Abstract

The variability of the astronomical refraction of the setting Sun as measured from Holetown, Barbados, West Indies, is compared to sunset refraction measured from Edmonton, Alberta, during the same time of year. At about 13 °N latitude, Holetown experiences a marine tropical climate, while Edmonton (53 °N) has a subarctic continental climate. The 17 sunsets recorded from Holetown between 27 December 2003, and 21 February 2004, and between 25 and 30 December 2004, show a mean astronomical refraction of 0°.475 and standard deviation of 0°.012. The 26 sunsets recorded from Edmonton between 31 December 1992, and 17 February 1993, show a mean astronomical refraction of 0°.699 and standard deviation of 0°.118. The Barbados mean is significantly less than the Edmonton mean, while the variability of the Barbados data is an order of magnitude less than the Edmonton data. The variability of refraction appears to be strongly correlated with the variability in the surface vertical temperature gradient recorded on the same day as the sunset observations. This suggests that mapping of the geographic distribution of low-altitude astronomical refraction variability could be based on climatology of the surface vertical temperature gradient.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2005

A. F. Aveni, “Pecked designs at Teotihuacan,” J. History Astron. 36, 31–47 (2005).

2004

E. R. Edwards, J. A. Belmonte, “Megalithic astronomy of Easter Island,” J. History Astron. 35, 421–434 (2004).

A. T. Young, “Sunset science. IV. Low-altitude refraction,” Astron. J. 127, 3622–3637 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. D. Sampson, E. P. Lozowski, A. E. Peterson, D. P. Hube, “Variability in the astronomical refraction of the rising and setting Sun,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 1256–1261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

I. Liritzis, H. Vassiliou, “Archaeoastronomical orientation of seven significant ancient Hellenic temples,” Archaeoastronomy 17, 94–100 (2003).

R. D. Sampson, E. P. Lozowski, A. E. Peterson, “Comparison of modelled and observed astronomical refraction of the setting Sun,” Appl. Opt. 42, 342–353 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

M. Hoskin, “Studies in Iberian archaeoastronomy, (9) An overview,” Archaeoastronomy 27, S75–S82 (2002).

2001

J. A. Belmonte, “On the orientation of old kingdom Egyptian pyramids,” Archaeoastronomy 26, S1–S20 (2001).

R. Kistler, E. Kalnay, W. Collins, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, M. Kanamitsu, V. Kousky, H. van den Dool, R. Jenne, M. Fiorino, “The NCEP-NCAR 50-year reanalysis: monthly means CD-ROM and documentation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woolen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetma, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, D. Joseph. “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bulle. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 437–471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

J. D. Kahl, M. C. Serreze, R. C. Schnell, “Tropospheric low-level temperature inversions in the Canadian arctic,” Atmo. Ocean 30, 510–529 (1992).

1990

B. E. Schaefer, W. Liller, “Refraction near the horizon,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 102, 796–805 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1979

1977

T. Morgan, R. D. Bornstein, “Inversion climatology at San Jose, California,” Mon. Weather Rev. 105, 653–656 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1961

C. R. Hosler, “Low level inversion frequency in the contiguous United States,” Mon. Weather Rev. 89, 319–339 (1961).
[CrossRef]

1864

A. Lang, “Observations of the Sun at rising to determine the refraction; and of solar spots,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 24, 26–28 (1864).

1862

A. Lang, “Observations of the horizontal refraction of the Sun,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 23, 58–59 (1862).

Aveni, A. F.

A. F. Aveni, “Pecked designs at Teotihuacan,” J. History Astron. 36, 31–47 (2005).

Belmonte, J. A.

E. R. Edwards, J. A. Belmonte, “Megalithic astronomy of Easter Island,” J. History Astron. 35, 421–434 (2004).

J. A. Belmonte, “On the orientation of old kingdom Egyptian pyramids,” Archaeoastronomy 26, S1–S20 (2001).

Bomford, G.

G. Bomford, Geodesy (Clarendon, Oxford, 1980).

Bornstein, R. D.

