Abstract

Upper tropospheric cirrus clouds consist of hexagonal ice crystals, which geometrical ray-tracing-theory predicts should regularly produce a variety of optical phenomena such as vivid 22° and 46° halos. Yet, cirrus inconsistently generate such optical displays, while a class of more exotic displays are reported, albeit rarely. I review current knowledge of the cirrus cloud microphysical factors that control ice crystal shape, and hence halo/arc formation, but also appeal to halo enthusiasts to help investigate the causes of unusually complex, brilliant, or rare optical displays. Currently, a wealth of meteorological information can be tapped from the Internet to help advance our knowledge of the basic meteorological factors leading to these rare events.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. D. Lynch, “Cirrus: history and definition,” in Cirrus, D. Lynch, K. Sassen, D. O’C. Starr, G. L. Stephens, eds. (Oxford University, 2002), pp. 3–10.
  2. K. Sassen, G. G. Mace, J. Hallett, M. R. Poellot, “Corona-producing ice clouds: a case study of a cold cirrus layer,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1477–1585 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Sassen, “Cirrus clouds and haloes: a closer look,” Opt. Photonics News 10, 39–42 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Sassen, Y. Takano, “Parry arc: a polarization lidar, ray tracing, and aircraft case study,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6738–6745 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Sassen, W. P. Arnott, D. O’C Starr, G. G. Mace, Z. Wang, M. R. Poellot, “Midlatitude cirrus clouds derived from hurricane Nora: a case study with implications for ice crystal nucleation and shape,” J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 873–891 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Sassen, G. C. Dodd, “Haze particle nucleation simulations in cirrus clouds, and applications for numerical and lidar studies,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3005–3014 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. R. Pruppacher, J. D. Klett, Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation, 2nd ed. (Kluwer, Berlin, 1997).
  8. G. Vali, “Nucleation terminology,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 66, 1426 (1985).
  9. K. Sassen, J. R. Campbell, “A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing: I. Macrophysical and synoptic properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 481–496 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Sassen, “Cirrus clouds: a modern perspective,” in Cirrus, D. Lynch, K. Sassen, D. O’C. Starr, G. L. Stephens, eds. (Oxford University, 2002), pp. 11–40.
  11. R. F. Lin, D. O’C Starr, P. J. DeMott, R. Cotton, K. Sassen, E. Jensen, B. Karcher, X. Jiu, “Cirrus parcel model comparison project phase. I: The critical components to simulate cirrus initiation explicitly,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 2305–2329 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. I. Khvorostyanov, K. Sassen, “Cirrus cloud simulation using explicit microphysics and radiation. Part II: Microphysics, vapor and mass budgets, and optical and radiative properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 1822–1845 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Takano, K. N. Liou, “Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. Part I: Single-scattering and optical properties of hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3–19 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Sassen, N. C. Knight, Y. Takano, A. J. Heymsfield, “Effects of ice crystal structure on halo formation: cirrus cloud experimental and ray-tracing modeling studies,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4590–4601 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. A. R. Tricker, Ice Crystal Halos (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979).
  16. R. Greenler, Rainbows, Halos, and Glories (Cambridge University, New York, 1980).
  17. W. Tape, Atmospheric Halos, Vol. 64 of Antarctic Research Series (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. W. G. Finnegan, R. C. Pitter, “Ion-induced charge separations in growing single ice crystals: effects on growth and interaction processes,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 189, 322–327 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. A. Tabazadeh, O. B. Toon, “The role of ammoniated aerosols in cirrus cloud nucleation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1379–1382 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Y. Chen, P. J. DeMott, S. M. Kreidenweis, D. C. Rogers, D. E. Sherman, “Ice formation by sulfate and sulfuric acid aerosol particles under upper-tropospheric conditions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 3752–3766 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. J. Heymsfield, R. M. Sabin, Cirrus crystal nucleation by homogeneous freezing of solution droplets, J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 2252–2264 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. Sassen, D. O’C Starr, G. G. Mace, M. R. Poellot, S. H. Melfi, W. L. Eberhard, J. D. Spinhirne, E. W. Eloranta, D. E. Hagen, J. Hallett, “The 5–6 December 1991 FIRE IFO II jet stream cirrus case study: possible influences of volcanic aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 97–123 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Bailey, J. Hallett, “Nucleation effects on the habit of vapour grown ice crystals from −18° and −42 °C,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 128, 1461–1483 (2002).
  24. K. Sassen, “Icy dust clouds over Alaska,” Nature 434, 456 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. Sassen, J. Zhu, S. Benson, “A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing: IV. Optical displays,” Appl. Opt. 42, 332–341 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. J. Nelson, “Sublimation of ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 910–919 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2005

