in situ atmospheric measurements of N2O, CH4, CO, HCl, and NO2from balloon or remotely piloted aircraft platforms,” Appl. Opt. 38, 4609–4622 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Durry, G. Mégie, “Atmospheric CH4and H2O monitoring with near-infrared InGaAs laser diodes by the SDLA, a balloonborne spectrometer for tropospheric and stratospheric in situ measurements,” Appl. Opt. 38, 7342–7354 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F.-J. Lübken, F. Dingler, H. von Lucke, J. Anders, W. J. Riedel, H. Wolf, “MASERATI: a rocketborne tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 38, 5338–5349 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. W. Irion, M. R. Gunson, G. C. Toon, A. Y. Chang, A. Eldering, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, E. J. Moyer, M. J. Newchurch, G. B. Osterman, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, B. Sen, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Experiment version 3 data retrievals,” Appl. Opt. 41, 6968–6979 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, M. R. Gunson, C. P. Rinsland, R. Zander, “Correlations of stratospheric abundances of CH4and N2O derived from ATMOS measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2777–2780 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Herman, D. C. Scott, C. R. Webster, R. D. May, E. J. Moyer, R. J. Salawitch, Y. L. Yung, G. C. Toon, B. Sen, J. J. Margitan, K. H. Rosenlof, H. A. Michelsen, J. W. Elkins, “Tropical entrainment time scales inferred from stratospheric N2O and CH4observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 2781–2784 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. (1)

G. Toci, P. Mazzinghi, M. Vanini, “A diode laser spectrometer for the in situ measurement of the HNO3content of polar stratospheric clouds,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 1295–1302 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (5)

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, “Simultaneous in situ measurements and diurnal variations of NO, NO2, O3, NO2, CH4, H2O, and CO2in the 40- to 26-km region using an open path tunable diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 92, 11931–11950 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Webster, R. D. May, R. Toumi, J. A. Pyle, “Active nitrogen partitioning and the nighttime formation of N2O5in the stratosphere: Simultaneous in situ measurements of NO, NO2, O3, and N2O using the BLISS diode laser spectrometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 13851–13866 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Rivière, M. Pirre, G. Berthet, J. B. Renard, F. G. Taupin, N. Huret, B. Knudsen, “On the interaction between nitrogen and halogen species in the arctic polar vortex during THESEO and THESEO 2000,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 8311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Michelsen, G. L. Manney, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, “Correlations of stratospheric abundances of NOy, O3, N2O and CH4derived from ATMOS measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 28347–28359 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Hoor, H. Fischer, L. Lange, J. Lelieveld, D. Brunner, “Seasonal variations of a mixing layer in the lowermost stratosphere as identified by the CO-O3correlation from in situ measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 40446 (2002).

J. Opt. (Paris) (1)

G. Moreau, C. Robert, “Etude des variations d’un faisceau lumineux dans une cellule à passages multiples,” J. Opt. (Paris) 16, 177–183 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. S. Rothman, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, L. R. Brown, C. Camy-Peyret, M. R. Carleer, K. Chance, C. Clerbaux, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, K. W. Jucks, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, V. Nemtchinov, D. A. Newnham, A. Perrin, C. P. Rinsland, J. Schroeder, K. M. Smith, M. A. H. Smith, K. Tang, R. A. Toth, J. Vander Auwera, P. Varanasi, K. Yoshino, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database: Edition of 2000 including updates through 2001,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 82, 5–44 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

T. P. Marcy, D. W. Fahey, R. S. Gao, P. J. Popp, E. C. Richard, T. L. Thompson, K. H. Rosenlof, E. A. Ray, R. J. Salawitch, C. S. Atherton, D. J. Bergmann, B. A. Ridley, A. J. Weinheimer, M. Loewenstein, E. M. Weinstock, M. J. Mahoney, “Quantifying stratospheric ozone in the upper troposphere with in situ measurements of HCl,” Science 304, 261–265 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

D. J. Brassington, “Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for the measurement of atmospheric species,” in Spectroscopy in Environmental Science Vol. 24 of Advances in Spectroscopy, R. J. H. Clark, R. E. Hester, eds. (Wiley, London, 1995).

H. I. Schiff, G. I. Mackay, J. Bechara, “The use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for atmospheric measurements,” in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, Vol. 127 of Chemical Analysis, H. W. Sigrist, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1994).

P. R. Bevington, “Least-Squares Fit to an Arbitrary Function,” in Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1969), Chap. 11.

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematics of optics for one channel. Only the Herriott multipass cell is common to the six channels, with the same absorption length for all beams.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematics of the detection principle of SPIRALE. The diode laser beam is split into a reference beam and a measurement beam. In normal operation, the measurement signal and reference signal are sequentially recorded. While the diode laser ramp frequency is set to ~200 Hz, the measurement signal is the average of 198 successive signal sweeps, followed by the reference signal, which is the average of 10 successive signal sweeps, giving a species sampling period of 1.1 s. The resulting reference and measurement signal sweeps are recorded onboard and transmitted by telemetry. Every eight periods, the diode laser current is set to zero at the end of the first ramp during ~1 ms to monitor the signal background continuous component, namely, the detector dark current. Then only the first sweep of each beam is recorded without further processing onboard.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect on the signal of sinuslike fringe reduction (full curve) and second derivative (dashed curve). The resulting attenuation is in dB versus the period in point numbers. The respective convolution functions are sketched above with widths p and m. Efficient fringe reduction takes place for periods p, p/3, p/5, p/7, etc., while the second derivative removes periods m/2, m/3, m/4, etc. Function widths p and m are set to 30 and 60, respectively, for illustration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photograph of the gondola. The instrument forms the core of the gondola bolted to the outer mechanical frame thanks to 12 metal-wire shock absorbers. The two mirrors of the Herriott multipass cell are contained in two boxes in the bottom, in the retracted position. The lower mirror is at the extremity of the mast whose upper part and the lifting motor appear at the top of the gondola. Two temperature probes at the extremities of masts (only one is visible) monitor the temperature on the opposite side of the gondola, leaving at least one probe thermally unspoiled by the wake of the gondola. Landing is expected to occur without damage, distorting only the metal ribbons. The white vertical rods at the bottom are the antennas. The white sun protective coat makes an effective thermal insulation. Size: height, 4 m; width, 1.7 m.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Sketch of the instrument SPIRALE (vertical cross section) showing the location of the different parts. Four hexagonal carbon fiber boards tightly bolted with carbon fiber spacers form a rigid structure that fulfills the requirement of optical stability. When deployed, the telescopic mast, made of two beams engaged one into the other, lies on the second board. Otherwise, it lies on the fourth board through the flat rope. A rotating cam adjusts the position of the remote lower mirror. The optics are located mainly on the third board and near the vertical axis of the instrument, surrounded by electronics and batteries.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical path of the beam for one given diode laser. Right: The optical path including the multipass cell. The upper mirror of the multipass cell is adjusted and fixed. The lower mirror is at the extremity of the telescopic mast, which is deployed before species monitoring. There is tolerance on the lower mirror orientation (an angle of a few minutes) and off position (10 mm) in the Herriott cell. Optical elements are inserted on three carbon fiber boards. Left: The upper part of the instrument exhibiting an optical path with optical elements. PM, parabolic mirror; FM, flat mirror; SM, spherical mirror; BS, beam splitter; L, lens. Identical mirrors are labeled with increasing numbers, from laser to detectors. See the text for more details.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated positions of the six laser beams’ reflection spots on mirrors disposed on separate ellipses. Left: upper mirror (or entrance mirror) viewed backward with the hole drilled through. Right: lower mirror (or back mirror) facing. The first reflections are visualized by dots in the center of spots and are far from the last reflections visualized by the cross/circle in the center of the spots. Diameter, 350 mm; number of reflections, 86; distance between mirrors, 3.492 m; total path length, 300 m.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic diagram of SPIRALE electronics, which consists of several functional and physical subsystems. From top to bottom: the diode laser emission module (DLM); the signal preamplifier (SA); the data processing module (DPM) including the AOC; the instrument control module (ICM); the motor command module (MCM); the power supply; the telecommand (TC); and the telemetry (TM).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Upper panel: Fringes obtained with a germanium etalon of 300 MHz free spectral range (or 0.01 cm−1); a long usable frequency-increasing period follows a short nonusable frequency-decreasing period. Middle panel: A fit of fringe positions with a combination of polynomial, exponential, and sinusoidal functions within the usable part of the sweep (85% of total sweep). Lower panel: the residual showing a very low standard deviation, equivalent to ~8 MHz.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Concentration retrieval of O3 and CO near 2099 cm−1. The signal is frequency linearized with 5.03 MHz evenly spaced point numbers. The frequency is given relative to an arbitrary frequency. Upper panel: signal, solid curve; reconstructed curve without absorption, dashed curve. Middle panel: absorbed signal with a synthetic spectrum and residual (×10). Lower panel: second derivative with a synthetic spectrum and residual (×10). CO and O3 absolute concentrations are in molecules cm−3; the optical path length: 544 m.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Simultaneous retrieval of COF2, H2O2, and HOCl near 1250 cm−1 (channel 3 and laser mode 2). Example of faint lines appearing more clearly with the second derivative (lower panel) than from direct absorption (middle panel). The signal is the average of 30 consecutive spectra. The optical path length is 544 m.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Simultaneous retrieval of CH4 and N2O near 1262 cm−1 (channel 3 and laser mode 1). Example of strong lines at high pressure appearing clearly on the signal (upper panel) and with the second derivative (lower panel). The optical path length is 300 m.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Retrieval of NO2 near 1600 cm−1 (channel 5 and laser mode 1). Example of a faint doublet. From top to bottom: (i) Signal with spectral characteristics of absorbing species; (ii) the zoomed part of the signal centered on the NO2 doublet; (iii) the absorption signal with the retrieval of the baseline; and (iv) the second derivative signal. In both latter plots, the signal is filtered to remove fringes. The optical path length is 300 m.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Retrieval of HNO3 near 1701.6 cm−1 (channel 6). Example of species with numerous closed lines shown in logarithmic scale in the range 1–100 (upper panel). Signal (upper panel) and second derivative (lower panel). The optical path length is 300 m.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Retrieval of NO near 1861 cm−1 (channel 4). Another example of a faint doublet on a highly perturbed baseline. From top to bottom: (i) Full amplitude signal exhibiting H2O line; (ii) zoomed part of the signal centered on the NO doublet; (iii) second derivative signal. The optical path length is 544 m.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Ozone and temperature vertical profile measured during ascent and descent during midlatitude daytime. The vertical resolution is 5 m. The optical path length is 300 m. Three error bars (with empty circles) are positioned at low, middle, and high altitudes.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

COF2 and temperature vertical profiles, surrounded by profiles of constant absorptions of 10−4 and 10−5. The dotted curve is a remote measured concentration profile (Ref. 20). The vertical resolution is 100 m. The optical path length is 544 m. Three error bars (with empty circles) are positioned at low, middle, and high altitudes.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

NO2 and temperature vertical profiles measured during ascent and descent during midlatitude daytime. At low altitudes, concentrations are not plotted when curves cannot be retrieved from the signal. The vertical resolutions are 5 m (high altitude) and 30 m (low altitude). The optical path is length 300 m. Three error bars (with empty circles) are positioned at low, middle, and high altitudes.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Methane–nitrous oxide plot for two locations: high latitude (Kiruna, Sweden, 21 January 2003) and mid-latitude (Airesur-l’Adour, France, 2 October, 2002). The fine vertical resolution (~ 30 m) allows for the observation of structures related to identified layers. At high latitude, the low N2O mixing ratio is due to mesospheric air subsidence.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Time evolution of ozone exhibiting negative peaks, correlated with the absorption zone passing in the wake of the telescopic mast. The gondola is slowly spinning loose with the balloon (full curve). The unperturbed experimental ozone closely matches the constant ozone mixing ratio in a large pressure range (dashed curve). The two optical path lengths are 300 and 544 m.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 List of the Species Measured During the Three Flights of SPIRALE on Ascent and on Descent

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Table 2 Sensitivity Calculations on Concentration for Variations of Temperature T, Pressure P, Pressure-Broadening Coefficient γair, and Laser Linewidth Δvl at Low and High Pressures, Considering Two Laser Linewidths During a Concentration Retrieval (Concentration Variation Δc/c in Percent)

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Table 3 Estimated Uncertainties (1σ of Gaussian Distribution) for Three SNR values (100, 10, and 1), Related to Absorption (Respectively, 10−2, 10−3, and 10−4), Considering the Random Sources of Errors

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Table 4 Estimated Uncertainty (1σ) for SPIRALE Species Retrieval

Equations (8)

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I ( ν ˜ ) = I 0 ( ν ˜ ) exp [ - σ ( ν ˜ ) n L ] ,
σ ( ν ˜ ) = S T ( ν ˜ 0 ) × g Voigt ( ν ˜ )             with g Voigt ( ν ˜ ) = g L ( ν ˜ ) g D ( ν ˜ ) ,
g D ( ν ˜ ) = ln 2 π 1 γ D exp [ - ln 2 ( ν ˜ - ν ˜ 0 ) 2 γ D 2 ] ,
g L ( ν ˜ ) = γ L π 1 [ ( ν ˜ - ν ˜ 0 ) 2 + γ L 2 ] ,
S T = S T ref Q T ref Q T { exp - [ E k ( 1 T - 1 T ref ) ] } ,
I ( ν ˜ ) = I 0 ( ν ˜ ) exp [ - σ ( ν ˜ ) n L ] g l ( ν ˜ ) ,
cos θ = 1 - d / R ,
θ = 2 k π / N ,

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