Abstract

The polarization correction for the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments on the Terra and Aqua satellites is described. The focus is on the prelaunch polarization characterization and on the derivation of polarization correction coefficients for the processing of ocean color data. The effect of the polarization correction is demonstrated. The radiances at the top of the atmosphere need to be corrected by as much as 3.2% in the 412 nm band. The effect on the water-leaving radiances can exceed 50%. The polarization correction produces good agreement of the MODIS Aqua water-leaving radiance time series with data from another, independent satellite-based ocean color sensor, the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS).

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2004

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean biooptical time series,” Deep-Sea Res. II 51, 5–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

C. L. Parkinson, “Aqua: an Earth-Observing Satellite mission to examine water and other climate variables,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 173–183 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

M. Wang, “The Rayleigh lookup tables for the SeaWiFS data processing: accounting for the effects of ocean surface roughness,” Int. J. Remote Sens. 23, 2693–2702 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

1999

M. Wang, “A sensitivity study of the SeaWiFS atmospheric correction algorithm: effects of spectral band variations,” Remote Sens. Environ. 67, 348–359 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

Y. J. Kaufman, D. D. Herring, K. J. Ranson, G. J. Collatz, “Earth Observing System AM1 mission to Earth,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1045–1055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Guenther, G. D. Godden, X. Xiong, E. J. Knight, S. Qiu, H. Montgomery, M. M. Hopkins, M. G. Khayat, Z. Hao, “Prelaunch algorithm and data format for the Level 1 calibration products for the EOS-AM1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1142–1150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, T. S. Pagano, V. V. Salomonson, “Prelaunch characteristics of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on EOS-AM1,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1088–1100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1996

B. Guenther, W. Barnes, E. Knight, J. Barker, J. Harnden, R. Weber, M. Roberto, G. Godden, H. Montgomery, P. Abel, “MODIS calibration: a brief review of the strategy for the at-launch calibration approach,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 274–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

1992

Abel, P.

B. Guenther, W. Barnes, E. Knight, J. Barker, J. Harnden, R. Weber, M. Roberto, G. Godden, H. Montgomery, P. Abel, “MODIS calibration: a brief review of the strategy for the at-launch calibration approach,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 274–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S. W.

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. McClain, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, D. Thomas, P. J. Werdell, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” presented at the SPIE Symposium on Optics and Photonics, San Diego, Calif., 31 July–4 August 2005.

Barker, J.

B. Guenther, W. Barnes, E. Knight, J. Barker, J. Harnden, R. Weber, M. Roberto, G. Godden, H. Montgomery, P. Abel, “MODIS calibration: a brief review of the strategy for the at-launch calibration approach,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 274–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, R. A.

Barnes, W.

B. Guenther, W. Barnes, E. Knight, J. Barker, J. Harnden, R. Weber, M. Roberto, G. Godden, H. Montgomery, P. Abel, “MODIS calibration: a brief review of the strategy for the at-launch calibration approach,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 274–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiong, A. Wu, J. A. Esposito, J. Sun, N. Che, B. Guenther, W. Barnes, “Trending results of MODIS optics on-orbit degradation,” in Earth Observing Systems VII, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE4814, 337–346 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, T. S. Pagano, V. V. Salomonson, “Prelaunch characteristics of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on EOS-AM1,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1088–1100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, “Prelaunch acceptance report for the SeaWiFS radiometer,” Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds., (1994), Vol. 22.

Bauer, J. P.

J. P. Bauer, “FM1 Polarization Insensitivity Summary (PC-08),” Raytheon Interdepartmental Correspondence, Raytheon Company, Ref. PL3095-N08165 (1February2000).

Blaisdell, J. M.

J. W. Campbell, J. M. Blaisdell, M. Darzi, “Level-3 SeaWiFS data products: spatial and temporal binning algorithms,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds., (1995), Vol. 32.

Campbell, J. W.

J. W. Campbell, J. M. Blaisdell, M. Darzi, “Level-3 SeaWiFS data products: spatial and temporal binning algorithms,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds., (1995), Vol. 32.

Chandrasekhar, S.

S. Chandrasekhar, Radiative Transfer (Dover, 1960).

Che, N.

X. Xiong, A. Wu, J. A. Esposito, J. Sun, N. Che, B. Guenther, W. Barnes, “Trending results of MODIS optics on-orbit degradation,” in Earth Observing Systems VII, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE4814, 337–346 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. K.

Collatz, G. J.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. D. Herring, K. J. Ranson, G. J. Collatz, “Earth Observing System AM1 mission to Earth,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1045–1055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Collett, E.

E. Collett, Polarized Light (Marcel Dekker, 1992).

Darzi, M.

J. W. Campbell, J. M. Blaisdell, M. Darzi, “Level-3 SeaWiFS data products: spatial and temporal binning algorithms,” S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds., (1995), Vol. 32.

Du, T.

Eplee, R. E.

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. McClain, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, D. Thomas, P. J. Werdell, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” presented at the SPIE Symposium on Optics and Photonics, San Diego, Calif., 31 July–4 August 2005.

Esaias, W. E.

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, “Prelaunch acceptance report for the SeaWiFS radiometer,” Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds., (1994), Vol. 22.

Esposito, J. A.

X. Xiong, A. Wu, J. A. Esposito, J. Sun, N. Che, B. Guenther, W. Barnes, “Trending results of MODIS optics on-orbit degradation,” in Earth Observing Systems VII, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE4814, 337–346 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Feldman, G. C.

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean biooptical time series,” Deep-Sea Res. II 51, 5–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. McClain, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, D. Thomas, P. J. Werdell, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” presented at the SPIE Symposium on Optics and Photonics, San Diego, Calif., 31 July–4 August 2005.

Franz, B. A.

M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 343–348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. McClain, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, D. Thomas, P. J. Werdell, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” presented at the SPIE Symposium on Optics and Photonics, San Diego, Calif., 31 July–4 August 2005.

Godden, G.

B. Guenther, W. Barnes, E. Knight, J. Barker, J. Harnden, R. Weber, M. Roberto, G. Godden, H. Montgomery, P. Abel, “MODIS calibration: a brief review of the strategy for the at-launch calibration approach,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 274–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Godden, G. D.

B. Guenther, G. D. Godden, X. Xiong, E. J. Knight, S. Qiu, H. Montgomery, M. M. Hopkins, M. G. Khayat, Z. Hao, “Prelaunch algorithm and data format for the Level 1 calibration products for the EOS-AM1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1142–1150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. R.

Guenther, B.

B. Guenther, G. D. Godden, X. Xiong, E. J. Knight, S. Qiu, H. Montgomery, M. M. Hopkins, M. G. Khayat, Z. Hao, “Prelaunch algorithm and data format for the Level 1 calibration products for the EOS-AM1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1142–1150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Guenther, W. Barnes, E. Knight, J. Barker, J. Harnden, R. Weber, M. Roberto, G. Godden, H. Montgomery, P. Abel, “MODIS calibration: a brief review of the strategy for the at-launch calibration approach,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 274–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. Xiong, A. Wu, J. A. Esposito, J. Sun, N. Che, B. Guenther, W. Barnes, “Trending results of MODIS optics on-orbit degradation,” in Earth Observing Systems VII, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE4814, 337–346 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Z.

B. Guenther, G. D. Godden, X. Xiong, E. J. Knight, S. Qiu, H. Montgomery, M. M. Hopkins, M. G. Khayat, Z. Hao, “Prelaunch algorithm and data format for the Level 1 calibration products for the EOS-AM1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1142–1150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harnden, J.

B. Guenther, W. Barnes, E. Knight, J. Barker, J. Harnden, R. Weber, M. Roberto, G. Godden, H. Montgomery, P. Abel, “MODIS calibration: a brief review of the strategy for the at-launch calibration approach,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 274–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Herring, D. D.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. D. Herring, K. J. Ranson, G. J. Collatz, “Earth Observing System AM1 mission to Earth,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1045–1055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. B.

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean biooptical time series,” Deep-Sea Res. II 51, 5–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hopkins, M. M.

B. Guenther, G. D. Godden, X. Xiong, E. J. Knight, S. Qiu, H. Montgomery, M. M. Hopkins, M. G. Khayat, Z. Hao, “Prelaunch algorithm and data format for the Level 1 calibration products for the EOS-AM1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1142–1150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaufman, Y. J.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. D. Herring, K. J. Ranson, G. J. Collatz, “Earth Observing System AM1 mission to Earth,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1045–1055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Khayat, M. G.

B. Guenther, G. D. Godden, X. Xiong, E. J. Knight, S. Qiu, H. Montgomery, M. M. Hopkins, M. G. Khayat, Z. Hao, “Prelaunch algorithm and data format for the Level 1 calibration products for the EOS-AM1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1142–1150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knight, E.

B. Guenther, W. Barnes, E. Knight, J. Barker, J. Harnden, R. Weber, M. Roberto, G. Godden, H. Montgomery, P. Abel, “MODIS calibration: a brief review of the strategy for the at-launch calibration approach,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 274–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Young, E. Knight, C. Merrow, “MODIS polarization performance and anomalous four-cycle polarization phenomenon,” in Earth Observing Systems III, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE3439, 247–256 (July1998).
[CrossRef]

Knight, E. J.

B. Guenther, G. D. Godden, X. Xiong, E. J. Knight, S. Qiu, H. Montgomery, M. M. Hopkins, M. G. Khayat, Z. Hao, “Prelaunch algorithm and data format for the Level 1 calibration products for the EOS-AM1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1142–1150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Knight, C. Merrow, C. Salo, “Interaction between polarization and response vs. scan angle in the calibration of imaging radiometers,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE3754, 308–319 (1999).

Kwiatkowska, E.

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. McClain, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, D. Thomas, P. J. Werdell, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” presented at the SPIE Symposium on Optics and Photonics, San Diego, Calif., 31 July–4 August 2005.

McClain, C.

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. McClain, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, D. Thomas, P. J. Werdell, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” presented at the SPIE Symposium on Optics and Photonics, San Diego, Calif., 31 July–4 August 2005.

McClain, C. R.

C. R. McClain, G. C. Feldman, S. B. Hooker, “An overview of the SeaWiFS project and strategies for producing a climate research quality global ocean biooptical time series,” Deep-Sea Res. II 51, 5–42 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Eplee, W. D. Robinson, S. W. Bailey, D. K. Clark, P. J. Werdell, M. Wang, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Calibration of SeaWiFS. II. Vicarious techniques,” Appl. Opt. 40, 6701–6718 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, B. A. Franz, R. A. Barnes, C. R. McClain, “Effects of spectral bandpass on SeaWiFS-retrieved near-surface optical properties of the ocean,” Appl. Opt. 40, 343–348 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Barnes, W. L. Barnes, W. E. Esaias, C. R. McClain, “Prelaunch acceptance report for the SeaWiFS radiometer,” Vol. 22, S. B. Hooker, E. R. Firestone, J. G. Acker, eds., (1994), Vol. 22.

Meister, G.

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. McClain, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, D. Thomas, P. J. Werdell, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” presented at the SPIE Symposium on Optics and Photonics, San Diego, Calif., 31 July–4 August 2005.

Merrow, C.

E. J. Knight, C. Merrow, C. Salo, “Interaction between polarization and response vs. scan angle in the calibration of imaging radiometers,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE3754, 308–319 (1999).

J. Young, E. Knight, C. Merrow, “MODIS polarization performance and anomalous four-cycle polarization phenomenon,” in Earth Observing Systems III, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE3439, 247–256 (July1998).
[CrossRef]

Montgomery, H.

B. Guenther, G. D. Godden, X. Xiong, E. J. Knight, S. Qiu, H. Montgomery, M. M. Hopkins, M. G. Khayat, Z. Hao, “Prelaunch algorithm and data format for the Level 1 calibration products for the EOS-AM1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1142–1150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Guenther, W. Barnes, E. Knight, J. Barker, J. Harnden, R. Weber, M. Roberto, G. Godden, H. Montgomery, P. Abel, “MODIS calibration: a brief review of the strategy for the at-launch calibration approach,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 274–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moyer, D.

N. Souaidia, D. Moyer, E. Waluschka, K. Voss, “MODIS polarization ray tracing analysis,” presented at the SPIE Symposium on Optics and Photonics, San Diego, Calif., 31 July–4 August 2005.

Pagano, T. S.

W. L. Barnes, T. S. Pagano, V. V. Salomonson, “Prelaunch characteristics of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on EOS-AM1,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1088–1100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Parkinson, C. L.

C. L. Parkinson, “Aqua: an Earth-Observing Satellite mission to examine water and other climate variables,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 41, 173–183 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Patt, F. S.

B. A. Franz, S. W. Bailey, R. E. Eplee, G. C. Feldman, E. Kwiatkowska, C. McClain, G. Meister, F. S. Patt, D. Thomas, P. J. Werdell, “The continuity of ocean color measurements from SeaWiFS to MODIS,” presented at the SPIE Symposium on Optics and Photonics, San Diego, Calif., 31 July–4 August 2005.

Qiu, S.

B. Guenther, G. D. Godden, X. Xiong, E. J. Knight, S. Qiu, H. Montgomery, M. M. Hopkins, M. G. Khayat, Z. Hao, “Prelaunch algorithm and data format for the Level 1 calibration products for the EOS-AM1 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1142–1150 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ranson, K. J.

Y. J. Kaufman, D. D. Herring, K. J. Ranson, G. J. Collatz, “Earth Observing System AM1 mission to Earth,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1045–1055 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roberto, M.

B. Guenther, W. Barnes, E. Knight, J. Barker, J. Harnden, R. Weber, M. Roberto, G. Godden, H. Montgomery, P. Abel, “MODIS calibration: a brief review of the strategy for the at-launch calibration approach,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 13, 274–285 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, W. D.

Salo, C.

E. J. Knight, C. Merrow, C. Salo, “Interaction between polarization and response vs. scan angle in the calibration of imaging radiometers,” in Polarization: Measurement, Analysis, and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Chenault, eds., Proc. SPIE3754, 308–319 (1999).

Salomonson, V. V.

W. L. Barnes, T. S. Pagano, V. V. Salomonson, “Prelaunch characteristics of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on EOS-AM1,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 36, 1088–1100 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Souaidia, N.

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X. Xiong, A. Wu, J. A. Esposito, J. Sun, N. Che, B. Guenther, W. Barnes, “Trending results of MODIS optics on-orbit degradation,” in Earth Observing Systems VII, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE4814, 337–346 (2002).
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N. Souaidia, D. Moyer, E. Waluschka, K. Voss, “MODIS polarization ray tracing analysis,” presented at the SPIE Symposium on Optics and Photonics, San Diego, Calif., 31 July–4 August 2005.

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Wu, A.

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X. Xiong, A. Wu, J. A. Esposito, J. Sun, N. Che, B. Guenther, W. Barnes, “Trending results of MODIS optics on-orbit degradation,” in Earth Observing Systems VII, W. L. Barnes, ed., Proc. SPIE4814, 337–346 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Flow chart of the MODIS Aqua ocean color polarization correction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

MODIS viewing the PSA. The only MODIS components shown are the scan mirror (hatched ellipse) and its rotation axis (solid vertical bar). The scan mirror rotates in the direction indicated by the arrows above the rotation axis. The MODIS scans frames from the right side of the figure to the left. The horizontal dashed lines show the edge of the scan line, which contains ten detectors for the ocean color bands. The angular separation between the detectors (indicated by the ten solid lines running from the MODIS to the PSA) is largely exaggerated in this figure. The x, y, and z axes are the right-handed sensor coordinate system as defined by SBRS; the x axis points into the MODIS flight direction, and the z axis, toward nadir. The circle is the PSA aperture. The PSA can be rotated about the z axis. The bent arrow next to the PSA shows the direction of increasing polarizer angles β. For β = 0°, electric field vector E is parallel to the x axis. The MODIS viewing angle is given by the angle between the z axis and the ten solid lines. The MODIS was rotated about its x axis to measure at different viewing angles. An example for the calculation of the measured radiance is shown for detector 9: If the average of the three filled squares is the highest average of three consecutive frames for detector 9, this average will be taken as the measured radiance for the current β, viewing angle, detector, band, and mirror side. The combination of ten along-track detectors and the rotation of the scan mirror creates an image of the PSA aperture, which is shown in Fig. 3 for three rotation angles β.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Left, contour plot of the MODIS Aqua band 8 measurements of the PSA aperture for a viewing angle of 45°. Each measurement originates from one of the 100 squares shown in Fig. 2. The measured values have been normalized to the maximum in each of these three figures. Frame numbers 1–10 on the x axis refer to a subset of the complete MODIS scan (1354 frames). The detector numbers on the y axis are in product order. The x axis is parallel to the x axis in Fig. 2; the y axis is antiparallel to the y axis in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured radiances ImN of the MODIS Aqua as a function of detector number, for a viewing angle of 45°, bands 8 and 16, mirror side 1. The solid, dashed, and dotted curves are for β = −180°, 0°, 180°, respectively. The error bars are the standard deviations over ten scans, averaged over the three frames with the highest signal for each detector.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Prelaunch polarization characterization measurements for MODIS Aqua bands 8, 11, 15, and 16. The stars show the measured radiances ImN for a viewing angle of 0° as a function of β angle. Solid curves show the retrieved two-cycle component [cf. Eq. (11)]. The dashed curve connects the band 15 measurements to accentuate the four-cycle pattern.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Results of a Fourier analysis of the ImN of bands 15 for the MODIS Terra and MODIS Aqua for a viewing angle of 45°. The solid curves show the intensities of the retrieved two-cycle component [pa in Eq. (13)]; the dashed curves show the intensities of the retrieved four-cycle component.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Polarization amplitudes pa derived from Eq. (13) for bands 8 and 16 for the MODIS Aqua (blue curve, mirror side 1; purple curve, mirror side 2) and MODIS Terra (orange curve, mirror side 1; red curve, mirror side 2).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Electric field vector E in the MODIS ocean color processing code coordinate system (r, l) and the MODIS sensor coordinate system (x, y, z) as defined by SBRS. The propagation direction of light is from the figure toward the viewer, opposite the z axis of the sensor coordinate system (not shown in this figure, but in Fig. 2).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Polarization correction for MODIS Aqua band 8 (412 nm) for (a)–(e) a swath over the Pacific Ocean on 14 August 2002; (f) is for 18 January 2003.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

MODIS Aqua band 8 LWN (412 nm) for a swath over the Pacific Ocean on 14 August 2002.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison of the LWN ratio of MODIS Aqua and SeaWiFS for high latitudes and the equator, with and without polarization correction.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Center Wavelengths and Bandwidths for the MODIS Aqua Ocean Color Bands and the SeaWiFSa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured MODIS Aqua Polarization Amplitude pa [Eq. (13)], Estimated Standard Uncertainty (k = 1) of the Modeled Polarization Sensitivity σP [Eq. (11)], and MODIS Aqua Polarization Phase Angle δ [Eq. (1)]a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Global TOA Polarization Correction pc [Eq. (15)] and Estimated Standard Uncertainties (k = 1) for the Mean Polarization Correction σ [mean(pc)] and the Strongest Polarization Correction σ[max(||pc − 1||)]a

Equations (18)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I m ( β ) = I t [ 1 + p a cos ( 2 β - 2 δ ) ] ,
- 180 ° 180 ° I m ( β ) d β = - 180 ° 180 ° I t [ 1 + p a cos ( 2 β - 2 δ ) ] d β = I t - 180 ° 180 ° d β + 0 ,
I t 1 n i = 1 n I m ( β i )
I m N ( β ) = I m ( β ) / I t ,
I m = I t { 1 + m 12 [ cos ( 2 α ) Q t / I t + sin ( 2 α ) U t / I t ] + m 13 [ - sin ( 2 α ) Q t / I t + cos ( 2 α ) U t / I t ] } ,
I m = I t [ 1 + m 12 Q t / I t + m 13 U t / I t ] .
Q t = I t cos 2 γ ,
U t = I t sin 2 γ ,
γ = - β + 90 ° .
I m ( γ ) / I t = ( 1 + m 12 cos 2 γ + m 13 sin 2 γ ) .
P = ( 1 + m 12 cos 2 γ + m 13 sin 2 γ ) ,
cos ( x - y ) = cos ( x ) cos ( y ) + sin ( x ) sin ( y ) ,
p a = m 12 2 + m 13 2 , m 12 = - p a cos ( 2 δ ) , m 13 = p a sin ( 2 δ ) .
d p = Q t 2 + U t 2 / I t ,
p c = I m / I t .
p c = 1 + m 12 Q t / I t + m 13 U t / I t .
p c = 1 1 - m 12 Q t / I m - m 13 U t / I m .
p c = 1 1 - m 12 [ cos ( 2 α ) Q t + sin ( 2 α ) U t ] / I m - m 13 [ - sin ( 2 α ) Q t + cos ( 2 α ) U t ] / I m .

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