K. Sassen, “Icy dust clouds over Alaska,” Nature 434, 456 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003

K. Sassen, W. P. Arnott, D. O’C Starr, G. G. Mace, Z. Wang, M. R. Poellot, “Midlatitude cirrus clouds derived from hurricane Nora: a case study with implications for ice crystal nucleation and shape,” J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 873–891 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, J. Zhu, S. Benson, “A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing: IV. Optical displays,” Appl. Opt. 42, 332–341 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

R. F. Lin, D. O’C Starr, P. J. DeMott, R. Cotton, K. Sassen, E. Jensen, B. Karcher, X. Jiu, “Cirrus parcel model comparison project phase. I: The critical components to simulate cirrus initiation explicitly,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 2305–2329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. Bailey, J. Hallett, “Nucleation effects on the habit of vapour grown ice crystals from −18° and −42 °C,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 128, 1461–1483 (2002).

2001

K. Sassen, J. R. Campbell, “A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing: I. Macrophysical and synoptic properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 481–496 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

Y. Chen, P. J. DeMott, S. M. Kreidenweis, D. C. Rogers, D. E. Sherman, “Ice formation by sulfate and sulfuric acid aerosol particles under upper-tropospheric conditions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 3752–3766 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, Y. Takano, “Parry arc: a polarization lidar, ray tracing, and aircraft case study,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6738–6745 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

K. Sassen, “Cirrus clouds and haloes: a closer look,” Opt. Photonics News 10, 39–42 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. Nelson, “Sublimation of ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 910–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, G. G. Mace, J. Hallett, M. R. Poellot, “Corona-producing ice clouds: a case study of a cold cirrus layer,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1477–1585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Tabazadeh, O. B. Toon, “The role of ammoniated aerosols in cirrus cloud nucleation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1379–1382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Khvorostyanov, K. Sassen, “Cirrus cloud simulation using explicit microphysics and radiation. Part II: Microphysics, vapor and mass budgets, and optical and radiative properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 1822–1845 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

W. G. Finnegan, R. C. Pitter, “Ion-induced charge separations in growing single ice crystals: effects on growth and interaction processes,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 189, 322–327 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

K. Sassen, D. O’C Starr, G. G. Mace, M. R. Poellot, S. H. Melfi, W. L. Eberhard, J. D. Spinhirne, E. W. Eloranta, D. E. Hagen, J. Hallett, “The 5–6 December 1991 FIRE IFO II jet stream cirrus case study: possible influences of volcanic aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 97–123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1989

A. J. Heymsfield, R. M. Sabin, Cirrus crystal nucleation by homogeneous freezing of solution droplets, J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 2252–2264 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takano, K. N. Liou, “Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. Part I: Single-scattering and optical properties of hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3–19 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, G. C. Dodd, “Haze particle nucleation simulations in cirrus clouds, and applications for numerical and lidar studies,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3005–3014 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985

G. Vali, “Nucleation terminology,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 66, 1426 (1985).

Arnott, W. P.

K. Sassen, W. P. Arnott, D. O’C Starr, G. G. Mace, Z. Wang, M. R. Poellot, “Midlatitude cirrus clouds derived from hurricane Nora: a case study with implications for ice crystal nucleation and shape,” J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 873–891 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, M.

M. Bailey, J. Hallett, “Nucleation effects on the habit of vapour grown ice crystals from −18° and −42 °C,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 128, 1461–1483 (2002).

Benson, S.

Campbell, J. R.

