Abstract

We report an experimental study of porous silicon-based rugate filters. We performed filter apodization, following a half-apodization approach, which successfully attenuated the sidelobes at both sides of the photonic stop band. We achieved successful reduction of interference ripples through the insertion of index-matching layers on the first and last interfaces. An apodized dielectric mirror and a rugate filter are compared: Appreciable differences in the harmonic presence and stop-band performance were observed and are commented on. Bandwidth control when index contrast is modified is also demonstrated. Finally, the possibility of combining different rugate filter designs to attain more complex responses is demonstrated by the achievement of a multi-stop-band filter. Numerical calculations for design optimization and comparison with experimental data are reported too.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (6)

C. J. Oton, M. Ghulinyan, Z. Gaburro, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, L. Pancheri, S. Gialanella, N. E. Capuj, “Scattering rings as a tool for birefringence measurements in porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6334–6340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

V. Agarwal, J. A. del Rio, “Tailoring the photonic band gap of a porous silicon dielectric mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1512–1514 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghulinyan, C. J. Oton, G. Bonetti, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, “Free-standing porous silicon single and multiple cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9724–9729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Dal Negro, C. J. Oton, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, P. Johnson, A. Lagendijk, R. Righini, M. Colocci, D. S. Wiersma, “Light transport through the band-edge states of Fibonacci quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 055501 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sapienza, P. Costantino, D. Wiersma, M. Ghulinyan, C. J. Oton, L. Pavesi, “Optical analogue of electronic Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 263902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

K. Kaminska, T. Brown, G. Beydaghyan, K. Robbie, “Vacuum evaporated porous silicon photonic interference filters,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4212–4219 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

F. Cunin, T. A. Schmedake, J. R. Link, Y. Li, J. Koh, S. Bhatia, M. Sailor, “Biomolecular screening with encoded porous-silicon photonic crystals,” Nature Mater. 1, 39–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Striemer, P. M. Fauchet, “Dynamic etching of silicon for broadband antireflection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2980–2982 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

P. Allcock, P. A. Snow, “Time-resolved sensing of organic vapors in low modulating porous silicon dielectric mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5052–5057 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Ferrand, R. Romestain, J. C. Vial, “Photonic band-gap properties of a porous silicon periodic planar waveguide,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 115106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

Y. Zhou, P. A. Snow, P. St, J. Russell, “Strong modification of photoluminescence in erbium-doped porous silicon microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2440–2442 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. J. McPhun, Q. H. Wu, I. J. Hodgkinson, “Birefringent rugate filters,” Electron. Lett. 34, 360–361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

M. G. Berger, R. Arens-Fischer, M. Thönissen, M. Krüger, S. Billat, H. Lüth, S. Hilbrich, W. Theiss, P. Grosse, “Dielectric filters made of PS: advanced performance by oxidation and new layer structures,” Thin Solid Films 297, 237–240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi, “Porous silicon dielectric multilayers and microcavities,” Riv. Nuovo Cim. 20, 1–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Swart, P. V. Bulkin, B. M. Lacquet, “Rugate filter manufacturing by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiNx,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1214–1219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Southwell, “Extended-bandwidth reflector designs by using wavelets,” Appl. Opt. 36, 314–318 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

C. Mazzoleni, L. Pavesi, “Application to optical components of dielectric porous silicon multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2983–2985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi, C. Mazzoleni, A. Tredicucci, V. Pellegrini, “Controlled photon emission in porous silicon microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3280–3282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1991 (1)

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, P. L. Perry, “Reactive sputtering of molybdenum-oxide gradient-index filters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1184–1187 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

1988 (1)

C. S. Bartholomew, M. D. Morrow, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Murarka, “Rugate filters by laser flash evaporation of SiOxNy on room-temperature polycarbonate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 1703–1707 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

Abu Aljarayesh, I. O.

Abu-Safia, H. A.

Agarwal, V.

V. Agarwal, J. A. del Rio, “Tailoring the photonic band gap of a porous silicon dielectric mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1512–1514 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Allcock, P.

P. Allcock, P. A. Snow, “Time-resolved sensing of organic vapors in low modulating porous silicon dielectric mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5052–5057 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Al-Sharif, A. I.

Arens-Fischer, R.

M. G. Berger, R. Arens-Fischer, M. Thönissen, M. Krüger, S. Billat, H. Lüth, S. Hilbrich, W. Theiss, P. Grosse, “Dielectric filters made of PS: advanced performance by oxidation and new layer structures,” Thin Solid Films 297, 237–240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bartholomew, C. S.

C. S. Bartholomew, M. D. Morrow, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Murarka, “Rugate filters by laser flash evaporation of SiOxNy on room-temperature polycarbonate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 1703–1707 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Berger, M. G.

M. G. Berger, R. Arens-Fischer, M. Thönissen, M. Krüger, S. Billat, H. Lüth, S. Hilbrich, W. Theiss, P. Grosse, “Dielectric filters made of PS: advanced performance by oxidation and new layer structures,” Thin Solid Films 297, 237–240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bettotti, P.

C. J. Oton, M. Ghulinyan, Z. Gaburro, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, L. Pancheri, S. Gialanella, N. E. Capuj, “Scattering rings as a tool for birefringence measurements in porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6334–6340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Betz, H. T.

C. S. Bartholomew, M. D. Morrow, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Murarka, “Rugate filters by laser flash evaporation of SiOxNy on room-temperature polycarbonate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 1703–1707 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Beydaghyan, G.

K. Kaminska, T. Brown, G. Beydaghyan, K. Robbie, “Vacuum evaporated porous silicon photonic interference filters,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4212–4219 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kaminska, T. Brown, G. Beydaghyan, K. Robbie, “Rugate filters grown by glancing angle deposition,” in Applications of Photonic Technology 5, R. A. Lessard, G. A. Lampropoulos, G. W. Schini, eds., Proc. SPIE4833, 633–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bhatia, S.

F. Cunin, T. A. Schmedake, J. R. Link, Y. Li, J. Koh, S. Bhatia, M. Sailor, “Biomolecular screening with encoded porous-silicon photonic crystals,” Nature Mater. 1, 39–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Billat, S.

M. G. Berger, R. Arens-Fischer, M. Thönissen, M. Krüger, S. Billat, H. Lüth, S. Hilbrich, W. Theiss, P. Grosse, “Dielectric filters made of PS: advanced performance by oxidation and new layer structures,” Thin Solid Films 297, 237–240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bland-Hawthorn, J.

A. R. Offer, J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Rugate filters for OH-suppressed imaging,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorics, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 970–978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bonetti, G.

M. Ghulinyan, C. J. Oton, G. Bonetti, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, “Free-standing porous silicon single and multiple cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9724–9729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bovard, B. G.

Brown, T.

K. Kaminska, T. Brown, G. Beydaghyan, K. Robbie, “Vacuum evaporated porous silicon photonic interference filters,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4212–4219 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kaminska, T. Brown, G. Beydaghyan, K. Robbie, “Rugate filters grown by glancing angle deposition,” in Applications of Photonic Technology 5, R. A. Lessard, G. A. Lampropoulos, G. W. Schini, eds., Proc. SPIE4833, 633–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bulkin, P. V.

P. L. Swart, P. V. Bulkin, B. M. Lacquet, “Rugate filter manufacturing by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiNx,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1214–1219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Capuj, N. E.

C. J. Oton, M. Ghulinyan, Z. Gaburro, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, L. Pancheri, S. Gialanella, N. E. Capuj, “Scattering rings as a tool for birefringence measurements in porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6334–6340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Colocci, M.

L. Dal Negro, C. J. Oton, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, P. Johnson, A. Lagendijk, R. Righini, M. Colocci, D. S. Wiersma, “Light transport through the band-edge states of Fibonacci quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 055501 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Costantino, P.

R. Sapienza, P. Costantino, D. Wiersma, M. Ghulinyan, C. J. Oton, L. Pavesi, “Optical analogue of electronic Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 263902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cunin, F.

F. Cunin, T. A. Schmedake, J. R. Link, Y. Li, J. Koh, S. Bhatia, M. Sailor, “Biomolecular screening with encoded porous-silicon photonic crystals,” Nature Mater. 1, 39–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Dal Negro, L.

L. Dal Negro, C. J. Oton, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, P. Johnson, A. Lagendijk, R. Righini, M. Colocci, D. S. Wiersma, “Light transport through the band-edge states of Fibonacci quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 055501 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

del Rio, J. A.

V. Agarwal, J. A. del Rio, “Tailoring the photonic band gap of a porous silicon dielectric mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1512–1514 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fauchet, P. M.

C. C. Striemer, P. M. Fauchet, “Dynamic etching of silicon for broadband antireflection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2980–2982 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ferrand, P.

P. Ferrand, R. Romestain, J. C. Vial, “Photonic band-gap properties of a porous silicon periodic planar waveguide,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 115106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gaburro, Z.

C. J. Oton, M. Ghulinyan, Z. Gaburro, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, L. Pancheri, S. Gialanella, N. E. Capuj, “Scattering rings as a tool for birefringence measurements in porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6334–6340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Dal Negro, C. J. Oton, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, P. Johnson, A. Lagendijk, R. Righini, M. Colocci, D. S. Wiersma, “Light transport through the band-edge states of Fibonacci quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 055501 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ghulinyan, C. J. Oton, G. Bonetti, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, “Free-standing porous silicon single and multiple cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9724–9729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ghulinyan, M.

M. Ghulinyan, C. J. Oton, G. Bonetti, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, “Free-standing porous silicon single and multiple cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9724–9729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Oton, M. Ghulinyan, Z. Gaburro, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, L. Pancheri, S. Gialanella, N. E. Capuj, “Scattering rings as a tool for birefringence measurements in porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6334–6340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Sapienza, P. Costantino, D. Wiersma, M. Ghulinyan, C. J. Oton, L. Pavesi, “Optical analogue of electronic Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 263902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gialanella, S.

C. J. Oton, M. Ghulinyan, Z. Gaburro, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, L. Pancheri, S. Gialanella, N. E. Capuj, “Scattering rings as a tool for birefringence measurements in porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6334–6340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gluck, N. S.

Grieser, J. L.

C. S. Bartholomew, M. D. Morrow, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Murarka, “Rugate filters by laser flash evaporation of SiOxNy on room-temperature polycarbonate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 1703–1707 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Grosse, P.

M. G. Berger, R. Arens-Fischer, M. Thönissen, M. Krüger, S. Billat, H. Lüth, S. Hilbrich, W. Theiss, P. Grosse, “Dielectric filters made of PS: advanced performance by oxidation and new layer structures,” Thin Solid Films 297, 237–240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gunning, W. J.

Hall, R. L.

Hilbrich, S.

M. G. Berger, R. Arens-Fischer, M. Thönissen, M. Krüger, S. Billat, H. Lüth, S. Hilbrich, W. Theiss, P. Grosse, “Dielectric filters made of PS: advanced performance by oxidation and new layer structures,” Thin Solid Films 297, 237–240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hodgkinson, I. J.

A. J. McPhun, Q. H. Wu, I. J. Hodgkinson, “Birefringent rugate filters,” Electron. Lett. 34, 360–361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jankowski, A. F.

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, P. L. Perry, “Reactive sputtering of molybdenum-oxide gradient-index filters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1184–1187 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P.

L. Dal Negro, C. J. Oton, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, P. Johnson, A. Lagendijk, R. Righini, M. Colocci, D. S. Wiersma, “Light transport through the band-edge states of Fibonacci quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 055501 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaminska, K.

K. Kaminska, T. Brown, G. Beydaghyan, K. Robbie, “Vacuum evaporated porous silicon photonic interference filters,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4212–4219 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kaminska, T. Brown, G. Beydaghyan, K. Robbie, “Rugate filters grown by glancing angle deposition,” in Applications of Photonic Technology 5, R. A. Lessard, G. A. Lampropoulos, G. W. Schini, eds., Proc. SPIE4833, 633–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koh, J.

F. Cunin, T. A. Schmedake, J. R. Link, Y. Li, J. Koh, S. Bhatia, M. Sailor, “Biomolecular screening with encoded porous-silicon photonic crystals,” Nature Mater. 1, 39–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Krüger, M.

M. G. Berger, R. Arens-Fischer, M. Thönissen, M. Krüger, S. Billat, H. Lüth, S. Hilbrich, W. Theiss, P. Grosse, “Dielectric filters made of PS: advanced performance by oxidation and new layer structures,” Thin Solid Films 297, 237–240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lacquet, B. M.

P. L. Swart, P. V. Bulkin, B. M. Lacquet, “Rugate filter manufacturing by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiNx,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1214–1219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lagendijk, A.

L. Dal Negro, C. J. Oton, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, P. Johnson, A. Lagendijk, R. Righini, M. Colocci, D. S. Wiersma, “Light transport through the band-edge states of Fibonacci quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 055501 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

F. Cunin, T. A. Schmedake, J. R. Link, Y. Li, J. Koh, S. Bhatia, M. Sailor, “Biomolecular screening with encoded porous-silicon photonic crystals,” Nature Mater. 1, 39–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Link, J. R.

F. Cunin, T. A. Schmedake, J. R. Link, Y. Li, J. Koh, S. Bhatia, M. Sailor, “Biomolecular screening with encoded porous-silicon photonic crystals,” Nature Mater. 1, 39–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lüth, H.

M. G. Berger, R. Arens-Fischer, M. Thönissen, M. Krüger, S. Billat, H. Lüth, S. Hilbrich, W. Theiss, P. Grosse, “Dielectric filters made of PS: advanced performance by oxidation and new layer structures,” Thin Solid Films 297, 237–240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoleni, C.

C. Mazzoleni, L. Pavesi, “Application to optical components of dielectric porous silicon multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2983–2985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi, C. Mazzoleni, A. Tredicucci, V. Pellegrini, “Controlled photon emission in porous silicon microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3280–3282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

McPhun, A. J.

A. J. McPhun, Q. H. Wu, I. J. Hodgkinson, “Birefringent rugate filters,” Electron. Lett. 34, 360–361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Morrow, M. D.

C. S. Bartholomew, M. D. Morrow, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Murarka, “Rugate filters by laser flash evaporation of SiOxNy on room-temperature polycarbonate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 1703–1707 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Murarka, N. P.

C. S. Bartholomew, M. D. Morrow, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Murarka, “Rugate filters by laser flash evaporation of SiOxNy on room-temperature polycarbonate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 1703–1707 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Offer, A. R.

A. R. Offer, J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Rugate filters for OH-suppressed imaging,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorics, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 970–978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oton, C. J.

L. Dal Negro, C. J. Oton, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, P. Johnson, A. Lagendijk, R. Righini, M. Colocci, D. S. Wiersma, “Light transport through the band-edge states of Fibonacci quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 055501 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ghulinyan, C. J. Oton, G. Bonetti, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, “Free-standing porous silicon single and multiple cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9724–9729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Sapienza, P. Costantino, D. Wiersma, M. Ghulinyan, C. J. Oton, L. Pavesi, “Optical analogue of electronic Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 263902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Oton, M. Ghulinyan, Z. Gaburro, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, L. Pancheri, S. Gialanella, N. E. Capuj, “Scattering rings as a tool for birefringence measurements in porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6334–6340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pancheri, L.

C. J. Oton, M. Ghulinyan, Z. Gaburro, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, L. Pancheri, S. Gialanella, N. E. Capuj, “Scattering rings as a tool for birefringence measurements in porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6334–6340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pavesi, L.

C. J. Oton, M. Ghulinyan, Z. Gaburro, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, L. Pancheri, S. Gialanella, N. E. Capuj, “Scattering rings as a tool for birefringence measurements in porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6334–6340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Sapienza, P. Costantino, D. Wiersma, M. Ghulinyan, C. J. Oton, L. Pavesi, “Optical analogue of electronic Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 263902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghulinyan, C. J. Oton, G. Bonetti, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, “Free-standing porous silicon single and multiple cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9724–9729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. Dal Negro, C. J. Oton, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, P. Johnson, A. Lagendijk, R. Righini, M. Colocci, D. S. Wiersma, “Light transport through the band-edge states of Fibonacci quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 055501 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Pavesi, “Porous silicon dielectric multilayers and microcavities,” Riv. Nuovo Cim. 20, 1–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Mazzoleni, L. Pavesi, “Application to optical components of dielectric porous silicon multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2983–2985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi, C. Mazzoleni, A. Tredicucci, V. Pellegrini, “Controlled photon emission in porous silicon microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3280–3282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pellegrini, V.

L. Pavesi, C. Mazzoleni, A. Tredicucci, V. Pellegrini, “Controlled photon emission in porous silicon microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3280–3282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Perry, P. L.

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, P. L. Perry, “Reactive sputtering of molybdenum-oxide gradient-index filters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1184–1187 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Righini, R.

L. Dal Negro, C. J. Oton, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, P. Johnson, A. Lagendijk, R. Righini, M. Colocci, D. S. Wiersma, “Light transport through the band-edge states of Fibonacci quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 055501 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robbie, K.

K. Kaminska, T. Brown, G. Beydaghyan, K. Robbie, “Vacuum evaporated porous silicon photonic interference filters,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4212–4219 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kaminska, T. Brown, G. Beydaghyan, K. Robbie, “Rugate filters grown by glancing angle deposition,” in Applications of Photonic Technology 5, R. A. Lessard, G. A. Lampropoulos, G. W. Schini, eds., Proc. SPIE4833, 633–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Romestain, R.

P. Ferrand, R. Romestain, J. C. Vial, “Photonic band-gap properties of a porous silicon periodic planar waveguide,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 115106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Russell, J.

Y. Zhou, P. A. Snow, P. St, J. Russell, “Strong modification of photoluminescence in erbium-doped porous silicon microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2440–2442 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sailor, M.

F. Cunin, T. A. Schmedake, J. R. Link, Y. Li, J. Koh, S. Bhatia, M. Sailor, “Biomolecular screening with encoded porous-silicon photonic crystals,” Nature Mater. 1, 39–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sailor, M. J.

M. J. Sailor, in Properties of Porous Silicon, L. T. Canham, ed. (IEE Inspec, 1997), p. 364.

Sapienza, R.

R. Sapienza, P. Costantino, D. Wiersma, M. Ghulinyan, C. J. Oton, L. Pavesi, “Optical analogue of electronic Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 263902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schmedake, T. A.

F. Cunin, T. A. Schmedake, J. R. Link, Y. Li, J. Koh, S. Bhatia, M. Sailor, “Biomolecular screening with encoded porous-silicon photonic crystals,” Nature Mater. 1, 39–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schrawyer, L. R.

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, P. L. Perry, “Reactive sputtering of molybdenum-oxide gradient-index filters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1184–1187 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Snow, P. A.

P. Allcock, P. A. Snow, “Time-resolved sensing of organic vapors in low modulating porous silicon dielectric mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5052–5057 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, P. A. Snow, P. St, J. Russell, “Strong modification of photoluminescence in erbium-doped porous silicon microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2440–2442 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Southwell, W. H.

Spence, R. A.

C. S. Bartholomew, M. D. Morrow, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Murarka, “Rugate filters by laser flash evaporation of SiOxNy on room-temperature polycarbonate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 1703–1707 (1988).
[CrossRef]

St, P.

Y. Zhou, P. A. Snow, P. St, J. Russell, “Strong modification of photoluminescence in erbium-doped porous silicon microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2440–2442 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Striemer, C. C.

C. C. Striemer, P. M. Fauchet, “Dynamic etching of silicon for broadband antireflection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2980–2982 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Swart, P. L.

P. L. Swart, P. V. Bulkin, B. M. Lacquet, “Rugate filter manufacturing by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiNx,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1214–1219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Theiss, W.

M. G. Berger, R. Arens-Fischer, M. Thönissen, M. Krüger, S. Billat, H. Lüth, S. Hilbrich, W. Theiss, P. Grosse, “Dielectric filters made of PS: advanced performance by oxidation and new layer structures,” Thin Solid Films 297, 237–240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thönissen, M.

M. G. Berger, R. Arens-Fischer, M. Thönissen, M. Krüger, S. Billat, H. Lüth, S. Hilbrich, W. Theiss, P. Grosse, “Dielectric filters made of PS: advanced performance by oxidation and new layer structures,” Thin Solid Films 297, 237–240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tredicucci, A.

L. Pavesi, C. Mazzoleni, A. Tredicucci, V. Pellegrini, “Controlled photon emission in porous silicon microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3280–3282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vial, J. C.

P. Ferrand, R. Romestain, J. C. Vial, “Photonic band-gap properties of a porous silicon periodic planar waveguide,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 115106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D.

R. Sapienza, P. Costantino, D. Wiersma, M. Ghulinyan, C. J. Oton, L. Pavesi, “Optical analogue of electronic Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 263902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. S.

L. Dal Negro, C. J. Oton, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, P. Johnson, A. Lagendijk, R. Righini, M. Colocci, D. S. Wiersma, “Light transport through the band-edge states of Fibonacci quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 055501 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woodberry, F. J.

Wu, Q. H.

A. J. McPhun, Q. H. Wu, I. J. Hodgkinson, “Birefringent rugate filters,” Electron. Lett. 34, 360–361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

Y. Zhou, P. A. Snow, P. St, J. Russell, “Strong modification of photoluminescence in erbium-doped porous silicon microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2440–2442 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

C. C. Striemer, P. M. Fauchet, “Dynamic etching of silicon for broadband antireflection applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 2980–2982 (2002).
[CrossRef]

C. Mazzoleni, L. Pavesi, “Application to optical components of dielectric porous silicon multilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2983–2985 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Pavesi, C. Mazzoleni, A. Tredicucci, V. Pellegrini, “Controlled photon emission in porous silicon microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3280–3282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, P. A. Snow, P. St, J. Russell, “Strong modification of photoluminescence in erbium-doped porous silicon microcavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 2440–2442 (2000).
[CrossRef]

V. Agarwal, J. A. del Rio, “Tailoring the photonic band gap of a porous silicon dielectric mirror,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82, 1512–1514 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

A. J. McPhun, Q. H. Wu, I. J. Hodgkinson, “Birefringent rugate filters,” Electron. Lett. 34, 360–361 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

C. J. Oton, M. Ghulinyan, Z. Gaburro, P. Bettotti, L. Pavesi, L. Pancheri, S. Gialanella, N. E. Capuj, “Scattering rings as a tool for birefringence measurements in porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 6334–6340 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Ghulinyan, C. J. Oton, G. Bonetti, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, “Free-standing porous silicon single and multiple cavities,” J. Appl. Phys. 93, 9724–9729 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Allcock, P. A. Snow, “Time-resolved sensing of organic vapors in low modulating porous silicon dielectric mirrors,” J. Appl. Phys. 90, 5052–5057 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (2)

C. S. Bartholomew, M. D. Morrow, H. T. Betz, J. L. Grieser, R. A. Spence, N. P. Murarka, “Rugate filters by laser flash evaporation of SiOxNy on room-temperature polycarbonate,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 1703–1707 (1988).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Jankowski, L. R. Schrawyer, P. L. Perry, “Reactive sputtering of molybdenum-oxide gradient-index filters,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 9, 1184–1187 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nature Mater. (1)

F. Cunin, T. A. Schmedake, J. R. Link, Y. Li, J. Koh, S. Bhatia, M. Sailor, “Biomolecular screening with encoded porous-silicon photonic crystals,” Nature Mater. 1, 39–41 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

P. L. Swart, P. V. Bulkin, B. M. Lacquet, “Rugate filter manufacturing by electron cyclotron resonance plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of SiNx,” Opt. Eng. 36, 1214–1219 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

P. Ferrand, R. Romestain, J. C. Vial, “Photonic band-gap properties of a porous silicon periodic planar waveguide,” Phys. Rev. B 63, 115106 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

L. Dal Negro, C. J. Oton, Z. Gaburro, L. Pavesi, P. Johnson, A. Lagendijk, R. Righini, M. Colocci, D. S. Wiersma, “Light transport through the band-edge states of Fibonacci quasicrystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 055501 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Sapienza, P. Costantino, D. Wiersma, M. Ghulinyan, C. J. Oton, L. Pavesi, “Optical analogue of electronic Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 263902 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Riv. Nuovo Cim. (1)

L. Pavesi, “Porous silicon dielectric multilayers and microcavities,” Riv. Nuovo Cim. 20, 1–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. G. Berger, R. Arens-Fischer, M. Thönissen, M. Krüger, S. Billat, H. Lüth, S. Hilbrich, W. Theiss, P. Grosse, “Dielectric filters made of PS: advanced performance by oxidation and new layer structures,” Thin Solid Films 297, 237–240 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

K. Kaminska, T. Brown, G. Beydaghyan, K. Robbie, “Rugate filters grown by glancing angle deposition,” in Applications of Photonic Technology 5, R. A. Lessard, G. A. Lampropoulos, G. W. Schini, eds., Proc. SPIE4833, 633–639 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Sailor, in Properties of Porous Silicon, L. T. Canham, ed. (IEE Inspec, 1997), p. 364.

A. R. Offer, J. Bland-Hawthorn, “Rugate filters for OH-suppressed imaging,” in Optical Astronomical Instrumentation, S. D’Odorics, ed., Proc. SPIE3355, 970–978 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Twenty-period rugate filter: (a) nominal index profile versus physical depth, (b) calculated transmission spectrum, (c) measured transmission spectrum.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Twenty-period apodized rugate filter: (a) nominal index profile versus physical depth, (b) calculated transmission spectrum, (c) measured transmission spectrum. Note the sidelobe attenuation with respect to the sample shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Twenty-period apodized rugate filter with index-matching layers: (a) nominal index profile versus physical depth, (b) calculated transmission spectrum, (c) measured transmission spectrum. Note the absence of sidelobes and ripples.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of (a) an apodized DBR and (b) a rugate filter, both upon silicon substrates. The nominal index profiles of the designs are shown, and a cross-sectional scanning-electron micrograph is shown below each curve. The micrographs are scaled according to the x scale shown.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Calculated and (b) measured reflectance spectra of samples shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of rugate filters made with different index contrasts: (a) nominal profile of a 20-period sample with 1.36–2.25 contrast, (b) 40-period sample with 1.36–1.7 contrast, (c) transmission spectra of the high-contrast sample (thinner curve) and the low-contrast sample (thicker curve).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Double stop-band filters centered at 1500 and 1900 nm with 40 and 32 periods, respectively: (a) nominal profile versus physical depth, (b) experimental and calculated transmission spectra.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n ( x ) = n 0 + Δ n 2 + sin ( 4 π x λ 0 ) ,
log [ n ( x ) ] = log n H + log n L 2 + log n H - log n L 2 sin ( 4 π x λ 0 ) .
n ( t ) = n 1 + ( n 2 - n 1 ) ( 10 t 3 - 15 t 4 - 6 t 5 ) ,

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