T. Morgan, R. D. Bornstein, “Inversion climatology at San Jose, California,” Mon. Weather Rev. 105, 653–656 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Chelliah, M.

R. Kistler, E. Kalnay, W. Collins, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, M. Kanamitsu, V. Kousky, H. van den Dool, R. Jenne, M. Fiorino, “The NCEP-NCAR 50-year reanalysis: monthly means CD-ROM and documentation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woolen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetma, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, D. Joseph. “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bulle. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 437–471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Collins, W.

R. Kistler, E. Kalnay, W. Collins, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, M. Kanamitsu, V. Kousky, H. van den Dool, R. Jenne, M. Fiorino, “The NCEP-NCAR 50-year reanalysis: monthly means CD-ROM and documentation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woolen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetma, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, D. Joseph. “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bulle. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 437–471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Deaven, D.

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woolen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetma, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, D. Joseph. “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bulle. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 437–471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ebisuzaki, W.

R. Kistler, E. Kalnay, W. Collins, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, M. Kanamitsu, V. Kousky, H. van den Dool, R. Jenne, M. Fiorino, “The NCEP-NCAR 50-year reanalysis: monthly means CD-ROM and documentation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woolen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetma, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, D. Joseph. “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bulle. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 437–471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, E. R.

E. R. Edwards, J. A. Belmonte, “Megalithic astronomy of Easter Island,” J. History Astron. 35, 421–434 (2004).

Fiorino, M.

R. Kistler, E. Kalnay, W. Collins, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, M. Kanamitsu, V. Kousky, H. van den Dool, R. Jenne, M. Fiorino, “The NCEP-NCAR 50-year reanalysis: monthly means CD-ROM and documentation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Flesch, T.

J. Wilson, T. Flesch, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2E3 (personal communication, 2004).

Gandin, L.

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woolen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetma, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, D. Joseph. “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bulle. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 437–471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Higgins, W.

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woolen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetma, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, D. Joseph. “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bulle. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 437–471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hoskin, M.

M. Hoskin, “Studies in Iberian archaeoastronomy, (9) An overview,” Archaeoastronomy 27, S75–S82 (2002).

Hosler, C. R.

C. R. Hosler, “Low level inversion frequency in the contiguous United States,” Mon. Weather Rev. 89, 319–339 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Hube, D. P.

R. D. Sampson, E. P. Lozowski, A. E. Peterson, D. P. Hube, “Variability in the astronomical refraction of the rising and setting Sun,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 1256–1261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Iredell, M.

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woolen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetma, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, D. Joseph. “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bulle. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 437–471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Janowiak, J.

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woolen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetma, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, D. Joseph. “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bulle. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 437–471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jenne, R.

R. Kistler, E. Kalnay, W. Collins, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, M. Kanamitsu, V. Kousky, H. van den Dool, R. Jenne, M. Fiorino, “The NCEP-NCAR 50-year reanalysis: monthly means CD-ROM and documentation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woolen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetma, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, D. Joseph. “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bulle. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 437–471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, D.

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woolen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetma, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, D. Joseph. “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bulle. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 437–471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kahl, J. D.

J. D. Kahl, M. C. Serreze, R. C. Schnell, “Tropospheric low-level temperature inversions in the Canadian arctic,” Atmo. Ocean 30, 510–529 (1992).

Kalnay, E.

R. Kistler, E. Kalnay, W. Collins, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, M. Kanamitsu, V. Kousky, H. van den Dool, R. Jenne, M. Fiorino, “The NCEP-NCAR 50-year reanalysis: monthly means CD-ROM and documentation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woolen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetma, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, D. Joseph. “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bulle. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 437–471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kanamitsu, M.

R. Kistler, E. Kalnay, W. Collins, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, M. Kanamitsu, V. Kousky, H. van den Dool, R. Jenne, M. Fiorino, “The NCEP-NCAR 50-year reanalysis: monthly means CD-ROM and documentation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woolen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetma, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, D. Joseph. “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bulle. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 437–471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kistler, R.

R. Kistler, E. Kalnay, W. Collins, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, M. Kanamitsu, V. Kousky, H. van den Dool, R. Jenne, M. Fiorino, “The NCEP-NCAR 50-year reanalysis: monthly means CD-ROM and documentation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woolen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetma, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, D. Joseph. “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bulle. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 437–471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kousky, V.

R. Kistler, E. Kalnay, W. Collins, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, M. Kanamitsu, V. Kousky, H. van den Dool, R. Jenne, M. Fiorino, “The NCEP-NCAR 50-year reanalysis: monthly means CD-ROM and documentation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lang, A.

A. Lang, “Observations of the Sun at rising to determine the refraction; and of solar spots,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 24, 26–28 (1864).

A. Lang, “Observations of the horizontal refraction of the Sun,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 23, 58–59 (1862).

Leetma, A.

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woolen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetma, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, D. Joseph. “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bulle. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 437–471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lehn, W. H.

Liller, W.

B. E. Schaefer, W. Liller, “Refraction near the horizon,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 102, 796–805 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Liritzis, I.

I. Liritzis, H. Vassiliou, “Archaeoastronomical orientation of seven significant ancient Hellenic temples,” Archaeoastronomy 17, 94–100 (2003).

Lozowski, E. P.

R. D. Sampson, E. P. Lozowski, A. E. Peterson, D. P. Hube, “Variability in the astronomical refraction of the rising and setting Sun,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 1256–1261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Sampson, E. P. Lozowski, A. E. Peterson, “Comparison of modelled and observed astronomical refraction of the setting Sun,” Appl. Opt. 42, 342–353 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mo, K. C.

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woolen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetma, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, D. Joseph. “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bulle. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 437–471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Morgan, T.

T. Morgan, R. D. Bornstein, “Inversion climatology at San Jose, California,” Mon. Weather Rev. 105, 653–656 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, A. E.

R. D. Sampson, E. P. Lozowski, A. E. Peterson, “Comparison of modelled and observed astronomical refraction of the setting Sun,” Appl. Opt. 42, 342–353 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Sampson, E. P. Lozowski, A. E. Peterson, D. P. Hube, “Variability in the astronomical refraction of the rising and setting Sun,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 1256–1261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Reynolds, R.

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woolen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetma, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, D. Joseph. “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bulle. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 437–471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ropelewski, C.

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woolen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetma, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, D. Joseph. “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bulle. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 437–471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saha, S.

R. Kistler, E. Kalnay, W. Collins, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, M. Kanamitsu, V. Kousky, H. van den Dool, R. Jenne, M. Fiorino, “The NCEP-NCAR 50-year reanalysis: monthly means CD-ROM and documentation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woolen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetma, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, D. Joseph. “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bulle. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 437–471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sampson, R. D.

R. D. Sampson, E. P. Lozowski, A. E. Peterson, D. P. Hube, “Variability in the astronomical refraction of the rising and setting Sun,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 1256–1261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Sampson, E. P. Lozowski, A. E. Peterson, “Comparison of modelled and observed astronomical refraction of the setting Sun,” Appl. Opt. 42, 342–353 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Sampson, “Comparison of modelled and observed astronomical refraction,” Ph.D. thesis (Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, 2001).

R. D. Sampson, “Atmospheric refraction and sunrise and sunset,” M.Sc. thesis (Department of Geography, University of Alberta, 1994).

Schaefer, B. E.

B. E. Schaefer, W. Liller, “Refraction near the horizon,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 102, 796–805 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schnell, R. C.

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J. Wilson, G. Strong, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2E3 (personal communication, 2004).

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R. Kistler, E. Kalnay, W. Collins, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, M. Kanamitsu, V. Kousky, H. van den Dool, R. Jenne, M. Fiorino, “The NCEP-NCAR 50-year reanalysis: monthly means CD-ROM and documentation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 247 (2001).
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R. Kistler, E. Kalnay, W. Collins, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, M. Kanamitsu, V. Kousky, H. van den Dool, R. Jenne, M. Fiorino, “The NCEP-NCAR 50-year reanalysis: monthly means CD-ROM and documentation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 247 (2001).
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Wilson, J.

J. Wilson, T. Flesch, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2E3 (personal communication, 2004).

J. Wilson, G. Strong, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, T6G 2E3 (personal communication, 2004).

Woolen, J.

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woolen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetma, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, D. Joseph. “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bulle. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 437–471 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Woollen, J.

R. Kistler, E. Kalnay, W. Collins, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, M. Kanamitsu, V. Kousky, H. van den Dool, R. Jenne, M. Fiorino, “The NCEP-NCAR 50-year reanalysis: monthly means CD-ROM and documentation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 247 (2001).
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A. T. Young, “Sunset science. IV. Low-altitude refraction,” Astron. J. 127, 3622–3637 (2004).
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E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woolen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetma, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, D. Joseph. “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bulle. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 437–471 (1996).
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Appl. Opt.

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M. Hoskin, “Studies in Iberian archaeoastronomy, (9) An overview,” Archaeoastronomy 27, S75–S82 (2002).

J. A. Belmonte, “On the orientation of old kingdom Egyptian pyramids,” Archaeoastronomy 26, S1–S20 (2001).

Astron. J.

A. T. Young, “Sunset science. IV. Low-altitude refraction,” Astron. J. 127, 3622–3637 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Atmo. Ocean

J. D. Kahl, M. C. Serreze, R. C. Schnell, “Tropospheric low-level temperature inversions in the Canadian arctic,” Atmo. Ocean 30, 510–529 (1992).

Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

R. Kistler, E. Kalnay, W. Collins, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woollen, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, M. Kanamitsu, V. Kousky, H. van den Dool, R. Jenne, M. Fiorino, “The NCEP-NCAR 50-year reanalysis: monthly means CD-ROM and documentation,” Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82, 247 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bulle. Am. Meteorol. Soc.

E. Kalnay, M. Kanamitsu, R. Kistler, W. Collins, D. Deaven, L. Gandin, M. Iredell, S. Saha, G. White, J. Woolen, Y. Zhu, M. Chelliah, W. Ebisuzaki, W. Higgins, J. Janowiak, K. C. Mo, C. Ropelewski, J. Wang, A. Leetma, R. Reynolds, R. Jenne, D. Joseph. “The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project,” Bulle. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77, 437–471 (1996).
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T. Morgan, R. D. Bornstein, “Inversion climatology at San Jose, California,” Mon. Weather Rev. 105, 653–656 (1977).
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[CrossRef]

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B. E. Schaefer, W. Liller, “Refraction near the horizon,” Pub. Astron. Soc. Pac. 102, 796–805 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac.

R. D. Sampson, E. P. Lozowski, A. E. Peterson, D. P. Hube, “Variability in the astronomical refraction of the rising and setting Sun,” Publ. Astron. Soc. Pac. 115, 1256–1261 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. D. Sampson, “Comparison of modelled and observed astronomical refraction,” Ph.D. thesis (Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, 2001).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic showing the essential values for the measurement of astronomical refraction at sunrise or sunset. The “zero horizon” (also known as the true horizon) has an altitude of 0° or a zenith angle of 90° as measured from the observer. The values of the altitude of the center of the sun a and the altitude of the apparent horizon h are both negative when below the zero horizon. Astronomical refraction has a positive value in altitude.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured LAAR of the setting Sun for Edmonton and Barbados between 1 December and 1 March. An image showing the angular size of the sun on 1 January 2004 is included for scale.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fundamental Statistics of Edmonton and Barbados Sunset Refractiona

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R = h - s - a .
R = p ( 0.1594 + 0.0196 a + 0.00002 a 2 ) ( 273 + T ) ( 1 + 0.505 a + 0.0845 a 2 ) ,

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