K. Sassen, J. R. Campbell, “A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing: I. Macrophysical and synoptic properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 481–496 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, P. J. DeMott, S. M. Kreidenweis, D. C. Rogers, D. E. Sherman, “Ice formation by sulfate and sulfuric acid aerosol particles under upper-tropospheric conditions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 3752–3766 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cotton, R.

R. F. Lin, D. O’C Starr, P. J. DeMott, R. Cotton, K. Sassen, E. Jensen, B. Karcher, X. Jiu, “Cirrus parcel model comparison project phase. I: The critical components to simulate cirrus initiation explicitly,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 2305–2329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

DeMott, P. J.

R. F. Lin, D. O’C Starr, P. J. DeMott, R. Cotton, K. Sassen, E. Jensen, B. Karcher, X. Jiu, “Cirrus parcel model comparison project phase. I: The critical components to simulate cirrus initiation explicitly,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 2305–2329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, P. J. DeMott, S. M. Kreidenweis, D. C. Rogers, D. E. Sherman, “Ice formation by sulfate and sulfuric acid aerosol particles under upper-tropospheric conditions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 3752–3766 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dodd, G. C.

K. Sassen, G. C. Dodd, “Haze particle nucleation simulations in cirrus clouds, and applications for numerical and lidar studies,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3005–3014 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Eberhard, W. L.

K. Sassen, D. O’C Starr, G. G. Mace, M. R. Poellot, S. H. Melfi, W. L. Eberhard, J. D. Spinhirne, E. W. Eloranta, D. E. Hagen, J. Hallett, “The 5–6 December 1991 FIRE IFO II jet stream cirrus case study: possible influences of volcanic aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 97–123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eloranta, E. W.

K. Sassen, D. O’C Starr, G. G. Mace, M. R. Poellot, S. H. Melfi, W. L. Eberhard, J. D. Spinhirne, E. W. Eloranta, D. E. Hagen, J. Hallett, “The 5–6 December 1991 FIRE IFO II jet stream cirrus case study: possible influences of volcanic aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 97–123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Finnegan, W. G.

W. G. Finnegan, R. C. Pitter, “Ion-induced charge separations in growing single ice crystals: effects on growth and interaction processes,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 189, 322–327 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Greenler, R.

R. Greenler, Rainbows, Halos, and Glories (Cambridge University, New York, 1980).

Hagen, D. E.

K. Sassen, D. O’C Starr, G. G. Mace, M. R. Poellot, S. H. Melfi, W. L. Eberhard, J. D. Spinhirne, E. W. Eloranta, D. E. Hagen, J. Hallett, “The 5–6 December 1991 FIRE IFO II jet stream cirrus case study: possible influences of volcanic aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 97–123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hallett, J.

M. Bailey, J. Hallett, “Nucleation effects on the habit of vapour grown ice crystals from −18° and −42 °C,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 128, 1461–1483 (2002).

K. Sassen, G. G. Mace, J. Hallett, M. R. Poellot, “Corona-producing ice clouds: a case study of a cold cirrus layer,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1477–1585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, D. O’C Starr, G. G. Mace, M. R. Poellot, S. H. Melfi, W. L. Eberhard, J. D. Spinhirne, E. W. Eloranta, D. E. Hagen, J. Hallett, “The 5–6 December 1991 FIRE IFO II jet stream cirrus case study: possible influences of volcanic aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 97–123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heymsfield, A. J.

Jensen, E.

R. F. Lin, D. O’C Starr, P. J. DeMott, R. Cotton, K. Sassen, E. Jensen, B. Karcher, X. Jiu, “Cirrus parcel model comparison project phase. I: The critical components to simulate cirrus initiation explicitly,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 2305–2329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jiu, X.

R. F. Lin, D. O’C Starr, P. J. DeMott, R. Cotton, K. Sassen, E. Jensen, B. Karcher, X. Jiu, “Cirrus parcel model comparison project phase. I: The critical components to simulate cirrus initiation explicitly,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 2305–2329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Karcher, B.

R. F. Lin, D. O’C Starr, P. J. DeMott, R. Cotton, K. Sassen, E. Jensen, B. Karcher, X. Jiu, “Cirrus parcel model comparison project phase. I: The critical components to simulate cirrus initiation explicitly,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 2305–2329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Khvorostyanov, V. I.

