Abstract

The single-scattering properties of ice particles in the near- through far-infrared spectral region are computed from a composite method that is based on a combination of the finite-difference time-domain technique, the T-matrix method, an improved geometrical-optics method, and Lorenz–Mie theory. Seven nonspherical ice crystal habits (aggregates, hexagonal solid and hollow columns, hexagonal plates, bullet rosettes, spheroids, and droxtals) are considered. A database of the single-scattering properties for each of these ice particles has been developed at 49 wavelengths between 3 and 100 μm and for particle sizes ranging from 2 to 10,000 μm specified in terms of the particle maximum dimension. The spectral variations of the single-scattering properties are discussed, as well as their dependence on the particle maximum dimension and effective particle size. The comparisons show that the assumption of spherical ice particles in the near-IR through far-IR region is generally not optimal for radiative transfer computation. Furthermore, a parameterization of the bulk optical properties is developed for mid-latitude cirrus clouds based on a set of 21 particle size distributions obtained from various field campaigns.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. H. Chepfer, P. Goloub, J. Riedi, J. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, P. H. Flamant, “Ice crystal shapes in cirrus clouds derived from POLDER-1/ADEOS-1,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7955–7966 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. J. Baran, “Simulation of infrared scattering from ice aggregates by use of a size-shape distribution of circular ice cylinders,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2811–2818 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. P. Minnis, P. W. Heck, D. F. Young, “Inference of cirrus cloud properties from satellite observed visible and infrared radiances. Part II: Verification of theoretical radiative properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 1305–1322 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. Reichardt, S. Reichardt, M. Hess, T. J. McGee, “Corrections among the optical properties of cirrus-cloud particle microphysical interpretation,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4562, (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. I. Mishchenko, W. B. Rossow, A. Macke, A. A. Lacis, “Sensitivity of cirrus cloud albedo, bidirectional reflectance and optical thickness retrieval accuracy to ice particle shape,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16973–16985 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Y. Takano, K. N. Liou, “Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. Part I. Single-scattering and optical properties of hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3–19 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. A. J. Baran, S. Haveman, P. N. Francis, P. Yang, “A study of the absorption and extinction properties of hexagonal ice columns and plates in random and preferred orientation, using exact T-matrix theory and aircraft observations of cirrus,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 505–518 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Finite-difference time domain method for light scattering by small ice crystals in three-dimensional space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2072–2085 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
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  17. P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Geometric-optics-integral-equation method for light scattering by nonspherical ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6568–6584 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. P. Yang, B. C. Gao, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, S. C. Tsay, D. M. Winker, S. L. Nasiri, “Radiative properties of cirrus clouds in the infrared (8–13 μm) spectral region,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 473–504 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Yang, B. A. Baum, A. J. Heymsfield, Y. X. Hu, H.-L. Huang, S.-C. Tsay, S. Ackerman, “Single-scattering properties of droxtals,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79–80, 1159–1180 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  21. P. Yang, M. G. Mlynczak, H. L. Wei, D. P. Kratz, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, A. Heidinger, M. I. Mishchenko, “Spectral signature of ice clouds in the far-infrared region: single-scattering calculations and radiative sensitivity study,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4569, (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. L. Smith, X. Ma, A. Steven, S. A. Ackerman, H. E. Revercomb, R. O. Knuteson, “Remote sensing cloud properties from high spectral resolution infrared observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 1708–1720 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. A. Ackerman, W. L. Smith, J. D. Spinhirne, H. E. Revercomb, “The 27–28 October 1986 far-IRE IFO cirrus case study: spectral properties of cirrus clouds in the 8–12 μm window,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2377–2388 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. L. Smith, S. Ackerman, H. Revercomb, H. Huang, D. H. DeSlover, W. Feltz, L. Gumley, A. Collard, “Infrared spectral absorption of nearly invisible cirrus clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1137–1140 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. H. Huang, P. Yang, H.-L. Wei, B. A. Baum, Y.-X. Hu, P. Antonelli, S. A. Ackerman, “Retrieval of ice cloud properties from high spectral resolution infrared observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 842–853 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  26. H. Wei, P. Yang, J. Li, B. A. Baum, H.-L. Huang, S. Platnick, Y. X. Hu, L. Strow, “Retrieval of semitransparent ice cloud optical thickness from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 2254–2267 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  27. S. Chung, S. Ackerman, P. F. Van Delst, W. P. Menzel, “Model calculations and interferometer measurements of ice-cloud characteristics,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 634–644 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. H. DeSlover, W. L. Smith, P. K. Piironen, E. W. Eloranta, “A methodology for measuring cirrus cloud visible-to-infrared spectral optical thickness ratios,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 251–262 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. A. J. Heymsfield, J. Iaquinta, “Cirrus crystal terminal velocities,” J. Atmos. Sci. 5, 916–938 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  30. K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302–307 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  32. Z. Zhang, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, S.-C. Tsay, B. A. Baum, H.-L. Huang, Y. X. Hu, A. J. Heymsfield, J. Reichardt, “Geometrical-optics solution to light scattering by droxtal ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2490–2499 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  33. P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Single-scattering properties of complex ice crystals in terrestrial atmosphere,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 71, 223–248 (1998).
  34. T. C. Grenfell, S. G. Warren, “Representation of nonspherical ice particles by a collection of independent spheres for scattering and absorption of radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31697–31709 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  35. D. L. Mitchell, A. Macke, Y. Liu, “Modeling cirrus clouds. Part II: Treatment of radiative properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 2967–2987 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  36. S. G. Warren, “Optical constants of ice from the ultraviolet to the microwave,” Appl. Opt. 23, 1206–1225 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  37. A. J. Baran, P. N. Francis, P. Yang, “A process study of the dependence of ice crystal absorption on particle geometry: application to aircraft radiometric measurements of cirrus cloud in the terrestrial window region,” J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 417–427 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  38. H. M. Nussenzveig, W. J. Wiscombe, “Diffraction as tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1667–1670 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  39. D. L. Mitchell, W. P. Arnott, C. Schmitt, A. J. Baran, S. Havemann, Q. Fu, “Contributions of photon tunneling to extinction in laboratory grown hexagonal columns,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 761–776 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  40. D. L. Mitchell, “Parameterization of the Mie extinction and absorption coefficients for water clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 1311–1326 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  41. D. L. Mitchell, “Effective diameter in radiation transfer: general definition, applications, and limitations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 2330–2346 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  42. Y. K. Lee, P. Yang, M. I. Mishchenko, B. A. Baum, Y. Hu, H.-L. Huang, W. J. Wiscombe, A. J. Baran, “On the use of circular cylinders as surrogates for hexagonal pristine ice crystals in scattering calculations at infrared wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2653–2664 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. J. S. Foot, “Some observations of the optical properties of clouds: II. Cirrus,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 114, 145–164 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  44. P. N. Francis, A. Jones, R. W. Saunders, K. P. Shine, A. Slingo, Z. Sun, “An observational and theoretical study of the radiative properties of cirrus: some results from ICE’89,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 120, 809–848 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  45. Q. Fu, “An accurate parameterization of the solar radiative properties of cirrus clouds for climate models,” J. Clim. 9, 2058–2082 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  46. M. D. King, S. Platnick, P. Yang, G. T. Arnold, M. A. Gray, J. C. Riedi, S. A. Ackerman, K. N. Liou, “Remote sensing of liquid water and ice cloud optical thickness, and effective radius in the arctic: application of air-borne multispectral MAS data,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 857–875 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  47. B. A. Baum, D. P. Kratz, P. Yang, S. C. Ou, Y. Hu, P. Soulen, S. C. Tsay, “Remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS Airborne Simulator imagery during SUCCESS. I: Data and models,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11767–11780 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2004

