Abstract

Airborne lidar has the potential to survey large areas quickly and at a low cost per kilometer along a survey line. For this reason, we investigated the performance of an airborne lidar for surveys of zooplankton. In particular, we compared the lidar returns with echo-sounder measurements of zooplankton in Prince William Sound, Alaska. Data from eight regions of the Sound were compared, and the correlation between the two methods was 0.78. To obtain this level of agreement, a threshold was applied to the lidar return to remove the effects of scattering from phytoplankton.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. T. Cooney, K. O. Coyle, E. Stockmar, C. Stark, “Seasonality in surface-layer net zooplankton communities in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 97–109 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. T. Cooney, “Zooplankton,” in The Gulf of Alaska, Physical Environmental and Biological Resources, D. W. Hood, S. T. Zimmerman, eds. (Minerals Management Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1986), pp. 285–304.
  3. T. M. Willette, R. T. Cooney, V. Patrick, D. M. Mason, G. L. Thomas, D. Scheel, “Ecological processes influencing mortality of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 14–41 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. T. Cooney, J. R. Alen, M. A. Bishop, D. L. Eslinger, T. Kline, B. L. Norcross, C. P. McRoy, J. Milton, J. Olsen, V. Patrick, A. J. Paul, D. Salmon, D. Scheel, G. L. Thomas, S. L. Vaughan, T. M. Willette, “Ecosystems controls of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 1–13 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. C. Benfield, P. H. Wiebe, T. K. Stanton, C. S. Davis, S. M. Gallager, C. H. Greene, “Estimating the spatial distribution of zooplankton biomass by combining video plankton recorder and single-frequency acoustic data,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1175–1199 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. E. D. Brown, J. H. Churnside, R. L. Collins, T. Veenstra, J. J. Wilson, K. Abnett, “Remote sensing of capelin and other biological features in the north Pacific using lidar and video technology,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 59, 1120–1130 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
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  16. D. N. MacLennan, E. J. Simmonds, Fisheries Acoustics (Chapman & Hall, 1992).
  17. D. E. McGehee, R. L. Driscoll, L. V. Martin Traykovski, “Effects of orientation on acoustic scattering from Antarctic krill at 120 kHz,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1273–1294 (1998).
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    [CrossRef]
  22. P. H. Wiebe, T. K. Stanton, M. C. Benfield, D. G. Mountain, C. H. Greene, “High-frequency acoustic volume backscattering in the Georges Bank coastal region and its interpretation using scattering models,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 22, 445–464 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. T. Cooney, T. M. Willette, S. Sharr, D. Sharp, J. Olsen, “The effect of climate on North Pacific pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) production: examining some details of a natural experiment,” Can. Spec: Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 121, 475–482 (1995).
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  27. A. C. Lavery, T. K. Stanton, D. E. McGehee, D. Chu, “Three-dimensional modeling of acoustic backscattering from fluid-like zooplankton,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 1197–1210 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. H. Churnside, D. A. Demer, B. Mahmoudi, “A comparison of lidar and echosounder measurements of fish schools in the Gulf of Mexico,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 60, 147–154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

E. D. Brown, J. H. Churnside, R. L. Collins, T. Veenstra, J. J. Wilson, K. Abnett, “Remote sensing of capelin and other biological features in the north Pacific using lidar and video technology,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 59, 1120–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Lavery, T. K. Stanton, D. E. McGehee, D. Chu, “Three-dimensional modeling of acoustic backscattering from fluid-like zooplankton,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 1197–1210 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (4)

J. H. Churnside, J. J. Wilson, V. V. Tatarskii, “Airborne lidar for fisheries applications,” Opt. Eng. 40, 406–414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Cooney, K. O. Coyle, E. Stockmar, C. Stark, “Seasonality in surface-layer net zooplankton communities in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 97–109 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Willette, R. T. Cooney, V. Patrick, D. M. Mason, G. L. Thomas, D. Scheel, “Ecological processes influencing mortality of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 14–41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Cooney, J. R. Alen, M. A. Bishop, D. L. Eslinger, T. Kline, B. L. Norcross, C. P. McRoy, J. Milton, J. Olsen, V. Patrick, A. J. Paul, D. Salmon, D. Scheel, G. L. Thomas, S. L. Vaughan, T. M. Willette, “Ecosystems controls of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

H. M. Zorn, J. H. Churnside, C. W. Oliver, “Laser safety thresholds for cetaceans and pinnipeds,” Mar. Mammal Sci. 16, 186–200 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Kirsch, G. L. Thomas, R. T. Cooney, “Acoustic estimates of zooplankton distributions in Prince William Sound, spring 1996,” Fish. Res. 47, 245–260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