V. I. Khvorostyanov, K. Sassen, “Cirrus cloud simulation using explicit microphysics and radiation. Part II: Microphysics, vapor and mass budgets, and optical and radiative properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 1822–1845 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Klett, J. D.

H. R. Pruppacher, J. D. Klett, Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation, 2nd ed. (Kluwer, Berlin, 1997).

Knight, N. C.

Kreidenweis, S. M.

Y. Chen, P. J. DeMott, S. M. Kreidenweis, D. C. Rogers, D. E. Sherman, “Ice formation by sulfate and sulfuric acid aerosol particles under upper-tropospheric conditions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 3752–3766 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, R. F.

R. F. Lin, D. O’C Starr, P. J. DeMott, R. Cotton, K. Sassen, E. Jensen, B. Karcher, X. Jiu, “Cirrus parcel model comparison project phase. I: The critical components to simulate cirrus initiation explicitly,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 2305–2329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liou, K. N.

Y. Takano, K. N. Liou, “Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. Part I: Single-scattering and optical properties of hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3–19 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, D.

D. Lynch, “Cirrus: history and definition,” in Cirrus, D. Lynch, K. Sassen, D. O’C. Starr, G. L. Stephens, eds. (Oxford University, 2002), pp. 3–10.

Mace, G. G.

K. Sassen, W. P. Arnott, D. O’C Starr, G. G. Mace, Z. Wang, M. R. Poellot, “Midlatitude cirrus clouds derived from hurricane Nora: a case study with implications for ice crystal nucleation and shape,” J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 873–891 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, G. G. Mace, J. Hallett, M. R. Poellot, “Corona-producing ice clouds: a case study of a cold cirrus layer,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1477–1585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, D. O’C Starr, G. G. Mace, M. R. Poellot, S. H. Melfi, W. L. Eberhard, J. D. Spinhirne, E. W. Eloranta, D. E. Hagen, J. Hallett, “The 5–6 December 1991 FIRE IFO II jet stream cirrus case study: possible influences of volcanic aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 97–123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Melfi, S. H.

K. Sassen, D. O’C Starr, G. G. Mace, M. R. Poellot, S. H. Melfi, W. L. Eberhard, J. D. Spinhirne, E. W. Eloranta, D. E. Hagen, J. Hallett, “The 5–6 December 1991 FIRE IFO II jet stream cirrus case study: possible influences of volcanic aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 97–123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, J.

J. Nelson, “Sublimation of ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 910–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O’C Starr, D.

K. Sassen, W. P. Arnott, D. O’C Starr, G. G. Mace, Z. Wang, M. R. Poellot, “Midlatitude cirrus clouds derived from hurricane Nora: a case study with implications for ice crystal nucleation and shape,” J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 873–891 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Lin, D. O’C Starr, P. J. DeMott, R. Cotton, K. Sassen, E. Jensen, B. Karcher, X. Jiu, “Cirrus parcel model comparison project phase. I: The critical components to simulate cirrus initiation explicitly,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 2305–2329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, D. O’C Starr, G. G. Mace, M. R. Poellot, S. H. Melfi, W. L. Eberhard, J. D. Spinhirne, E. W. Eloranta, D. E. Hagen, J. Hallett, “The 5–6 December 1991 FIRE IFO II jet stream cirrus case study: possible influences of volcanic aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 97–123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pitter, R. C.

W. G. Finnegan, R. C. Pitter, “Ion-induced charge separations in growing single ice crystals: effects on growth and interaction processes,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 189, 322–327 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poellot, M. R.

K. Sassen, W. P. Arnott, D. O’C Starr, G. G. Mace, Z. Wang, M. R. Poellot, “Midlatitude cirrus clouds derived from hurricane Nora: a case study with implications for ice crystal nucleation and shape,” J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 873–891 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, G. G. Mace, J. Hallett, M. R. Poellot, “Corona-producing ice clouds: a case study of a cold cirrus layer,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1477–1585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, D. O’C Starr, G. G. Mace, M. R. Poellot, S. H. Melfi, W. L. Eberhard, J. D. Spinhirne, E. W. Eloranta, D. E. Hagen, J. Hallett, “The 5–6 December 1991 FIRE IFO II jet stream cirrus case study: possible influences of volcanic aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 97–123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pruppacher, H. R.