A. H. Huang, P. Yang, H.-L. Wei, B. A. Baum, Y.-X. Hu, P. Antonelli, S. A. Ackerman, “Retrieval of ice cloud properties from high spectral resolution infrared observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 842–853 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Wei, P. Yang, J. Li, B. A. Baum, H.-L. Huang, S. Platnick, Y. X. Hu, L. Strow, “Retrieval of semitransparent ice cloud optical thickness from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 2254–2267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, S. Platnick, P. Yang, G. T. Arnold, M. A. Gray, J. C. Riedi, S. A. Ackerman, K. N. Liou, “Remote sensing of liquid water and ice cloud optical thickness, and effective radius in the arctic: application of air-borne multispectral MAS data,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 857–875 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, S.-C. Tsay, B. A. Baum, H.-L. Huang, Y. X. Hu, A. J. Heymsfield, J. Reichardt, “Geometrical-optics solution to light scattering by droxtal ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2490–2499 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

Y. K. Lee, P. Yang, M. I. Mishchenko, B. A. Baum, Y. Hu, H.-L. Huang, W. J. Wiscombe, A. J. Baran, “On the use of circular cylinders as surrogates for hexagonal pristine ice crystals in scattering calculations at infrared wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2653–2664 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Baran, “Simulation of infrared scattering from ice aggregates by use of a size-shape distribution of circular ice cylinders,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2811–2818 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Yang, B. A. Baum, A. J. Heymsfield, Y. X. Hu, H.-L. Huang, S.-C. Tsay, S. Ackerman, “Single-scattering properties of droxtals,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79–80, 1159–1180 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, M. G. Mlynczak, H. L. Wei, D. P. Kratz, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, A. Heidinger, M. I. Mishchenko, “Spectral signature of ice clouds in the far-infrared region: single-scattering calculations and radiative sensitivity study,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4569, (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Baran, P. N. Francis, P. Yang, “A process study of the dependence of ice crystal absorption on particle geometry: application to aircraft radiometric measurements of cirrus cloud in the terrestrial window region,” J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 417–427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

D. L. Mitchell, “Effective diameter in radiation transfer: general definition, applications, and limitations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 2330–2346 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Reichardt, S. Reichardt, M. Hess, T. J. McGee, “Corrections among the optical properties of cirrus-cloud particle microphysical interpretation,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4562, (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. Chepfer, P. Goloub, J. Riedi, J. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, P. H. Flamant, “Ice crystal shapes in cirrus clouds derived from POLDER-1/ADEOS-1,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7955–7966 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Mitchell, W. P. Arnott, C. Schmitt, A. J. Baran, S. Havemann, Q. Fu, “Contributions of photon tunneling to extinction in laboratory grown hexagonal columns,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 761–776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, B. C. Gao, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, S. C. Tsay, D. M. Winker, S. L. Nasiri, “Radiative properties of cirrus clouds in the infrared (8–13 μm) spectral region,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 473–504 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Baran, S. Haveman, P. N. Francis, P. Yang, “A study of the absorption and extinction properties of hexagonal ice columns and plates in random and preferred orientation, using exact T-matrix theory and aircraft observations of cirrus,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 505–518 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, K. Wyser, D. Mitchell, “Parameterization of scattering and absorption properties of individual ice crystals,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4699–4718 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Heymsfield, J. Iaquinta, “Cirrus crystal terminal velocities,” J. Atmos. Sci. 5, 916–938 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Mitchell, “Parameterization of the Mie extinction and absorption coefficients for water clouds,” J. Atmos. Sci. 57, 1311–1326 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Chung, S. Ackerman, P. F. Van Delst, W. P. Menzel, “Model calculations and interferometer measurements of ice-cloud characteristics,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 634–644 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Baum, D. P. Kratz, P. Yang, S. C. Ou, Y. Hu, P. Soulen, S. C. Tsay, “Remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS Airborne Simulator imagery during SUCCESS. I: Data and models,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11767–11780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

W. Sun, Q. Fu, Z. Chen, “Finite-difference time-domain solution of light scattering by dielectric particles with perfectly matched layer absorbing boundary conditions,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3141–3151 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. H. DeSlover, W. L. Smith, P. K. Piironen, E. W. Eloranta, “A methodology for measuring cirrus cloud visible-to-infrared spectral optical thickness ratios,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 251–262 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fu, W. B. Sun, P. Yang, “On model of scattering and absorption by cirrus nonspherical ice particles at thermal infrared wavelength,” J. Atmos. Res. 56, 2937–2947 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Grenfell, S. G. Warren, “Representation of nonspherical ice particles by a collection of independent spheres for scattering and absorption of radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31697–31709 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Single-scattering properties of complex ice crystals in terrestrial atmosphere,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 71, 223–248 (1998).

W. L. Smith, S. Ackerman, H. Revercomb, H. Huang, D. H. DeSlover, W. Feltz, L. Gumley, A. Collard, “Infrared spectral absorption of nearly invisible cirrus clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1137–1140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fu, P. Yang, W. B. Sun, “An accurate parameterization of the infrared radiative properties of cirrus clouds for climate models,” J. Clim. 25, 2223–2237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. I. Mishchenko, W. B. Rossow, A. Macke, A. A. Lacis, “Sensitivity of cirrus cloud albedo, bidirectional reflectance and optical thickness retrieval accuracy to ice particle shape,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16973–16985 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Macke, J. Mueller, E. Raschke, “Single scattering properties of atmospheric ice crystal,” J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 2813–2825 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Mitchell, A. Macke, Y. Liu, “Modeling cirrus clouds. Part II: Treatment of radiative properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 2967–2987 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Geometric-optics-integral-equation method for light scattering by nonspherical ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6568–6584 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Finite-difference time domain method for light scattering by small ice crystals in three-dimensional space,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2072–2085 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fu, “An accurate parameterization of the solar radiative properties of cirrus clouds for climate models,” J. Clim. 9, 2058–2082 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

Y. Takano, K. N. Liou, “Radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. III. Light scattering by irregular ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 818–837 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

P. N. Francis, A. Jones, R. W. Saunders, K. P. Shine, A. Slingo, Z. Sun, “An observational and theoretical study of the radiative properties of cirrus: some results from ICE’89,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 120, 809–848 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. Minnis, P. W. Heck, D. F. Young, “Inference of cirrus cloud properties from satellite observed visible and infrared radiances. Part II: Verification of theoretical radiative properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 1305–1322 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, X. Ma, A. Steven, S. A. Ackerman, H. E. Revercomb, R. O. Knuteson, “Remote sensing cloud properties from high spectral resolution infrared observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 1708–1720 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990

S. A. Ackerman, W. L. Smith, J. D. Spinhirne, H. E. Revercomb, “The 27–28 October 1986 far-IRE IFO cirrus case study: spectral properties of cirrus clouds in the 8–12 μm window,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2377–2388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

Y. Takano, K. N. Liou, “Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. Part I. Single-scattering and optical properties of hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3–19 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Muinonen, “Scattering of light by crystals: a modified Kirchhoff approximation,” Appl. Opt. 28, 3044–3050 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

J. S. Foot, “Some observations of the optical properties of clouds: II. Cirrus,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 114, 145–164 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

H. M. Nussenzveig, W. J. Wiscombe, “Diffraction as tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1667–1670 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984

1966

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302–307 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, S.

P. Yang, B. A. Baum, A. J. Heymsfield, Y. X. Hu, H.-L. Huang, S.-C. Tsay, S. Ackerman, “Single-scattering properties of droxtals,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79–80, 1159–1180 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Chung, S. Ackerman, P. F. Van Delst, W. P. Menzel, “Model calculations and interferometer measurements of ice-cloud characteristics,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 634–644 (2000).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, S. Ackerman, H. Revercomb, H. Huang, D. H. DeSlover, W. Feltz, L. Gumley, A. Collard, “Infrared spectral absorption of nearly invisible cirrus clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1137–1140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, S. A.

A. H. Huang, P. Yang, H.-L. Wei, B. A. Baum, Y.-X. Hu, P. Antonelli, S. A. Ackerman, “Retrieval of ice cloud properties from high spectral resolution infrared observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 842–853 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, S. Platnick, P. Yang, G. T. Arnold, M. A. Gray, J. C. Riedi, S. A. Ackerman, K. N. Liou, “Remote sensing of liquid water and ice cloud optical thickness, and effective radius in the arctic: application of air-borne multispectral MAS data,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 857–875 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, X. Ma, A. Steven, S. A. Ackerman, H. E. Revercomb, R. O. Knuteson, “Remote sensing cloud properties from high spectral resolution infrared observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 1708–1720 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Ackerman, W. L. Smith, J. D. Spinhirne, H. E. Revercomb, “The 27–28 October 1986 far-IRE IFO cirrus case study: spectral properties of cirrus clouds in the 8–12 μm window,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2377–2388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Antonelli, P.

A. H. Huang, P. Yang, H.-L. Wei, B. A. Baum, Y.-X. Hu, P. Antonelli, S. A. Ackerman, “Retrieval of ice cloud properties from high spectral resolution infrared observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 842–853 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, G. T.

M. D. King, S. Platnick, P. Yang, G. T. Arnold, M. A. Gray, J. C. Riedi, S. A. Ackerman, K. N. Liou, “Remote sensing of liquid water and ice cloud optical thickness, and effective radius in the arctic: application of air-borne multispectral MAS data,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 857–875 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Arnott, W. P.

D. L. Mitchell, W. P. Arnott, C. Schmitt, A. J. Baran, S. Havemann, Q. Fu, “Contributions of photon tunneling to extinction in laboratory grown hexagonal columns,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 761–776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baran, A. J.

Y. K. Lee, P. Yang, M. I. Mishchenko, B. A. Baum, Y. Hu, H.-L. Huang, W. J. Wiscombe, A. J. Baran, “On the use of circular cylinders as surrogates for hexagonal pristine ice crystals in scattering calculations at infrared wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2653–2664 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Baran, P. N. Francis, P. Yang, “A process study of the dependence of ice crystal absorption on particle geometry: application to aircraft radiometric measurements of cirrus cloud in the terrestrial window region,” J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 417–427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Baran, “Simulation of infrared scattering from ice aggregates by use of a size-shape distribution of circular ice cylinders,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2811–2818 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. L. Mitchell, W. P. Arnott, C. Schmitt, A. J. Baran, S. Havemann, Q. Fu, “Contributions of photon tunneling to extinction in laboratory grown hexagonal columns,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 761–776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Baran, S. Haveman, P. N. Francis, P. Yang, “A study of the absorption and extinction properties of hexagonal ice columns and plates in random and preferred orientation, using exact T-matrix theory and aircraft observations of cirrus,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 505–518 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Baum, B. A.

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[CrossRef]

P. Yang, B. A. Baum, A. J. Heymsfield, Y. X. Hu, H.-L. Huang, S.-C. Tsay, S. Ackerman, “Single-scattering properties of droxtals,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79–80, 1159–1180 (2003).
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Y. K. Lee, P. Yang, M. I. Mishchenko, B. A. Baum, Y. Hu, H.-L. Huang, W. J. Wiscombe, A. J. Baran, “On the use of circular cylinders as surrogates for hexagonal pristine ice crystals in scattering calculations at infrared wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2653–2664 (2003).
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B. A. Baum, D. P. Kratz, P. Yang, S. C. Ou, Y. Hu, P. Soulen, S. C. Tsay, “Remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS Airborne Simulator imagery during SUCCESS. I: Data and models,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11767–11780 (2000).
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W. L. Smith, S. Ackerman, H. Revercomb, H. Huang, D. H. DeSlover, W. Feltz, L. Gumley, A. Collard, “Infrared spectral absorption of nearly invisible cirrus clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1137–1140 (1998).
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H. Chepfer, P. Goloub, J. Riedi, J. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, P. H. Flamant, “Ice crystal shapes in cirrus clouds derived from POLDER-1/ADEOS-1,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7955–7966 (2001).
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A. J. Baran, S. Haveman, P. N. Francis, P. Yang, “A study of the absorption and extinction properties of hexagonal ice columns and plates in random and preferred orientation, using exact T-matrix theory and aircraft observations of cirrus,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 505–518 (2001).
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Z. Zhang, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, S.-C. Tsay, B. A. Baum, H.-L. Huang, Y. X. Hu, A. J. Heymsfield, J. Reichardt, “Geometrical-optics solution to light scattering by droxtal ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2490–2499 (2004).
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P. Yang, B. A. Baum, A. J. Heymsfield, Y. X. Hu, H.-L. Huang, S.-C. Tsay, S. Ackerman, “Single-scattering properties of droxtals,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79–80, 1159–1180 (2003).
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A. H. Huang, P. Yang, H.-L. Wei, B. A. Baum, Y.-X. Hu, P. Antonelli, S. A. Ackerman, “Retrieval of ice cloud properties from high spectral resolution infrared observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 842–853 (2004).
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A. H. Huang, P. Yang, H.-L. Wei, B. A. Baum, Y.-X. Hu, P. Antonelli, S. A. Ackerman, “Retrieval of ice cloud properties from high spectral resolution infrared observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 842–853 (2004).
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W. L. Smith, S. Ackerman, H. Revercomb, H. Huang, D. H. DeSlover, W. Feltz, L. Gumley, A. Collard, “Infrared spectral absorption of nearly invisible cirrus clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1137–1140 (1998).
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Z. Zhang, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, S.-C. Tsay, B. A. Baum, H.-L. Huang, Y. X. Hu, A. J. Heymsfield, J. Reichardt, “Geometrical-optics solution to light scattering by droxtal ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2490–2499 (2004).
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M. D. King, S. Platnick, P. Yang, G. T. Arnold, M. A. Gray, J. C. Riedi, S. A. Ackerman, K. N. Liou, “Remote sensing of liquid water and ice cloud optical thickness, and effective radius in the arctic: application of air-borne multispectral MAS data,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 857–875 (2004).
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S. Chung, S. Ackerman, P. F. Van Delst, W. P. Menzel, “Model calculations and interferometer measurements of ice-cloud characteristics,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 634–644 (2000).
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P. Minnis, P. W. Heck, D. F. Young, “Inference of cirrus cloud properties from satellite observed visible and infrared radiances. Part II: Verification of theoretical radiative properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 1305–1322 (1993).
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P. Yang, M. G. Mlynczak, H. L. Wei, D. P. Kratz, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, A. Heidinger, M. I. Mishchenko, “Spectral signature of ice clouds in the far-infrared region: single-scattering calculations and radiative sensitivity study,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4569, (2003).
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D. H. DeSlover, W. L. Smith, P. K. Piironen, E. W. Eloranta, “A methodology for measuring cirrus cloud visible-to-infrared spectral optical thickness ratios,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 251–262 (1999).
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H. Wei, P. Yang, J. Li, B. A. Baum, H.-L. Huang, S. Platnick, Y. X. Hu, L. Strow, “Retrieval of semitransparent ice cloud optical thickness from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 2254–2267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, S. Platnick, P. Yang, G. T. Arnold, M. A. Gray, J. C. Riedi, S. A. Ackerman, K. N. Liou, “Remote sensing of liquid water and ice cloud optical thickness, and effective radius in the arctic: application of air-borne multispectral MAS data,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 857–875 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Raschke, E.

A. Macke, J. Mueller, E. Raschke, “Single scattering properties of atmospheric ice crystal,” J. Atmos. Sci. 53, 2813–2825 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Reichardt, J.

Z. Zhang, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, S.-C. Tsay, B. A. Baum, H.-L. Huang, Y. X. Hu, A. J. Heymsfield, J. Reichardt, “Geometrical-optics solution to light scattering by droxtal ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2490–2499 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Reichardt, S. Reichardt, M. Hess, T. J. McGee, “Corrections among the optical properties of cirrus-cloud particle microphysical interpretation,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4562, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Reichardt, S.

J. Reichardt, S. Reichardt, M. Hess, T. J. McGee, “Corrections among the optical properties of cirrus-cloud particle microphysical interpretation,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, 4562, (2002).
[CrossRef]

Revercomb, H.

W. L. Smith, S. Ackerman, H. Revercomb, H. Huang, D. H. DeSlover, W. Feltz, L. Gumley, A. Collard, “Infrared spectral absorption of nearly invisible cirrus clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1137–1140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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W. L. Smith, X. Ma, A. Steven, S. A. Ackerman, H. E. Revercomb, R. O. Knuteson, “Remote sensing cloud properties from high spectral resolution infrared observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 1708–1720 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Ackerman, W. L. Smith, J. D. Spinhirne, H. E. Revercomb, “The 27–28 October 1986 far-IRE IFO cirrus case study: spectral properties of cirrus clouds in the 8–12 μm window,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2377–2388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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H. Chepfer, P. Goloub, J. Riedi, J. De Haan, J. W. Hovenier, P. H. Flamant, “Ice crystal shapes in cirrus clouds derived from POLDER-1/ADEOS-1,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 7955–7966 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Riedi, J. C.

M. D. King, S. Platnick, P. Yang, G. T. Arnold, M. A. Gray, J. C. Riedi, S. A. Ackerman, K. N. Liou, “Remote sensing of liquid water and ice cloud optical thickness, and effective radius in the arctic: application of air-borne multispectral MAS data,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 857–875 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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M. I. Mishchenko, W. B. Rossow, A. Macke, A. A. Lacis, “Sensitivity of cirrus cloud albedo, bidirectional reflectance and optical thickness retrieval accuracy to ice particle shape,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 16973–16985 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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P. N. Francis, A. Jones, R. W. Saunders, K. P. Shine, A. Slingo, Z. Sun, “An observational and theoretical study of the radiative properties of cirrus: some results from ICE’89,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 120, 809–848 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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D. L. Mitchell, W. P. Arnott, C. Schmitt, A. J. Baran, S. Havemann, Q. Fu, “Contributions of photon tunneling to extinction in laboratory grown hexagonal columns,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 761–776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

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P. N. Francis, A. Jones, R. W. Saunders, K. P. Shine, A. Slingo, Z. Sun, “An observational and theoretical study of the radiative properties of cirrus: some results from ICE’89,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 120, 809–848 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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P. N. Francis, A. Jones, R. W. Saunders, K. P. Shine, A. Slingo, Z. Sun, “An observational and theoretical study of the radiative properties of cirrus: some results from ICE’89,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 120, 809–848 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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D. H. DeSlover, W. L. Smith, P. K. Piironen, E. W. Eloranta, “A methodology for measuring cirrus cloud visible-to-infrared spectral optical thickness ratios,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 251–262 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, S. Ackerman, H. Revercomb, H. Huang, D. H. DeSlover, W. Feltz, L. Gumley, A. Collard, “Infrared spectral absorption of nearly invisible cirrus clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1137–1140 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Smith, X. Ma, A. Steven, S. A. Ackerman, H. E. Revercomb, R. O. Knuteson, “Remote sensing cloud properties from high spectral resolution infrared observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 1708–1720 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Ackerman, W. L. Smith, J. D. Spinhirne, H. E. Revercomb, “The 27–28 October 1986 far-IRE IFO cirrus case study: spectral properties of cirrus clouds in the 8–12 μm window,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2377–2388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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B. A. Baum, D. P. Kratz, P. Yang, S. C. Ou, Y. Hu, P. Soulen, S. C. Tsay, “Remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS Airborne Simulator imagery during SUCCESS. I: Data and models,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11767–11780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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S. A. Ackerman, W. L. Smith, J. D. Spinhirne, H. E. Revercomb, “The 27–28 October 1986 far-IRE IFO cirrus case study: spectral properties of cirrus clouds in the 8–12 μm window,” Mon. Weather Rev. 118, 2377–2388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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W. L. Smith, X. Ma, A. Steven, S. A. Ackerman, H. E. Revercomb, R. O. Knuteson, “Remote sensing cloud properties from high spectral resolution infrared observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 1708–1720 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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H. Wei, P. Yang, J. Li, B. A. Baum, H.-L. Huang, S. Platnick, Y. X. Hu, L. Strow, “Retrieval of semitransparent ice cloud optical thickness from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 2254–2267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Sun, W. B.

Q. Fu, W. B. Sun, P. Yang, “On model of scattering and absorption by cirrus nonspherical ice particles at thermal infrared wavelength,” J. Atmos. Res. 56, 2937–2947 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Q. Fu, P. Yang, W. B. Sun, “An accurate parameterization of the infrared radiative properties of cirrus clouds for climate models,” J. Clim. 25, 2223–2237 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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P. N. Francis, A. Jones, R. W. Saunders, K. P. Shine, A. Slingo, Z. Sun, “An observational and theoretical study of the radiative properties of cirrus: some results from ICE’89,” Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 120, 809–848 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Takano, K. N. Liou, “Radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. III. Light scattering by irregular ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 52, 818–837 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Takano, K. N. Liou, “Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. Part I. Single-scattering and optical properties of hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3–19 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. N. Liou, Y. Takano, P. Yang, “Light scattering and radiative transfer by ice crystal clouds: applications to climate research,” in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Geophysical Applications, M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, L. D. Travis, eds. (Academic, 2000), pp. 417–449.
[CrossRef]

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M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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P. Yang, B. C. Gao, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, S. C. Tsay, D. M. Winker, S. L. Nasiri, “Radiative properties of cirrus clouds in the infrared (8–13 μm) spectral region,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 473–504 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Baum, D. P. Kratz, P. Yang, S. C. Ou, Y. Hu, P. Soulen, S. C. Tsay, “Remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS Airborne Simulator imagery during SUCCESS. I: Data and models,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11767–11780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Zhang, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, S.-C. Tsay, B. A. Baum, H.-L. Huang, Y. X. Hu, A. J. Heymsfield, J. Reichardt, “Geometrical-optics solution to light scattering by droxtal ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2490–2499 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Yang, B. A. Baum, A. J. Heymsfield, Y. X. Hu, H.-L. Huang, S.-C. Tsay, S. Ackerman, “Single-scattering properties of droxtals,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79–80, 1159–1180 (2003).
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S. Chung, S. Ackerman, P. F. Van Delst, W. P. Menzel, “Model calculations and interferometer measurements of ice-cloud characteristics,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 634–644 (2000).
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T. C. Grenfell, S. G. Warren, “Representation of nonspherical ice particles by a collection of independent spheres for scattering and absorption of radiation,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 31697–31709 (1999).
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H. Wei, P. Yang, J. Li, B. A. Baum, H.-L. Huang, S. Platnick, Y. X. Hu, L. Strow, “Retrieval of semitransparent ice cloud optical thickness from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 2254–2267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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P. Yang, M. G. Mlynczak, H. L. Wei, D. P. Kratz, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, A. Heidinger, M. I. Mishchenko, “Spectral signature of ice clouds in the far-infrared region: single-scattering calculations and radiative sensitivity study,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4569, (2003).
[CrossRef]