D. E. McGehee, R. L. Driscoll, L. V. Martin Traykovski, “Effects of orientation on acoustic scattering from Antarctic krill at 120 kHz,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1273–1294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Benfield, P. H. Wiebe, T. K. Stanton, C. S. Davis, S. M. Gallager, C. H. Greene, “Estimating the spatial distribution of zooplankton biomass by combining video plankton recorder and single-frequency acoustic data,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1175–1199 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Greene, P. H. Wiebe, P. Pelkie, M. C. Benfield, J. M. Popp, “Three-dimensional acoustic visualization of zooplankton patchiness,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1201–1217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. H. Churnside, J. J. Wilson, V. V. Tatarskii, “Lidar profiles of fish schools,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6011–6020 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. H. Wiebe, T. K. Stanton, M. C. Benfield, D. G. Mountain, C. H. Greene, “High-frequency acoustic volume backscattering in the Georges Bank coastal region and its interpretation using scattering models,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 22, 445–464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

R. T. Cooney, T. M. Willette, S. Sharr, D. Sharp, J. Olsen, “The effect of climate on North Pacific pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) production: examining some details of a natural experiment,” Can. Spec: Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 121, 475–482 (1995).

D. V. Holliday, R. E. Pieper, “Volume scattering strengths and zooplankton distributions at acoustic frequencies between 0.5 and 3 MHz,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 67, 135–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

R. E. Thorne, “Assessment of population abundance by echo integration,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Assessment of Micronekton, Biol. Ocean. J. 2, 253–262 (1983).

1981 (1)

J. L. Squire, H. Krumboltz, “Profiling pelagic fish schools using airborne optical lasers and other remote sensing techniques,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 15, 27–31 (1981).

1972 (1)

M. F. Land, “The physics and biology of animal reflectors,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 24, 75–106 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abnett, K.

E. D. Brown, J. H. Churnside, R. L. Collins, T. Veenstra, J. J. Wilson, K. Abnett, “Remote sensing of capelin and other biological features in the north Pacific using lidar and video technology,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 59, 1120–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Alen, J. R.

R. T. Cooney, J. R. Alen, M. A. Bishop, D. L. Eslinger, T. Kline, B. L. Norcross, C. P. McRoy, J. Milton, J. Olsen, V. Patrick, A. J. Paul, D. Salmon, D. Scheel, G. L. Thomas, S. L. Vaughan, T. M. Willette, “Ecosystems controls of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Benfield, M. C.

C. H. Greene, P. H. Wiebe, P. Pelkie, M. C. Benfield, J. M. Popp, “Three-dimensional acoustic visualization of zooplankton patchiness,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1201–1217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Benfield, P. H. Wiebe, T. K. Stanton, C. S. Davis, S. M. Gallager, C. H. Greene, “Estimating the spatial distribution of zooplankton biomass by combining video plankton recorder and single-frequency acoustic data,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1175–1199 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Wiebe, T. K. Stanton, M. C. Benfield, D. G. Mountain, C. H. Greene, “High-frequency acoustic volume backscattering in the Georges Bank coastal region and its interpretation using scattering models,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 22, 445–464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, M. A.

R. T. Cooney, J. R. Alen, M. A. Bishop, D. L. Eslinger, T. Kline, B. L. Norcross, C. P. McRoy, J. Milton, J. Olsen, V. Patrick, A. J. Paul, D. Salmon, D. Scheel, G. L. Thomas, S. L. Vaughan, T. M. Willette, “Ecosystems controls of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brown, E. D.

E. D. Brown, J. H. Churnside, R. L. Collins, T. Veenstra, J. J. Wilson, K. Abnett, “Remote sensing of capelin and other biological features in the north Pacific using lidar and video technology,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 59, 1120–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chu, D.

A. C. Lavery, T. K. Stanton, D. E. McGehee, D. Chu, “Three-dimensional modeling of acoustic backscattering from fluid-like zooplankton,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 1197–1210 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Churnside, J. H.