H. R. Pruppacher, J. D. Klett, Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation, 2nd ed. (Kluwer, Berlin, 1997).

Rogers, D. C.

Y. Chen, P. J. DeMott, S. M. Kreidenweis, D. C. Rogers, D. E. Sherman, “Ice formation by sulfate and sulfuric acid aerosol particles under upper-tropospheric conditions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 3752–3766 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sabin, R. M.

A. J. Heymsfield, R. M. Sabin, Cirrus crystal nucleation by homogeneous freezing of solution droplets, J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 2252–2264 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sassen, K.

K. Sassen, “Icy dust clouds over Alaska,” Nature 434, 456 (2005).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, W. P. Arnott, D. O’C Starr, G. G. Mace, Z. Wang, M. R. Poellot, “Midlatitude cirrus clouds derived from hurricane Nora: a case study with implications for ice crystal nucleation and shape,” J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 873–891 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, J. Zhu, S. Benson, “A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing: IV. Optical displays,” Appl. Opt. 42, 332–341 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Lin, D. O’C Starr, P. J. DeMott, R. Cotton, K. Sassen, E. Jensen, B. Karcher, X. Jiu, “Cirrus parcel model comparison project phase. I: The critical components to simulate cirrus initiation explicitly,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 2305–2329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, J. R. Campbell, “A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing: I. Macrophysical and synoptic properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 481–496 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, Y. Takano, “Parry arc: a polarization lidar, ray tracing, and aircraft case study,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6738–6745 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, “Cirrus clouds and haloes: a closer look,” Opt. Photonics News 10, 39–42 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, G. G. Mace, J. Hallett, M. R. Poellot, “Corona-producing ice clouds: a case study of a cold cirrus layer,” Appl. Opt. 37, 1477–1585 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Khvorostyanov, K. Sassen, “Cirrus cloud simulation using explicit microphysics and radiation. Part II: Microphysics, vapor and mass budgets, and optical and radiative properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 1822–1845 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, D. O’C Starr, G. G. Mace, M. R. Poellot, S. H. Melfi, W. L. Eberhard, J. D. Spinhirne, E. W. Eloranta, D. E. Hagen, J. Hallett, “The 5–6 December 1991 FIRE IFO II jet stream cirrus case study: possible influences of volcanic aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 97–123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, N. C. Knight, Y. Takano, A. J. Heymsfield, “Effects of ice crystal structure on halo formation: cirrus cloud experimental and ray-tracing modeling studies,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4590–4601 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Sassen, G. C. Dodd, “Haze particle nucleation simulations in cirrus clouds, and applications for numerical and lidar studies,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3005–3014 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, “Cirrus clouds: a modern perspective,” in Cirrus, D. Lynch, K. Sassen, D. O’C. Starr, G. L. Stephens, eds. (Oxford University, 2002), pp. 11–40.

Sherman, D. E.

Y. Chen, P. J. DeMott, S. M. Kreidenweis, D. C. Rogers, D. E. Sherman, “Ice formation by sulfate and sulfuric acid aerosol particles under upper-tropospheric conditions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 3752–3766 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spinhirne, J. D.

K. Sassen, D. O’C Starr, G. G. Mace, M. R. Poellot, S. H. Melfi, W. L. Eberhard, J. D. Spinhirne, E. W. Eloranta, D. E. Hagen, J. Hallett, “The 5–6 December 1991 FIRE IFO II jet stream cirrus case study: possible influences of volcanic aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 97–123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tabazadeh, A.

A. Tabazadeh, O. B. Toon, “The role of ammoniated aerosols in cirrus cloud nucleation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1379–1382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Takano, Y.

Tape, W.

W. Tape, Atmospheric Halos, Vol. 64 of Antarctic Research Series (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1994).
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. B.

A. Tabazadeh, O. B. Toon, “The role of ammoniated aerosols in cirrus cloud nucleation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1379–1382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tricker, R. A. R.