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A. H. Huang, P. Yang, H.-L. Wei, B. A. Baum, Y.-X. Hu, P. Antonelli, S. A. Ackerman, “Retrieval of ice cloud properties from high spectral resolution infrared observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 842–853 (2004).
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P. Yang, B. C. Gao, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, S. C. Tsay, D. M. Winker, S. L. Nasiri, “Radiative properties of cirrus clouds in the infrared (8–13 μm) spectral region,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 473–504 (2001).
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P. Yang, M. G. Mlynczak, H. L. Wei, D. P. Kratz, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, A. Heidinger, M. I. Mishchenko, “Spectral signature of ice clouds in the far-infrared region: single-scattering calculations and radiative sensitivity study,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4569, (2003).
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Y. K. Lee, P. Yang, M. I. Mishchenko, B. A. Baum, Y. Hu, H.-L. Huang, W. J. Wiscombe, A. J. Baran, “On the use of circular cylinders as surrogates for hexagonal pristine ice crystals in scattering calculations at infrared wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2653–2664 (2003).
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P. Yang, B. C. Gao, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, S. C. Tsay, D. M. Winker, S. L. Nasiri, “Radiative properties of cirrus clouds in the infrared (8–13 μm) spectral region,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 473–504 (2001).
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A. H. Huang, P. Yang, H.-L. Wei, B. A. Baum, Y.-X. Hu, P. Antonelli, S. A. Ackerman, “Retrieval of ice cloud properties from high spectral resolution infrared observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 842–853 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, S. Platnick, P. Yang, G. T. Arnold, M. A. Gray, J. C. Riedi, S. A. Ackerman, K. N. Liou, “Remote sensing of liquid water and ice cloud optical thickness, and effective radius in the arctic: application of air-borne multispectral MAS data,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 857–875 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Wei, P. Yang, J. Li, B. A. Baum, H.-L. Huang, S. Platnick, Y. X. Hu, L. Strow, “Retrieval of semitransparent ice cloud optical thickness from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 2254–2267 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Z. Zhang, P. Yang, G. W. Kattawar, S.-C. Tsay, B. A. Baum, H.-L. Huang, Y. X. Hu, A. J. Heymsfield, J. Reichardt, “Geometrical-optics solution to light scattering by droxtal ice crystals,” Appl. Opt. 43, 2490–2499 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Yang, B. A. Baum, A. J. Heymsfield, Y. X. Hu, H.-L. Huang, S.-C. Tsay, S. Ackerman, “Single-scattering properties of droxtals,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79–80, 1159–1180 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, M. G. Mlynczak, H. L. Wei, D. P. Kratz, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, A. Heidinger, M. I. Mishchenko, “Spectral signature of ice clouds in the far-infrared region: single-scattering calculations and radiative sensitivity study,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4569, (2003).
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Y. K. Lee, P. Yang, M. I. Mishchenko, B. A. Baum, Y. Hu, H.-L. Huang, W. J. Wiscombe, A. J. Baran, “On the use of circular cylinders as surrogates for hexagonal pristine ice crystals in scattering calculations at infrared wavelengths,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2653–2664 (2003).
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A. J. Baran, P. N. Francis, P. Yang, “A process study of the dependence of ice crystal absorption on particle geometry: application to aircraft radiometric measurements of cirrus cloud in the terrestrial window region,” J. Atmos. Sci. 60, 417–427 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, B. C. Gao, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, S. C. Tsay, D. M. Winker, S. L. Nasiri, “Radiative properties of cirrus clouds in the infrared (8–13 μm) spectral region,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 473–504 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Baran, S. Haveman, P. N. Francis, P. Yang, “A study of the absorption and extinction properties of hexagonal ice columns and plates in random and preferred orientation, using exact T-matrix theory and aircraft observations of cirrus,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 505–518 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Baum, D. P. Kratz, P. Yang, S. C. Ou, Y. Hu, P. Soulen, S. C. Tsay, “Remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS Airborne Simulator imagery during SUCCESS. I: Data and models,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11767–11780 (2000).
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P. Yang, K. N. Liou, K. Wyser, D. Mitchell, “Parameterization of scattering and absorption properties of individual ice crystals,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 4699–4718 (2000).
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Q. Fu, W. B. Sun, P. Yang, “On model of scattering and absorption by cirrus nonspherical ice particles at thermal infrared wavelength,” J. Atmos. Res. 56, 2937–2947 (1999).
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Q. Fu, P. Yang, W. B. Sun, “An accurate parameterization of the infrared radiative properties of cirrus clouds for climate models,” J. Clim. 25, 2223–2237 (1998).
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P. Minnis, P. W. Heck, D. F. Young, “Inference of cirrus cloud properties from satellite observed visible and infrared radiances. Part II: Verification of theoretical radiative properties,” J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 1305–1322 (1993).
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Appl. Opt.

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P. Yang, K. N. Liou, “Single-scattering properties of complex ice crystals in terrestrial atmosphere,” Contrib. Atmos. Phys. 71, 223–248 (1998).

Geophys. Res. Lett.

W. L. Smith, S. Ackerman, H. Revercomb, H. Huang, D. H. DeSlover, W. Feltz, L. Gumley, A. Collard, “Infrared spectral absorption of nearly invisible cirrus clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1137–1140 (1998).
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IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag.

K. S. Yee, “Numerical solution of initial boundary problems involving Maxwell’s equations in isotropic media,” IEEE Trans. Antennas Propag. 14, 302–307 (1966).
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IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens.

A. H. Huang, P. Yang, H.-L. Wei, B. A. Baum, Y.-X. Hu, P. Antonelli, S. A. Ackerman, “Retrieval of ice cloud properties from high spectral resolution infrared observations,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 842–853 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Wei, P. Yang, J. Li, B. A. Baum, H.-L. Huang, S. Platnick, Y. X. Hu, L. Strow, “Retrieval of semitransparent ice cloud optical thickness from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 42, 2254–2267 (2004).
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S. Chung, S. Ackerman, P. F. Van Delst, W. P. Menzel, “Model calculations and interferometer measurements of ice-cloud characteristics,” J. Appl. Meteorol. 39, 634–644 (2000).
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J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol.

D. H. DeSlover, W. L. Smith, P. K. Piironen, E. W. Eloranta, “A methodology for measuring cirrus cloud visible-to-infrared spectral optical thickness ratios,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16, 251–262 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, S. Platnick, P. Yang, G. T. Arnold, M. A. Gray, J. C. Riedi, S. A. Ackerman, K. N. Liou, “Remote sensing of liquid water and ice cloud optical thickness, and effective radius in the arctic: application of air-borne multispectral MAS data,” J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 21, 857–875 (2004).
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Q. Fu, W. B. Sun, P. Yang, “On model of scattering and absorption by cirrus nonspherical ice particles at thermal infrared wavelength,” J. Atmos. Res. 56, 2937–2947 (1999).
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J. Atmos. Sci.

Y. Takano, K. N. Liou, “Solar radiative transfer in cirrus clouds. Part I. Single-scattering and optical properties of hexagonal ice crystals,” J. Atmos. Sci. 46, 3–19 (1989).
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W. L. Smith, X. Ma, A. Steven, S. A. Ackerman, H. E. Revercomb, R. O. Knuteson, “Remote sensing cloud properties from high spectral resolution infrared observations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 50, 1708–1720 (1993).
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[CrossRef]

B. A. Baum, D. P. Kratz, P. Yang, S. C. Ou, Y. Hu, P. Soulen, S. C. Tsay, “Remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS Airborne Simulator imagery during SUCCESS. I: Data and models,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11767–11780 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, M. G. Mlynczak, H. L. Wei, D. P. Kratz, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, A. Heidinger, M. I. Mishchenko, “Spectral signature of ice clouds in the far-infrared region: single-scattering calculations and radiative sensitivity study,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4569, (2003).
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J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer

D. L. Mitchell, W. P. Arnott, C. Schmitt, A. J. Baran, S. Havemann, Q. Fu, “Contributions of photon tunneling to extinction in laboratory grown hexagonal columns,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 761–776 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Baran, S. Haveman, P. N. Francis, P. Yang, “A study of the absorption and extinction properties of hexagonal ice columns and plates in random and preferred orientation, using exact T-matrix theory and aircraft observations of cirrus,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 505–518 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, B. C. Gao, B. A. Baum, Y. X. Hu, W. J. Wiscombe, S. C. Tsay, D. M. Winker, S. L. Nasiri, “Radiative properties of cirrus clouds in the infrared (8–13 μm) spectral region,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 70, 473–504 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Yang, B. A. Baum, A. J. Heymsfield, Y. X. Hu, H.-L. Huang, S.-C. Tsay, S. Ackerman, “Single-scattering properties of droxtals,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79–80, 1159–1180 (2003).
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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Ice crystal shapes defined for the present scattering calculations.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Effective size versus maximum dimension for various habits.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Complex refractive index of ice. Data are taken from Warren.36

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Single-scattering properties of hollow columns from the composite method based on the FDTD, IGOM, and Lorenz–Mie solutions (λ = 15 μm).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variations of extinction efficiency, absorption efficiency, and asymmetry factor for various habits for a maximum particle dimension of 10 μm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variations with wavelength of extinction efficiency, absorption efficiency, and asymmetry factors for various habits for a fixed effective size of 10 μm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Variations of extinction efficiency, absorption efficiency, and asymmetry factor as functions of maximum dimension for various habits at a fixed wavelength of 8 μm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Extinction efficiency, absorption efficiency, and asymmetry factor as functions of effective size for various habits at a fixed wavelength of 8 μm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Contours of extinction efficiency, absorption efficiency, and asymmetry factor as functions of wave number and the maximum dimension for solid columns [panels in column (a)], droxtals [panels in column (b)], and aggregates [panels in column (c)].

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Phase functions for various habits with the same maximum dimension of 50 μm (top panel) and with the same effective size (bottom panel) of 50 μm at a wavelength of 10 μm.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Bulk extinction efficiency, absorption efficiency, and asymmetry factor calculated for the 21 size distributions observed for mid-latitude cirrus clouds (circles). The solid curves are the parameterizations based on Eqs. (7)(9).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Bulk single-scattering properties as functions of wavelength for three effective sizes. The symbols show the composite values at 49 discrete wavelengths; the solid curves are the interpolated results with a high spectral resolution of 0.01 μm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fitting Coefficients in Eqs. (7)(9) for the Bulk Single-Scattering Properties of Mid-Latitude Cirrus Clouds

Equations (11)

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D e ( L ) = 3 2 V ( L ) A ( L ) ,
Q e = L min L max [ i = 1 N f i ( L ) Q e i ( L ) A i ( L ) ] n ( L ) d L L min L max [ i = 1 N f i ( L ) A i ( L ) ] n ( L ) d L ,
Q a = L min L max [ i = 1 N f i ( L ) Q a i ( L ) A i ( L ) ] n ( L ) d L L min L max [ i = 1 N f i ( L ) A i ( L ) ] n ( L ) d L ,
g = L min L max [ i = 1 N f i ( L ) g i ( L ) Q s i ( L ) A i ( L ) ] n ( L ) d L L min L max [ i = 1 N f i ( L ) Q s i ( L ) A i ( L ) ] n ( L ) d L ,
ω = L min L max [ i = 1 N f i ( L ) Q s i ( L ) A i ( L ) ] n ( L ) d L L min L max [ i = 1 N f i ( L ) Q e i ( L ) A i ( L ) ] n ( L ) d L = 1 - Q a Q e ,
D e = 3 2 L min L max [ i = 1 N f i ( L ) V i ( L ) ] n ( L ) d L L min L max [ i = 1 N f i ( L ) A i ( L ) ] n ( L ) d L .
Q e = 2 + η 1 D e - 1 1 + η 2 D e - 1 + η 3 D e - 2 ,
Q a = ξ 0 + ξ 1 D e - 1 1 + ξ 2 D e - 1 + ξ 3 D e - 2 ,
g = ζ 0 + ζ 1 D e - 1 1 + ζ 2 D e - 1 + ζ 3 D e - 2 ,
Q a ( L ) = { Q a FDTD ( L ) ( L < 20 λ / π ) C 1 Q a Mie ( L ) + C 2 Q a IGOM ( L ) ( L 20 λ / π ) ,
Q a FDTD ( L c ) = C 1 Q a Mie ( L c ) + C 2 Q a IGOM ( L c ) ,

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