J. H. Churnside, D. A. Demer, B. Mahmoudi, “A comparison of lidar and echosounder measurements of fish schools in the Gulf of Mexico,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 60, 147–154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Brown, J. H. Churnside, R. L. Collins, T. Veenstra, J. J. Wilson, K. Abnett, “Remote sensing of capelin and other biological features in the north Pacific using lidar and video technology,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 59, 1120–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside, J. J. Wilson, V. V. Tatarskii, “Airborne lidar for fisheries applications,” Opt. Eng. 40, 406–414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Zorn, J. H. Churnside, C. W. Oliver, “Laser safety thresholds for cetaceans and pinnipeds,” Mar. Mammal Sci. 16, 186–200 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside, J. J. Wilson, V. V. Tatarskii, “Lidar profiles of fish schools,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6011–6020 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Collins, R. L.

E. D. Brown, J. H. Churnside, R. L. Collins, T. Veenstra, J. J. Wilson, K. Abnett, “Remote sensing of capelin and other biological features in the north Pacific using lidar and video technology,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 59, 1120–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cooney, R. T.

R. T. Cooney, K. O. Coyle, E. Stockmar, C. Stark, “Seasonality in surface-layer net zooplankton communities in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 97–109 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Cooney, J. R. Alen, M. A. Bishop, D. L. Eslinger, T. Kline, B. L. Norcross, C. P. McRoy, J. Milton, J. Olsen, V. Patrick, A. J. Paul, D. Salmon, D. Scheel, G. L. Thomas, S. L. Vaughan, T. M. Willette, “Ecosystems controls of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Willette, R. T. Cooney, V. Patrick, D. M. Mason, G. L. Thomas, D. Scheel, “Ecological processes influencing mortality of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 14–41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kirsch, G. L. Thomas, R. T. Cooney, “Acoustic estimates of zooplankton distributions in Prince William Sound, spring 1996,” Fish. Res. 47, 245–260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Cooney, T. M. Willette, S. Sharr, D. Sharp, J. Olsen, “The effect of climate on North Pacific pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) production: examining some details of a natural experiment,” Can. Spec: Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 121, 475–482 (1995).

R. T. Cooney, “Zooplankton,” in The Gulf of Alaska, Physical Environmental and Biological Resources, D. W. Hood, S. T. Zimmerman, eds. (Minerals Management Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1986), pp. 285–304.

Coyle, K. O.

R. T. Cooney, K. O. Coyle, E. Stockmar, C. Stark, “Seasonality in surface-layer net zooplankton communities in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 97–109 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Davis, C. S.

M. C. Benfield, P. H. Wiebe, T. K. Stanton, C. S. Davis, S. M. Gallager, C. H. Greene, “Estimating the spatial distribution of zooplankton biomass by combining video plankton recorder and single-frequency acoustic data,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1175–1199 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Demer, D. A.

J. H. Churnside, D. A. Demer, B. Mahmoudi, “A comparison of lidar and echosounder measurements of fish schools in the Gulf of Mexico,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 60, 147–154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Driscoll, R. L.

D. E. McGehee, R. L. Driscoll, L. V. Martin Traykovski, “Effects of orientation on acoustic scattering from Antarctic krill at 120 kHz,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1273–1294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eslinger, D. L.

R. T. Cooney, J. R. Alen, M. A. Bishop, D. L. Eslinger, T. Kline, B. L. Norcross, C. P. McRoy, J. Milton, J. Olsen, V. Patrick, A. J. Paul, D. Salmon, D. Scheel, G. L. Thomas, S. L. Vaughan, T. M. Willette, “Ecosystems controls of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Foote, K. G.

K. G. Foote, H. P. Knudsen, G. Vestnes, D. N. MacLennan, E. G. Simmonds, “Calibration of acoustic instruments for fish density estimation: a practical guide,” (International Council for the Exploration of the Seas, 1987).

Gallager, S. M.

M. C. Benfield, P. H. Wiebe, T. K. Stanton, C. S. Davis, S. M. Gallager, C. H. Greene, “Estimating the spatial distribution of zooplankton biomass by combining video plankton recorder and single-frequency acoustic data,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1175–1199 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Greene, C. H.

M. C. Benfield, P. H. Wiebe, T. K. Stanton, C. S. Davis, S. M. Gallager, C. H. Greene, “Estimating the spatial distribution of zooplankton biomass by combining video plankton recorder and single-frequency acoustic data,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1175–1199 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Greene, P. H. Wiebe, P. Pelkie, M. C. Benfield, J. M. Popp, “Three-dimensional acoustic visualization of zooplankton patchiness,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1201–1217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Wiebe, T. K. Stanton, M. C. Benfield, D. G. Mountain, C. H. Greene, “High-frequency acoustic volume backscattering in the Georges Bank coastal region and its interpretation using scattering models,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 22, 445–464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Holliday, D. V.

D. V. Holliday, R. E. Pieper, “Volume scattering strengths and zooplankton distributions at acoustic frequencies between 0.5 and 3 MHz,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 67, 135–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kirsch, J.

J. Kirsch, G. L. Thomas, R. T. Cooney, “Acoustic estimates of zooplankton distributions in Prince William Sound, spring 1996,” Fish. Res. 47, 245–260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kline, T.

R. T. Cooney, J. R. Alen, M. A. Bishop, D. L. Eslinger, T. Kline, B. L. Norcross, C. P. McRoy, J. Milton, J. Olsen, V. Patrick, A. J. Paul, D. Salmon, D. Scheel, G. L. Thomas, S. L. Vaughan, T. M. Willette, “Ecosystems controls of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Knudsen, H. P.

K. G. Foote, H. P. Knudsen, G. Vestnes, D. N. MacLennan, E. G. Simmonds, “Calibration of acoustic instruments for fish density estimation: a practical guide,” (International Council for the Exploration of the Seas, 1987).

Krumboltz, H.

J. L. Squire, H. Krumboltz, “Profiling pelagic fish schools using airborne optical lasers and other remote sensing techniques,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 15, 27–31 (1981).

Land, M. F.

M. F. Land, “The physics and biology of animal reflectors,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 24, 75–106 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lavery, A. C.

A. C. Lavery, T. K. Stanton, D. E. McGehee, D. Chu, “Three-dimensional modeling of acoustic backscattering from fluid-like zooplankton,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 1197–1210 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacLennan, D. N.

K. G. Foote, H. P. Knudsen, G. Vestnes, D. N. MacLennan, E. G. Simmonds, “Calibration of acoustic instruments for fish density estimation: a practical guide,” (International Council for the Exploration of the Seas, 1987).

D. N. MacLennan, E. J. Simmonds, Fisheries Acoustics (Chapman & Hall, 1992).

Mahmoudi, B.

J. H. Churnside, D. A. Demer, B. Mahmoudi, “A comparison of lidar and echosounder measurements of fish schools in the Gulf of Mexico,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 60, 147–154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Martin Traykovski, L. V.

D. E. McGehee, R. L. Driscoll, L. V. Martin Traykovski, “Effects of orientation on acoustic scattering from Antarctic krill at 120 kHz,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1273–1294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mason, D. M.

T. M. Willette, R. T. Cooney, V. Patrick, D. M. Mason, G. L. Thomas, D. Scheel, “Ecological processes influencing mortality of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 14–41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McGehee, D. E.

A. C. Lavery, T. K. Stanton, D. E. McGehee, D. Chu, “Three-dimensional modeling of acoustic backscattering from fluid-like zooplankton,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 1197–1210 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. McGehee, R. L. Driscoll, L. V. Martin Traykovski, “Effects of orientation on acoustic scattering from Antarctic krill at 120 kHz,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1273–1294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McRoy, C. P.

R. T. Cooney, J. R. Alen, M. A. Bishop, D. L. Eslinger, T. Kline, B. L. Norcross, C. P. McRoy, J. Milton, J. Olsen, V. Patrick, A. J. Paul, D. Salmon, D. Scheel, G. L. Thomas, S. L. Vaughan, T. M. Willette, “Ecosystems controls of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Milton, J.

R. T. Cooney, J. R. Alen, M. A. Bishop, D. L. Eslinger, T. Kline, B. L. Norcross, C. P. McRoy, J. Milton, J. Olsen, V. Patrick, A. J. Paul, D. Salmon, D. Scheel, G. L. Thomas, S. L. Vaughan, T. M. Willette, “Ecosystems controls of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mountain, D. G.

P. H. Wiebe, T. K. Stanton, M. C. Benfield, D. G. Mountain, C. H. Greene, “High-frequency acoustic volume backscattering in the Georges Bank coastal region and its interpretation using scattering models,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 22, 445–464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Norcross, B. L.

R. T. Cooney, J. R. Alen, M. A. Bishop, D. L. Eslinger, T. Kline, B. L. Norcross, C. P. McRoy, J. Milton, J. Olsen, V. Patrick, A. J. Paul, D. Salmon, D. Scheel, G. L. Thomas, S. L. Vaughan, T. M. Willette, “Ecosystems controls of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, C. W.

H. M. Zorn, J. H. Churnside, C. W. Oliver, “Laser safety thresholds for cetaceans and pinnipeds,” Mar. Mammal Sci. 16, 186–200 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Olsen, J.

R. T. Cooney, J. R. Alen, M. A. Bishop, D. L. Eslinger, T. Kline, B. L. Norcross, C. P. McRoy, J. Milton, J. Olsen, V. Patrick, A. J. Paul, D. Salmon, D. Scheel, G. L. Thomas, S. L. Vaughan, T. M. Willette, “Ecosystems controls of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Cooney, T. M. Willette, S. Sharr, D. Sharp, J. Olsen, “The effect of climate on North Pacific pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) production: examining some details of a natural experiment,” Can. Spec: Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 121, 475–482 (1995).

Patrick, V.

R. T. Cooney, J. R. Alen, M. A. Bishop, D. L. Eslinger, T. Kline, B. L. Norcross, C. P. McRoy, J. Milton, J. Olsen, V. Patrick, A. J. Paul, D. Salmon, D. Scheel, G. L. Thomas, S. L. Vaughan, T. M. Willette, “Ecosystems controls of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Willette, R. T. Cooney, V. Patrick, D. M. Mason, G. L. Thomas, D. Scheel, “Ecological processes influencing mortality of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 14–41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Paul, A. J.

R. T. Cooney, J. R. Alen, M. A. Bishop, D. L. Eslinger, T. Kline, B. L. Norcross, C. P. McRoy, J. Milton, J. Olsen, V. Patrick, A. J. Paul, D. Salmon, D. Scheel, G. L. Thomas, S. L. Vaughan, T. M. Willette, “Ecosystems controls of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pelkie, P.

C. H. Greene, P. H. Wiebe, P. Pelkie, M. C. Benfield, J. M. Popp, “Three-dimensional acoustic visualization of zooplankton patchiness,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1201–1217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pieper, R. E.

D. V. Holliday, R. E. Pieper, “Volume scattering strengths and zooplankton distributions at acoustic frequencies between 0.5 and 3 MHz,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 67, 135–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Popp, J. M.

C. H. Greene, P. H. Wiebe, P. Pelkie, M. C. Benfield, J. M. Popp, “Three-dimensional acoustic visualization of zooplankton patchiness,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1201–1217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, D.

R. T. Cooney, J. R. Alen, M. A. Bishop, D. L. Eslinger, T. Kline, B. L. Norcross, C. P. McRoy, J. Milton, J. Olsen, V. Patrick, A. J. Paul, D. Salmon, D. Scheel, G. L. Thomas, S. L. Vaughan, T. M. Willette, “Ecosystems controls of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Scheel, D.

R. T. Cooney, J. R. Alen, M. A. Bishop, D. L. Eslinger, T. Kline, B. L. Norcross, C. P. McRoy, J. Milton, J. Olsen, V. Patrick, A. J. Paul, D. Salmon, D. Scheel, G. L. Thomas, S. L. Vaughan, T. M. Willette, “Ecosystems controls of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Willette, R. T. Cooney, V. Patrick, D. M. Mason, G. L. Thomas, D. Scheel, “Ecological processes influencing mortality of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 14–41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sharp, D.

R. T. Cooney, T. M. Willette, S. Sharr, D. Sharp, J. Olsen, “The effect of climate on North Pacific pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) production: examining some details of a natural experiment,” Can. Spec: Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 121, 475–482 (1995).

Sharr, S.

R. T. Cooney, T. M. Willette, S. Sharr, D. Sharp, J. Olsen, “The effect of climate on North Pacific pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) production: examining some details of a natural experiment,” Can. Spec: Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 121, 475–482 (1995).

Shifrin, K. S.

K. S. Shifrin, Physical Properties of Ocean Water (American Institute of Physics, 1988), p. 119 ff.

Simmonds, E. G.

K. G. Foote, H. P. Knudsen, G. Vestnes, D. N. MacLennan, E. G. Simmonds, “Calibration of acoustic instruments for fish density estimation: a practical guide,” (International Council for the Exploration of the Seas, 1987).

Simmonds, E. J.

D. N. MacLennan, E. J. Simmonds, Fisheries Acoustics (Chapman & Hall, 1992).

Squire, J. L.

J. L. Squire, H. Krumboltz, “Profiling pelagic fish schools using airborne optical lasers and other remote sensing techniques,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 15, 27–31 (1981).

Stanton, T. K.

A. C. Lavery, T. K. Stanton, D. E. McGehee, D. Chu, “Three-dimensional modeling of acoustic backscattering from fluid-like zooplankton,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 1197–1210 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. Benfield, P. H. Wiebe, T. K. Stanton, C. S. Davis, S. M. Gallager, C. H. Greene, “Estimating the spatial distribution of zooplankton biomass by combining video plankton recorder and single-frequency acoustic data,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1175–1199 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Wiebe, T. K. Stanton, M. C. Benfield, D. G. Mountain, C. H. Greene, “High-frequency acoustic volume backscattering in the Georges Bank coastal region and its interpretation using scattering models,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 22, 445–464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stark, C.

R. T. Cooney, K. O. Coyle, E. Stockmar, C. Stark, “Seasonality in surface-layer net zooplankton communities in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 97–109 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stockmar, E.

R. T. Cooney, K. O. Coyle, E. Stockmar, C. Stark, “Seasonality in surface-layer net zooplankton communities in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 97–109 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tatarskii, V. V.

J. H. Churnside, J. J. Wilson, V. V. Tatarskii, “Airborne lidar for fisheries applications,” Opt. Eng. 40, 406–414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside, J. J. Wilson, V. V. Tatarskii, “Lidar profiles of fish schools,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6011–6020 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, G. L.

T. M. Willette, R. T. Cooney, V. Patrick, D. M. Mason, G. L. Thomas, D. Scheel, “Ecological processes influencing mortality of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 14–41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Cooney, J. R. Alen, M. A. Bishop, D. L. Eslinger, T. Kline, B. L. Norcross, C. P. McRoy, J. Milton, J. Olsen, V. Patrick, A. J. Paul, D. Salmon, D. Scheel, G. L. Thomas, S. L. Vaughan, T. M. Willette, “Ecosystems controls of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Kirsch, G. L. Thomas, R. T. Cooney, “Acoustic estimates of zooplankton distributions in Prince William Sound, spring 1996,” Fish. Res. 47, 245–260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Thorne, G. L. Thomas, “Monitoring the juvenile pink salmon food supply and predators in Prince William Sound,” in Workshop on Factors Affecting Production of Juvenile Salmon: Comparative Studies on Juvenile Salmon Ecology Between the East and West North Pacific Ocean, , R. Beamish, Y. Ishida, V. Karpenko, P. Livingston, K. Meyers, eds. (North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission, 2001).

Thorne, R. E.

R. E. Thorne, “Assessment of population abundance by echo integration,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Assessment of Micronekton, Biol. Ocean. J. 2, 253–262 (1983).

R. E. Thorne, “Hydroacoustics,” in Fisheries Techniques, L. Nielson, D. Johnson, eds. (American Fisheries Society, 1983).

R. E. Thorne, G. L. Thomas, “Monitoring the juvenile pink salmon food supply and predators in Prince William Sound,” in Workshop on Factors Affecting Production of Juvenile Salmon: Comparative Studies on Juvenile Salmon Ecology Between the East and West North Pacific Ocean, , R. Beamish, Y. Ishida, V. Karpenko, P. Livingston, K. Meyers, eds. (North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission, 2001).

R. E. Thorne, “Acoustic surveying of pelagic fish in shallow water,” Proceedings of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE Press, 2004).

Vaughan, S. L.

R. T. Cooney, J. R. Alen, M. A. Bishop, D. L. Eslinger, T. Kline, B. L. Norcross, C. P. McRoy, J. Milton, J. Olsen, V. Patrick, A. J. Paul, D. Salmon, D. Scheel, G. L. Thomas, S. L. Vaughan, T. M. Willette, “Ecosystems controls of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Veenstra, T.

E. D. Brown, J. H. Churnside, R. L. Collins, T. Veenstra, J. J. Wilson, K. Abnett, “Remote sensing of capelin and other biological features in the north Pacific using lidar and video technology,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 59, 1120–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vestnes, G.

K. G. Foote, H. P. Knudsen, G. Vestnes, D. N. MacLennan, E. G. Simmonds, “Calibration of acoustic instruments for fish density estimation: a practical guide,” (International Council for the Exploration of the Seas, 1987).

Wiebe, P. H.

C. H. Greene, P. H. Wiebe, P. Pelkie, M. C. Benfield, J. M. Popp, “Three-dimensional acoustic visualization of zooplankton patchiness,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1201–1217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Benfield, P. H. Wiebe, T. K. Stanton, C. S. Davis, S. M. Gallager, C. H. Greene, “Estimating the spatial distribution of zooplankton biomass by combining video plankton recorder and single-frequency acoustic data,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1175–1199 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. H. Wiebe, T. K. Stanton, M. C. Benfield, D. G. Mountain, C. H. Greene, “High-frequency acoustic volume backscattering in the Georges Bank coastal region and its interpretation using scattering models,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 22, 445–464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Willette, T. M.

T. M. Willette, R. T. Cooney, V. Patrick, D. M. Mason, G. L. Thomas, D. Scheel, “Ecological processes influencing mortality of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 14–41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Cooney, J. R. Alen, M. A. Bishop, D. L. Eslinger, T. Kline, B. L. Norcross, C. P. McRoy, J. Milton, J. Olsen, V. Patrick, A. J. Paul, D. Salmon, D. Scheel, G. L. Thomas, S. L. Vaughan, T. M. Willette, “Ecosystems controls of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Cooney, T. M. Willette, S. Sharr, D. Sharp, J. Olsen, “The effect of climate on North Pacific pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) production: examining some details of a natural experiment,” Can. Spec: Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 121, 475–482 (1995).

Wilson, J. J.

E. D. Brown, J. H. Churnside, R. L. Collins, T. Veenstra, J. J. Wilson, K. Abnett, “Remote sensing of capelin and other biological features in the north Pacific using lidar and video technology,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 59, 1120–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside, J. J. Wilson, V. V. Tatarskii, “Airborne lidar for fisheries applications,” Opt. Eng. 40, 406–414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Churnside, J. J. Wilson, V. V. Tatarskii, “Lidar profiles of fish schools,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6011–6020 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zorn, H. M.

H. M. Zorn, J. H. Churnside, C. W. Oliver, “Laser safety thresholds for cetaceans and pinnipeds,” Mar. Mammal Sci. 16, 186–200 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Can. Spec: Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. (1)

R. T. Cooney, T. M. Willette, S. Sharr, D. Sharp, J. Olsen, “The effect of climate on North Pacific pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) production: examining some details of a natural experiment,” Can. Spec: Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 121, 475–482 (1995).

Deep-Sea Res. II (3)

D. E. McGehee, R. L. Driscoll, L. V. Martin Traykovski, “Effects of orientation on acoustic scattering from Antarctic krill at 120 kHz,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1273–1294 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Benfield, P. H. Wiebe, T. K. Stanton, C. S. Davis, S. M. Gallager, C. H. Greene, “Estimating the spatial distribution of zooplankton biomass by combining video plankton recorder and single-frequency acoustic data,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1175–1199 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Greene, P. H. Wiebe, P. Pelkie, M. C. Benfield, J. M. Popp, “Three-dimensional acoustic visualization of zooplankton patchiness,” Deep-Sea Res. II 45, 1201–1217 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fish. Oceanogr. (3)

R. T. Cooney, K. O. Coyle, E. Stockmar, C. Stark, “Seasonality in surface-layer net zooplankton communities in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 97–109 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Willette, R. T. Cooney, V. Patrick, D. M. Mason, G. L. Thomas, D. Scheel, “Ecological processes influencing mortality of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 14–41 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Cooney, J. R. Alen, M. A. Bishop, D. L. Eslinger, T. Kline, B. L. Norcross, C. P. McRoy, J. Milton, J. Olsen, V. Patrick, A. J. Paul, D. Salmon, D. Scheel, G. L. Thomas, S. L. Vaughan, T. M. Willette, “Ecosystems controls of juvenile pink salmon (Onchorynchus gorbuscha) and Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi) populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska,” Fish. Oceanogr. 10(Suppl. 1), 1–13 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fish. Res. (1)

J. Kirsch, G. L. Thomas, R. T. Cooney, “Acoustic estimates of zooplankton distributions in Prince William Sound, spring 1996,” Fish. Res. 47, 245–260 (2000).
[CrossRef]

ICES J. Mar. Sci. (2)

J. H. Churnside, D. A. Demer, B. Mahmoudi, “A comparison of lidar and echosounder measurements of fish schools in the Gulf of Mexico,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 60, 147–154 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Brown, J. H. Churnside, R. L. Collins, T. Veenstra, J. J. Wilson, K. Abnett, “Remote sensing of capelin and other biological features in the north Pacific using lidar and video technology,” ICES J. Mar. Sci. 59, 1120–1130 (2002).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. (1)

P. H. Wiebe, T. K. Stanton, M. C. Benfield, D. G. Mountain, C. H. Greene, “High-frequency acoustic volume backscattering in the Georges Bank coastal region and its interpretation using scattering models,” IEEE J. Ocean. Eng. 22, 445–464 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Acoust. Soc. Am. (2)

D. V. Holliday, R. E. Pieper, “Volume scattering strengths and zooplankton distributions at acoustic frequencies between 0.5 and 3 MHz,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 67, 135–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Lavery, T. K. Stanton, D. E. McGehee, D. Chu, “Three-dimensional modeling of acoustic backscattering from fluid-like zooplankton,” J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 111, 1197–1210 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mar. Mammal Sci. (1)

H. M. Zorn, J. H. Churnside, C. W. Oliver, “Laser safety thresholds for cetaceans and pinnipeds,” Mar. Mammal Sci. 16, 186–200 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mar. Technol. Soc. J. (1)

J. L. Squire, H. Krumboltz, “Profiling pelagic fish schools using airborne optical lasers and other remote sensing techniques,” Mar. Technol. Soc. J. 15, 27–31 (1981).

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. H. Churnside, J. J. Wilson, V. V. Tatarskii, “Airborne lidar for fisheries applications,” Opt. Eng. 40, 406–414 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proceedings of the Symposium on Assessment of Micronekton (1)

R. E. Thorne, “Assessment of population abundance by echo integration,” in Proceedings of the Symposium on Assessment of Micronekton, Biol. Ocean. J. 2, 253–262 (1983).

Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. (1)

M. F. Land, “The physics and biology of animal reflectors,” Prog. Biophys. Mol. Biol. 24, 75–106 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (8)

K. S. Shifrin, Physical Properties of Ocean Water (American Institute of Physics, 1988), p. 119 ff.

R. E. Thorne, “Acoustic surveying of pelagic fish in shallow water,” Proceedings of the IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium (IEEE Press, 2004).

R. E. Thorne, G. L. Thomas, “Monitoring the juvenile pink salmon food supply and predators in Prince William Sound,” in Workshop on Factors Affecting Production of Juvenile Salmon: Comparative Studies on Juvenile Salmon Ecology Between the East and West North Pacific Ocean, , R. Beamish, Y. Ishida, V. Karpenko, P. Livingston, K. Meyers, eds. (North Pacific Anadromous Fish Commission, 2001).

American National Standards Institute, Safe Use of Lasers, Standard Z-136.1 (Laser Institute of America, 1993), p. 120.

K. G. Foote, H. P. Knudsen, G. Vestnes, D. N. MacLennan, E. G. Simmonds, “Calibration of acoustic instruments for fish density estimation: a practical guide,” (International Council for the Exploration of the Seas, 1987).

D. N. MacLennan, E. J. Simmonds, Fisheries Acoustics (Chapman & Hall, 1992).

R. E. Thorne, “Hydroacoustics,” in Fisheries Techniques, L. Nielson, D. Johnson, eds. (American Fisheries Society, 1983).

R. T. Cooney, “Zooplankton,” in The Gulf of Alaska, Physical Environmental and Biological Resources, D. W. Hood, S. T. Zimmerman, eds. (Minerals Management Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, 1986), pp. 285–304.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Photograph of Neocalanus copepod.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Map of Alaska and northwestern Canada showing the location of Prince William Sound. (b) Map of Prince William Sound showing locations of acoustic (thick curves) and lidar (thin curves) transects at the Hinchinbrook Entrance (Hinch.), the central main basin (C. Main), the north main basin (N. Main), Naked Island (Naked), Perry Pass (Perry), north Knight Island Passage (N.K.I.), south Knight Island Passage (S.K.I.), and Montague Strait (Mont.).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic diagram of the NOAA fish lidar used in this study.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Acoustic (open circles) and lidar profiles with threshold values of T = 1 (filled circles) and T = 2.75 (triangles), each normalized by its peak value.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Scatter plot of lidar data versus echo-sounder data with threshold levels of T = 1 (circles) and T = 2.75 (triangles). The solid line is the regression of the latter data, which have been multiplied by 100 for clarity of presentation. The circles are labeled with the location of the measurements as in Fig. 2(b); these labels also apply to the triangles with the same echo-sounder values.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Correlation coefficient R versus threshold level T for the correlation between the acoustic and the lidar data at the eight locations.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Distribution of Zooplankton Samples by Number and Biomass (Percentage and Absolute Values)

Tables Icon

Table 2 Acoustic and Lidar (T = 2.75) Data by Region

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S ( z ) = A [ β W + β P ( z ) ] 1 L 2 ( z ) exp ( - 2 α z ) + B ,
β P ( z ) = 0     if     S ( z ) < T A β W 1 L 2 ( z ) exp ( - 2 α z ) + B ,
β = P x N V R F 2 π A S ,

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