R. A. R. Tricker, Ice Crystal Halos (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979).

Vali, G.

G. Vali, “Nucleation terminology,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 66, 1426 (1985).

Wang, Z.

K. Sassen, W. P. Arnott, D. O’C Starr, G. G. Mace, Z. Wang, M. R. Poellot, “Midlatitude cirrus clouds derived from hurricane Nora: a case study with implications for ice crystal nucleation and shape,” J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 873–891 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

Appl. Opt.

Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc.

G. Vali, “Nucleation terminology,” Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc. 66, 1426 (1985).

Geophys. Res. Lett.

A. Tabazadeh, O. B. Toon, “The role of ammoniated aerosols in cirrus cloud nucleation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1379–1382 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Sci.

Y. Chen, P. J. DeMott, S. M. Kreidenweis, D. C. Rogers, D. E. Sherman, “Ice formation by sulfate and sulfuric acid aerosol particles under upper-tropospheric conditions,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 3752–3766 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Heymsfield, R. M. Sabin, Cirrus crystal nucleation by homogeneous freezing of solution droplets, J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 2252–2264 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, D. O’C Starr, G. G. Mace, M. R. Poellot, S. H. Melfi, W. L. Eberhard, J. D. Spinhirne, E. W. Eloranta, D. E. Hagen, J. Hallett, “The 5–6 December 1991 FIRE IFO II jet stream cirrus case study: possible influences of volcanic aerosols,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 97–123 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, J. R. Campbell, “A midlatitude cirrus cloud climatology from the Facility for Atmospheric Remote Sensing: I. Macrophysical and synoptic properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 58, 481–496 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, W. P. Arnott, D. O’C Starr, G. G. Mace, Z. Wang, M. R. Poellot, “Midlatitude cirrus clouds derived from hurricane Nora: a case study with implications for ice crystal nucleation and shape,” J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 873–891 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Sassen, G. C. Dodd, “Haze particle nucleation simulations in cirrus clouds, and applications for numerical and lidar studies,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3005–3014 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Lin, D. O’C Starr, P. J. DeMott, R. Cotton, K. Sassen, E. Jensen, B. Karcher, X. Jiu, “Cirrus parcel model comparison project phase. I: The critical components to simulate cirrus initiation explicitly,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 2305–2329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Khvorostyanov, K. Sassen, “Cirrus cloud simulation using explicit microphysics and radiation. Part II: Microphysics, vapor and mass budgets, and optical and radiative properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 1822–1845 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takano, K. N. Liou, “Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. Part I: Single-scattering and optical properties of hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3–19 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Nelson, “Sublimation of ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 55, 910–919 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci.

W. G. Finnegan, R. C. Pitter, “Ion-induced charge separations in growing single ice crystals: effects on growth and interaction processes,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 189, 322–327 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nature

K. Sassen, “Icy dust clouds over Alaska,” Nature 434, 456 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Photonics News

K. Sassen, “Cirrus clouds and haloes: a closer look,” Opt. Photonics News 10, 39–42 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc.

M. Bailey, J. Hallett, “Nucleation effects on the habit of vapour grown ice crystals from −18° and −42 °C,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 128, 1461–1483 (2002).

Other

D. Lynch, “Cirrus: history and definition,” in Cirrus, D. Lynch, K. Sassen, D. O’C. Starr, G. L. Stephens, eds. (Oxford University, 2002), pp. 3–10.

R. A. R. Tricker, Ice Crystal Halos (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1979).

R. Greenler, Rainbows, Halos, and Glories (Cambridge University, New York, 1980).

W. Tape, Atmospheric Halos, Vol. 64 of Antarctic Research Series (American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., 1994).
[CrossRef]

H. R. Pruppacher, J. D. Klett, Microphysics of Clouds and Precipitation, 2nd ed. (Kluwer, Berlin, 1997).

K. Sassen, “Cirrus clouds: a modern perspective,” in Cirrus, D. Lynch, K. Sassen, D. O’C. Starr, G. L. Stephens, eds. (Oxford University, 2002), pp. 11–40.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics