Abstract

A beam-shaping scheme for a laser diode stack to obtain a flattop output intensity profile is proposed. The shaping element consists of an asymmetrical glass prism. The large divergence-angle compression in the direction perpendicular to the junction plane and the small divergence-angle expansion in the parallel direction are performed simultaneously by a single shaping element. The transformation characteristics are presented, and the optimization performance is investigated based on the ray-tracing method. Analysis shows that a flattop intensity profile can be obtained. This beam-shaping system can be fabricated easily and has a large alignment tolerance.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Possner, B. Messerschmidt, A. Kraeplin, V. Bluemel, B. Hoefer, P. Schreiber, “Assembly of fast-axis collimating lenses with high-power laser diode bars,” in Photoelectronic Interconnects VII, M. R. Feldman, R. L. Li, W. B. Matkin, S. Tang, eds., Proc. SPIE3952, 392–399 (2000).
  4. T. Possner, B. Messerschmidt, A. Kraeplin, B. Hoefer, P. Schreiber, “Micro-optical components for fiber coupling of high-power laser diode bars,” in Gradient Index, Miniature, and Diffractive Optical Systems, A. D. Kathman, ed., Proc. SPIE3778, 88–95 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. J. Beach, “Theory and optimization of lens ducts,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2002–2015 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Fu, G. Wang, Z. Wang, E. Ba, G. Mu, X. Hu, “Design of efficient lens ducts,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4000–4003 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. R. Goring, P. Schreiber, T. Possner, “Micro-optical beam transformation system for high-power laser diode bars with efficient brightness conservation,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics II, M. E. Motamedi, L. J. Hornbeck, K. S. Pister, eds., Proc. SPIE3008, 202–210 (1997).
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2004 (1)

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1996 (1)

R. J. Beach, “Theory and optimization of lens ducts,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2002–2015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

An, Y.

Ba, E.

Beach, R. J.

R. J. Beach, “Theory and optimization of lens ducts,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2002–2015 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Beach, M. A. Emanuel, B. L. Freitas, J. A. Skidmore, N. W. Carlson, W. J. Benett, R. W. Solarz, “Applications of microlens-conditioned laser diode arrays,” in Micro-Optics/Micromechanics and Laser Scanning and Shaping, M. E. Motamedi, L. Beiser, eds., Proc. SPIE2383, 283–297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Benett, W. J.

R. J. Beach, M. A. Emanuel, B. L. Freitas, J. A. Skidmore, N. W. Carlson, W. J. Benett, R. W. Solarz, “Applications of microlens-conditioned laser diode arrays,” in Micro-Optics/Micromechanics and Laser Scanning and Shaping, M. E. Motamedi, L. Beiser, eds., Proc. SPIE2383, 283–297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bluemel, V.

T. Possner, B. Messerschmidt, A. Kraeplin, V. Bluemel, B. Hoefer, P. Schreiber, “Assembly of fast-axis collimating lenses with high-power laser diode bars,” in Photoelectronic Interconnects VII, M. R. Feldman, R. L. Li, W. B. Matkin, S. Tang, eds., Proc. SPIE3952, 392–399 (2000).

Brenner, K.-H.

Carlson, N. W.

R. J. Beach, M. A. Emanuel, B. L. Freitas, J. A. Skidmore, N. W. Carlson, W. J. Benett, R. W. Solarz, “Applications of microlens-conditioned laser diode arrays,” in Micro-Optics/Micromechanics and Laser Scanning and Shaping, M. E. Motamedi, L. Beiser, eds., Proc. SPIE2383, 283–297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Emanuel, M. A.

R. J. Beach, M. A. Emanuel, B. L. Freitas, J. A. Skidmore, N. W. Carlson, W. J. Benett, R. W. Solarz, “Applications of microlens-conditioned laser diode arrays,” in Micro-Optics/Micromechanics and Laser Scanning and Shaping, M. E. Motamedi, L. Beiser, eds., Proc. SPIE2383, 283–297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Feng, Z.

Freitas, B. L.

R. J. Beach, M. A. Emanuel, B. L. Freitas, J. A. Skidmore, N. W. Carlson, W. J. Benett, R. W. Solarz, “Applications of microlens-conditioned laser diode arrays,” in Micro-Optics/Micromechanics and Laser Scanning and Shaping, M. E. Motamedi, L. Beiser, eds., Proc. SPIE2383, 283–297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fu, R.

Gao, C.

C. Gao, H. Laabs, N. Kugler, H. Weber, “Beam transformation of a 500-W laser diode system,” in 1999 International Conference on Industrial Lasers, F. Gan, H. Weber, Z. Li, Q. Chen, eds., Proc. SPIE3862, 262–266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Goring, R.

R. Goring, P. Schreiber, T. Possner, “Micro-optical beam transformation system for high-power laser diode bars with efficient brightness conservation,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics II, M. E. Motamedi, L. J. Hornbeck, K. S. Pister, eds., Proc. SPIE3008, 202–210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hoefer, B.

T. Possner, B. Messerschmidt, A. Kraeplin, V. Bluemel, B. Hoefer, P. Schreiber, “Assembly of fast-axis collimating lenses with high-power laser diode bars,” in Photoelectronic Interconnects VII, M. R. Feldman, R. L. Li, W. B. Matkin, S. Tang, eds., Proc. SPIE3952, 392–399 (2000).

T. Possner, B. Messerschmidt, A. Kraeplin, B. Hoefer, P. Schreiber, “Micro-optical components for fiber coupling of high-power laser diode bars,” in Gradient Index, Miniature, and Diffractive Optical Systems, A. D. Kathman, ed., Proc. SPIE3778, 88–95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hoffnagle, J. A.

Hu, X.

Jefferson, C. M.

Kraeplin, A.

T. Possner, B. Messerschmidt, A. Kraeplin, B. Hoefer, P. Schreiber, “Micro-optical components for fiber coupling of high-power laser diode bars,” in Gradient Index, Miniature, and Diffractive Optical Systems, A. D. Kathman, ed., Proc. SPIE3778, 88–95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Possner, B. Messerschmidt, A. Kraeplin, V. Bluemel, B. Hoefer, P. Schreiber, “Assembly of fast-axis collimating lenses with high-power laser diode bars,” in Photoelectronic Interconnects VII, M. R. Feldman, R. L. Li, W. B. Matkin, S. Tang, eds., Proc. SPIE3952, 392–399 (2000).

Kugler, N.

C. Gao, H. Laabs, N. Kugler, H. Weber, “Beam transformation of a 500-W laser diode system,” in 1999 International Conference on Industrial Lasers, F. Gan, H. Weber, Z. Li, Q. Chen, eds., Proc. SPIE3862, 262–266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laabs, H.

C. Gao, H. Laabs, N. Kugler, H. Weber, “Beam transformation of a 500-W laser diode system,” in 1999 International Conference on Industrial Lasers, F. Gan, H. Weber, Z. Li, Q. Chen, eds., Proc. SPIE3862, 262–266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Messerschmidt, B.

T. Possner, B. Messerschmidt, A. Kraeplin, V. Bluemel, B. Hoefer, P. Schreiber, “Assembly of fast-axis collimating lenses with high-power laser diode bars,” in Photoelectronic Interconnects VII, M. R. Feldman, R. L. Li, W. B. Matkin, S. Tang, eds., Proc. SPIE3952, 392–399 (2000).

T. Possner, B. Messerschmidt, A. Kraeplin, B. Hoefer, P. Schreiber, “Micro-optical components for fiber coupling of high-power laser diode bars,” in Gradient Index, Miniature, and Diffractive Optical Systems, A. D. Kathman, ed., Proc. SPIE3778, 88–95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moisel, J.

Mu, G.

Naqwi, A.

Possner, T.

R. Goring, P. Schreiber, T. Possner, “Micro-optical beam transformation system for high-power laser diode bars with efficient brightness conservation,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics II, M. E. Motamedi, L. J. Hornbeck, K. S. Pister, eds., Proc. SPIE3008, 202–210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Possner, B. Messerschmidt, A. Kraeplin, B. Hoefer, P. Schreiber, “Micro-optical components for fiber coupling of high-power laser diode bars,” in Gradient Index, Miniature, and Diffractive Optical Systems, A. D. Kathman, ed., Proc. SPIE3778, 88–95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Possner, B. Messerschmidt, A. Kraeplin, V. Bluemel, B. Hoefer, P. Schreiber, “Assembly of fast-axis collimating lenses with high-power laser diode bars,” in Photoelectronic Interconnects VII, M. R. Feldman, R. L. Li, W. B. Matkin, S. Tang, eds., Proc. SPIE3952, 392–399 (2000).

Schreiber, P.

T. Possner, B. Messerschmidt, A. Kraeplin, V. Bluemel, B. Hoefer, P. Schreiber, “Assembly of fast-axis collimating lenses with high-power laser diode bars,” in Photoelectronic Interconnects VII, M. R. Feldman, R. L. Li, W. B. Matkin, S. Tang, eds., Proc. SPIE3952, 392–399 (2000).

T. Possner, B. Messerschmidt, A. Kraeplin, B. Hoefer, P. Schreiber, “Micro-optical components for fiber coupling of high-power laser diode bars,” in Gradient Index, Miniature, and Diffractive Optical Systems, A. D. Kathman, ed., Proc. SPIE3778, 88–95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Goring, P. Schreiber, T. Possner, “Micro-optical beam transformation system for high-power laser diode bars with efficient brightness conservation,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics II, M. E. Motamedi, L. J. Hornbeck, K. S. Pister, eds., Proc. SPIE3008, 202–210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sinzinger, S.

Skidmore, J. A.

R. J. Beach, M. A. Emanuel, B. L. Freitas, J. A. Skidmore, N. W. Carlson, W. J. Benett, R. W. Solarz, “Applications of microlens-conditioned laser diode arrays,” in Micro-Optics/Micromechanics and Laser Scanning and Shaping, M. E. Motamedi, L. Beiser, eds., Proc. SPIE2383, 283–297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Solarz, R. W.

R. J. Beach, M. A. Emanuel, B. L. Freitas, J. A. Skidmore, N. W. Carlson, W. J. Benett, R. W. Solarz, “Applications of microlens-conditioned laser diode arrays,” in Micro-Optics/Micromechanics and Laser Scanning and Shaping, M. E. Motamedi, L. Beiser, eds., Proc. SPIE2383, 283–297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Spick, T.

Testorf, M.

Wang, G.

Wang, Z.

Weber, H.

C. Gao, H. Laabs, N. Kugler, H. Weber, “Beam transformation of a 500-W laser diode system,” in 1999 International Conference on Industrial Lasers, F. Gan, H. Weber, Z. Li, Q. Chen, eds., Proc. SPIE3862, 262–266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, X.

Appl. Opt. (6)

Other (5)

R. J. Beach, M. A. Emanuel, B. L. Freitas, J. A. Skidmore, N. W. Carlson, W. J. Benett, R. W. Solarz, “Applications of microlens-conditioned laser diode arrays,” in Micro-Optics/Micromechanics and Laser Scanning and Shaping, M. E. Motamedi, L. Beiser, eds., Proc. SPIE2383, 283–297 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Goring, P. Schreiber, T. Possner, “Micro-optical beam transformation system for high-power laser diode bars with efficient brightness conservation,” in Miniaturized Systems with Micro-Optics and Micromechanics II, M. E. Motamedi, L. J. Hornbeck, K. S. Pister, eds., Proc. SPIE3008, 202–210 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Gao, H. Laabs, N. Kugler, H. Weber, “Beam transformation of a 500-W laser diode system,” in 1999 International Conference on Industrial Lasers, F. Gan, H. Weber, Z. Li, Q. Chen, eds., Proc. SPIE3862, 262–266 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Possner, B. Messerschmidt, A. Kraeplin, V. Bluemel, B. Hoefer, P. Schreiber, “Assembly of fast-axis collimating lenses with high-power laser diode bars,” in Photoelectronic Interconnects VII, M. R. Feldman, R. L. Li, W. B. Matkin, S. Tang, eds., Proc. SPIE3952, 392–399 (2000).

T. Possner, B. Messerschmidt, A. Kraeplin, B. Hoefer, P. Schreiber, “Micro-optical components for fiber coupling of high-power laser diode bars,” in Gradient Index, Miniature, and Diffractive Optical Systems, A. D. Kathman, ed., Proc. SPIE3778, 88–95 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the beam-shaping system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Cross-sectional view of the shaping system: (a) Divergence compression in the perpendicular direction; (b) divergence expansion in the parallel direction.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Geometry for evaluating the beam transformation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Principle of optical power synthesis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Geometry for evaluation of I0(x).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Geometry for evaluation of I1(x).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Geometry for evaluation of I2(x).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Numerical results of the output intensity distributions for a two-bar LD stack in the perpendicular and parallel directions.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Numerical results of the output intensity distributions for a five-bar LD stack in the perpendicular and parallel directions.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Maximum intensity fluctuation changes with the distance of the measurement plane from the prism output surface.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Experimental results of the output intensity distributions for a five-bar LD stack in the perpendicular and parallel directions.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Intensity distribution at different distances from the end face of the prism.

Equations (25)

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sin α = n sin β ,
γ = β - 2 u ,
tan β 1 = H 1 - x 1 d ,
tan α + = x 1 - x 0 t ,
sin α + = n sin β 1 ,
tan β 2 = - H 0 - x 2 d ,
tan α - = x 1 - x 0 t ,
sin α - = n sin β 2 ,
x = x 0 + ( t + s ) tan α + d sin α n 2 - sin 2 α .
I 0 ( x ) = I i n ( α ) ,             α - α α + .
x = x 0 + t tan α + ( H 1 - x 0 - T tan α ) tan β - tan u - d tan γ - s W 1 - W ,
I 1 ( x ) = I i n ( α ) ,             α > α + ,
W = n 2 tan 2 γ 1 + tan 2 γ ,
γ = β - 2 u .
x = x 0 + t tan α - ( H 1 + x 0 + T tan α ) tan β - tan u + d tan γ + s W 1 - W ,
I 2 ( x ) = I 2 ( α ) ,             α < α - .
I ( x ) = I 0 ( α ) + I 1 ( α ) + I 2 ( α ) .
I ( x ) = i = 1 N j = 1 19 I i j ( x ) ,
I ( x ,     y ,     z ) - A - 2 z 2 r 4 ( Γ 4 Γ 2 + x 2 ) 2 × { | A + A - | 2 exp [ - 2 ( r sin θ + - y ) 2 Ω + 2 ] + exp [ - 2 ( r sin θ - - y ) 2 Ω - 2 ] } ,
A ± = - u 0 ± 2 i λ p π q ± ;
Γ 2 = p 2 k 2 r 2 ;
Ω ± 2 = 4 q ± k 2 r 2 ;
sin θ ± = k ± / k ;
I ( α x ) = C x cos 4 α x z 2 ( Γ 1 2 Γ 1 2 + sin 2 α x ) 2 ,
I ( α y ) = C y cos 4 α y z 2 { | A + A - | 2 exp [ - 2 ( sin θ + - sin α y ) 2 Ω 1 + 2 ] + exp [ - 2 ( sin θ - - sin α y ) 2 Ω 1 - 2 ] } ,

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