Abstract

The acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) has optical sidelobes that are due to the acoustic field produced by the transducer. These sidelobes were analyzed by wave-vector phase matching between the optical and acoustic fields, which correlated with measurements made with a TeO2 AOTF. A white-light point source was filtered and imaged, showing reasonably large and slowly decreasing sidelobes covering a large spectral range. This effect reduces the image quality of an AOTF system by producing faint secondary images of bright objects. The image quality can be improved with a telecentric confocal optical arrangement in which the angular shift of the sidelobes is greatly reduced, producing a much sharper image. This effect was also demonstrated experimentally with the point source.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. B. Bates, D. Halliwell, D. Findlay, “Astronomical spectrophotometry with an acoustooptic filter photometer,” Appl. Opt. 23, 257–260 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. I. Kurtz, R. Dwelle, P. Katzka, “Rapid scanning fluorescence spectroscopy using an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1996–2003 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  3. J. Hallikainen, J. Parkkinen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Acousto-optic color spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 81–83 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Bardak, G. J. Wolga, “Acousto-optic spectrometer system used to monitor combustion processes,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4279–4285 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  5. A. Barocsi, L. Jakab, P. Richter, C. Schrodter, C. Hagedorn, “Investigation of acousto-optic tunable filter parameters for fast spectrometer applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2569–2573 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  6. G. A. Coquin, K. W. Cheung, “Electronically tunable external cavity semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 24, 599–600 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  7. L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, H. Buhay, J. J. Conroy, “Rapid tuning mechanism for CO2lasers,” in Gas Laser Technology, Proc. SPIE894, 78–85 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. W. Cheung, S. C. Liew, C. N. Lo, “Experimental demonstration of multiwavelength optical network with microwave subcarriers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 381–383 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. W. Cheung, D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, B. L. Heffner, “Multiple channel operation of integrated acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 25, 375–376 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  10. D. A. Glenar, J. J. Himan, B. Saif, J. Bergstrahl, “Acousto-optic imaging spectropolarimetry for remote detection sensing,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7412–7424 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. D. R. Suhre, J. G. Theodore, “White-light imaging by use of a multiple passband acousto-optic tunable filter,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4494–4501 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. E. S. Wachman, W. H. Niu, D. L. Farkas, “Imaging acousto-optic tunable filter with 0.35-micrometer spatial resolution,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5220–5226 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. D. R. Suhre, E. Villa, “Imaging spectroradiometer for the 8–12-μm region with a 3 cm−1passband acousto-optic tunable filter,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2340–2345 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  14. N. Gupta, L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, D. R. Suhre, B. Kaminski, P. Metes, “Object detection with a field-portable spectropolarimetric imager,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6626–6632 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  15. T. Yano, A. Watanabe, “Acoustooptic TeO2tunable filter using far-off-axis anisotropic Bragg diffraction,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2250–2258 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. D. R. Suhre, M. Gottlieb, N. T. Melamed, “Spatial resolution of imaging noncollinear acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2118–2121 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. R. Suhre, L. J. Denes, N. Gupta, “Telecentric confocal optics for aberration correction of acousto-optic tunable filters,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1255–1260 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. C. Chang, “Tunable acousto-optic filters: an overview,” Opt. Eng. 16, 455–460 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  19. N. Uchida, “Optical properties of single-crystal paratellurite (TeO2),” Phys. Rev. B 4, 3736–3745 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  20. I. C. Chang, “Acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Eng. 20, 824–829 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  21. E. I. Gordon, “A review of acoustooptical deflection and modulation devices,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1629–1639 (1966).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, S. Choy, “Acousto-optic tunable filter based visible-to-near-infrared spectropolarimetric imager,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1033–1038 (2002).
    [Crossref]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, S. Choy, “Acousto-optic tunable filter based visible-to-near-infrared spectropolarimetric imager,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1033–1038 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

1996 (2)

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

A. Barocsi, L. Jakab, P. Richter, C. Schrodter, C. Hagedorn, “Investigation of acousto-optic tunable filter parameters for fast spectrometer applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2569–2573 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

D. R. Suhre, M. Gottlieb, N. T. Melamed, “Spatial resolution of imaging noncollinear acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2118–2121 (1992).
[Crossref]

1989 (3)

K. W. Cheung, S. C. Liew, C. N. Lo, “Experimental demonstration of multiwavelength optical network with microwave subcarriers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 381–383 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. W. Cheung, D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, B. L. Heffner, “Multiple channel operation of integrated acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 25, 375–376 (1989).
[Crossref]

M. Bardak, G. J. Wolga, “Acousto-optic spectrometer system used to monitor combustion processes,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4279–4285 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (2)

J. Hallikainen, J. Parkkinen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Acousto-optic color spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 81–83 (1988).
[Crossref]

G. A. Coquin, K. W. Cheung, “Electronically tunable external cavity semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 24, 599–600 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

I. Kurtz, R. Dwelle, P. Katzka, “Rapid scanning fluorescence spectroscopy using an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1996–2003 (1987).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

1981 (1)

I. C. Chang, “Acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Eng. 20, 824–829 (1981).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

C. Chang, “Tunable acousto-optic filters: an overview,” Opt. Eng. 16, 455–460 (1977).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

1971 (1)

N. Uchida, “Optical properties of single-crystal paratellurite (TeO2),” Phys. Rev. B 4, 3736–3745 (1971).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

Baran, J. E.

K. W. Cheung, D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, B. L. Heffner, “Multiple channel operation of integrated acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 25, 375–376 (1989).
[Crossref]

Bardak, M.

Barocsi, A.

A. Barocsi, L. Jakab, P. Richter, C. Schrodter, C. Hagedorn, “Investigation of acousto-optic tunable filter parameters for fast spectrometer applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2569–2573 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bates, B.

Bergstrahl, J.

Buhay, H.

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, H. Buhay, J. J. Conroy, “Rapid tuning mechanism for CO2lasers,” in Gas Laser Technology, Proc. SPIE894, 78–85 (1988).
[Crossref]

Chang, C.

C. Chang, “Tunable acousto-optic filters: an overview,” Opt. Eng. 16, 455–460 (1977).
[Crossref]

Chang, I. C.

I. C. Chang, “Acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Eng. 20, 824–829 (1981).
[Crossref]

Cheung, K. W.

K. W. Cheung, S. C. Liew, C. N. Lo, “Experimental demonstration of multiwavelength optical network with microwave subcarriers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 381–383 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. W. Cheung, D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, B. L. Heffner, “Multiple channel operation of integrated acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 25, 375–376 (1989).
[Crossref]

G. A. Coquin, K. W. Cheung, “Electronically tunable external cavity semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 24, 599–600 (1988).
[Crossref]

Choy, S.

N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, S. Choy, “Acousto-optic tunable filter based visible-to-near-infrared spectropolarimetric imager,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1033–1038 (2002).
[Crossref]

Conroy, J. J.

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, H. Buhay, J. J. Conroy, “Rapid tuning mechanism for CO2lasers,” in Gas Laser Technology, Proc. SPIE894, 78–85 (1988).
[Crossref]

Coquin, G. A.

G. A. Coquin, K. W. Cheung, “Electronically tunable external cavity semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 24, 599–600 (1988).
[Crossref]

Dahmani, R.

N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, S. Choy, “Acousto-optic tunable filter based visible-to-near-infrared spectropolarimetric imager,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1033–1038 (2002).
[Crossref]

Denes, L. J.

Dwelle, R.

I. Kurtz, R. Dwelle, P. Katzka, “Rapid scanning fluorescence spectroscopy using an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1996–2003 (1987).
[Crossref]

Farkas, D. L.

Findlay, D.

Glenar, D. A.

Gordon, E. I.

Gottlieb, M.

N. Gupta, L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, D. R. Suhre, B. Kaminski, P. Metes, “Object detection with a field-portable spectropolarimetric imager,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6626–6632 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. R. Suhre, M. Gottlieb, N. T. Melamed, “Spatial resolution of imaging noncollinear acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2118–2121 (1992).
[Crossref]

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, H. Buhay, J. J. Conroy, “Rapid tuning mechanism for CO2lasers,” in Gas Laser Technology, Proc. SPIE894, 78–85 (1988).
[Crossref]

Gupta, N.

Hagedorn, C.

A. Barocsi, L. Jakab, P. Richter, C. Schrodter, C. Hagedorn, “Investigation of acousto-optic tunable filter parameters for fast spectrometer applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2569–2573 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hallikainen, J.

J. Hallikainen, J. Parkkinen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Acousto-optic color spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 81–83 (1988).
[Crossref]

Halliwell, D.

Heffner, B. L.

K. W. Cheung, D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, B. L. Heffner, “Multiple channel operation of integrated acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 25, 375–376 (1989).
[Crossref]

Himan, J. J.

Jaaskelainen, T.

J. Hallikainen, J. Parkkinen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Acousto-optic color spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 81–83 (1988).
[Crossref]

Jakab, L.

A. Barocsi, L. Jakab, P. Richter, C. Schrodter, C. Hagedorn, “Investigation of acousto-optic tunable filter parameters for fast spectrometer applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2569–2573 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kaminski, B.

Katzka, P.

I. Kurtz, R. Dwelle, P. Katzka, “Rapid scanning fluorescence spectroscopy using an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1996–2003 (1987).
[Crossref]

Kurtz, I.

I. Kurtz, R. Dwelle, P. Katzka, “Rapid scanning fluorescence spectroscopy using an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1996–2003 (1987).
[Crossref]

Liew, S. C.

K. W. Cheung, S. C. Liew, C. N. Lo, “Experimental demonstration of multiwavelength optical network with microwave subcarriers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 381–383 (1989).
[Crossref]

Lo, C. N.

K. W. Cheung, S. C. Liew, C. N. Lo, “Experimental demonstration of multiwavelength optical network with microwave subcarriers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 381–383 (1989).
[Crossref]

Melamed, N. T.

D. R. Suhre, M. Gottlieb, N. T. Melamed, “Spatial resolution of imaging noncollinear acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2118–2121 (1992).
[Crossref]

Metes, P.

Niu, W. H.

Parkkinen, J.

J. Hallikainen, J. Parkkinen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Acousto-optic color spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 81–83 (1988).
[Crossref]

Richter, P.

A. Barocsi, L. Jakab, P. Richter, C. Schrodter, C. Hagedorn, “Investigation of acousto-optic tunable filter parameters for fast spectrometer applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2569–2573 (1993).
[Crossref]

Saif, B.

Schrodter, C.

A. Barocsi, L. Jakab, P. Richter, C. Schrodter, C. Hagedorn, “Investigation of acousto-optic tunable filter parameters for fast spectrometer applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2569–2573 (1993).
[Crossref]

Singh, N. B.

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, H. Buhay, J. J. Conroy, “Rapid tuning mechanism for CO2lasers,” in Gas Laser Technology, Proc. SPIE894, 78–85 (1988).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. A.

K. W. Cheung, D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, B. L. Heffner, “Multiple channel operation of integrated acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 25, 375–376 (1989).
[Crossref]

Suhre, D. R.

Theodore, J. G.

Uchida, N.

N. Uchida, “Optical properties of single-crystal paratellurite (TeO2),” Phys. Rev. B 4, 3736–3745 (1971).
[Crossref]

Villa, E.

Wachman, E. S.

Watanabe, A.

Wolga, G. J.

Yano, T.

Appl. Opt. (10)

B. Bates, D. Halliwell, D. Findlay, “Astronomical spectrophotometry with an acoustooptic filter photometer,” Appl. Opt. 23, 257–260 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bardak, G. J. Wolga, “Acousto-optic spectrometer system used to monitor combustion processes,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4279–4285 (1989).
[Crossref]

D. A. Glenar, J. J. Himan, B. Saif, J. Bergstrahl, “Acousto-optic imaging spectropolarimetry for remote detection sensing,” Appl. Opt. 33, 7412–7424 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Suhre, J. G. Theodore, “White-light imaging by use of a multiple passband acousto-optic tunable filter,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4494–4501 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. S. Wachman, W. H. Niu, D. L. Farkas, “Imaging acousto-optic tunable filter with 0.35-micrometer spatial resolution,” Appl. Opt. 35, 5220–5226 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Suhre, E. Villa, “Imaging spectroradiometer for the 8–12-μm region with a 3 cm−1passband acousto-optic tunable filter,” Appl. Opt. 37, 2340–2345 (1998).
[Crossref]

N. Gupta, L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, D. R. Suhre, B. Kaminski, P. Metes, “Object detection with a field-portable spectropolarimetric imager,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6626–6632 (2001).
[Crossref]

T. Yano, A. Watanabe, “Acoustooptic TeO2tunable filter using far-off-axis anisotropic Bragg diffraction,” Appl. Opt. 15, 2250–2258 (1976).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. R. Suhre, L. J. Denes, N. Gupta, “Telecentric confocal optics for aberration correction of acousto-optic tunable filters,” Appl. Opt. 43, 1255–1260 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. I. Gordon, “A review of acoustooptical deflection and modulation devices,” Appl. Opt. 5, 1629–1639 (1966).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Electron. Lett. (3)

G. A. Coquin, K. W. Cheung, “Electronically tunable external cavity semiconductor laser,” Electron. Lett. 24, 599–600 (1988).
[Crossref]

K. W. Cheung, S. C. Liew, C. N. Lo, “Experimental demonstration of multiwavelength optical network with microwave subcarriers,” Electron. Lett. 25, 381–383 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. W. Cheung, D. A. Smith, J. E. Baran, B. L. Heffner, “Multiple channel operation of integrated acousto-optic tunable filter,” Electron. Lett. 25, 375–376 (1989).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (5)

A. Barocsi, L. Jakab, P. Richter, C. Schrodter, C. Hagedorn, “Investigation of acousto-optic tunable filter parameters for fast spectrometer applications,” Opt. Eng. 32, 2569–2573 (1993).
[Crossref]

N. Gupta, R. Dahmani, S. Choy, “Acousto-optic tunable filter based visible-to-near-infrared spectropolarimetric imager,” Opt. Eng. 41, 1033–1038 (2002).
[Crossref]

C. Chang, “Tunable acousto-optic filters: an overview,” Opt. Eng. 16, 455–460 (1977).
[Crossref]

D. R. Suhre, M. Gottlieb, N. T. Melamed, “Spatial resolution of imaging noncollinear acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Eng. 31, 2118–2121 (1992).
[Crossref]

I. C. Chang, “Acousto-optic tunable filters,” Opt. Eng. 20, 824–829 (1981).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

N. Uchida, “Optical properties of single-crystal paratellurite (TeO2),” Phys. Rev. B 4, 3736–3745 (1971).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

I. Kurtz, R. Dwelle, P. Katzka, “Rapid scanning fluorescence spectroscopy using an acousto-optic tunable filter,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 58, 1996–2003 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Hallikainen, J. Parkkinen, T. Jaaskelainen, “Acousto-optic color spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 59, 81–83 (1988).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

L. J. Denes, M. Gottlieb, N. B. Singh, D. R. Suhre, H. Buhay, J. J. Conroy, “Rapid tuning mechanism for CO2lasers,” in Gas Laser Technology, Proc. SPIE894, 78–85 (1988).
[Crossref]

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Wave-vector diagram for positive uniaxial crystals such as TeO2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wave-vector diagram illustrating a spread in the diffracted beam for a fixed input ray that is caused by a spread in the acoustic beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Response of the TeO2 AOTF used for measurements to a 632.8 nm He–Ne laser.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image of a diffracted AOTF image of a white-light point source, showing sidelobe images.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured normalized AOTF sidelobe image intensity of point source compared with theory.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated optical wavelengths corresponding to the sidelobe images of the collimated AOTF.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Telecentric confocal optical arrange used to reduce sidelobe images.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Image of a point source with a confocal system, showing a large reduction of AOTF sidelobes.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Normalized intensity pattern produced by telecentric confocal optics.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k d = k a + k i ,
k i = 2 π n i / λ 0 ,             k d = 2 π n d / λ 0 ,             k a = 2 π / Λ ,
λ 0 2 / Λ 2 = n o 2 + n d 2 - 2 n o n d cos α ,
n d = ( cos 2 θ d / n o 2 + sin 2 θ d / n e 2 ) - 1 / 2 ,
I a sinc 2 [ π ( β - β 0 ) L i / Λ ] ,
sin α = ( λ 0 / Λ n d ) sin β .

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