Abstract

A transportable reference spectroradiometer for measuring spectral solar ultraviolet irradiance has been developed and validated. The expanded uncertainty of solar irradiance measurements with this reference spectroradiometer, based on the described methodology, is 8.8% to 4.6%, depending on the wavelength and the solar zenith angle. The accuracy of the spectroradiometer was validated by repeated site visits to two European UV monitoring sites as well as by regular comparisons with the reference spectroradiometer of the European Reference Centre for UV radiation measurements in Ispra, Italy. The spectral solar irradiance measurements of the Quality Assurance of Spectral Ultraviolet Measurements in Europe through the Development of a Transportable Unit (QASUME) spectroradiometer and these three spectroradiometers have agreed to better than 6% during the ten intercomparison campaigns held from 2002 to 2004. If the differences in irradiance scales of as much as 2% are taken into account, the agreement is of the order of 4% over the wavelength range of 300–400 nm.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  26. J. Gröbner, A. F. Bais, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, S. Wuttke, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe (QASUME),” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Kos, Greece, 1–8 June 2004.
  27. O. Meinander, T. Koskela, K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, C. Torres, E. Cuevas, G. Deferrari, J. Gröbner, “Antarctic NILU-UV Network linked to QASUME and NSF Irradiance scales,” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Kos, Greece, 1–8 June 2004.

2005

J. Gröbner, P. Sperfeld, “Direct traceability of the portable QASUME irradiance scale to the primary irradiance standard of the PTB,” Metrologia 42, 134–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, H. Slaper, D. Rembges, “An investigation on the long term wavelength accuracy of two Brewer spectrophotometers,” Geophys. Res. Abstr. 3, 5127 (2001).

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14,321–14,345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1995

H. A. Slaper, J. M. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2721–2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, K. D. Mielenz, “Results of a CCPR Intercomparison of Spectral Irradiance Measurements by National Laboratories,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 647–668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

G. Seckmeyer, “Spektralradiometer für die Ökologische Pflanzenforschung,” Licht 41, 7–8 (1989).

Bais, A. F.

J. Gröbner, D. Rembges, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, W. Josefsson, T. Koskela, T. M. Thorseth, A. R. Webb, U. Wester, “Quality assurance of reference standards from nine European ultraviolet monitoring laboratories,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4278–4282 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Gröbner, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, P. Görts, T. Koskela, D. Rembges, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, P. Cotton, P. Kelly, N. Kouremeti, K. Rikkonen, H. Studemund, R. Tax, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit (QASUME),” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects II,W. Gao, J. R. Herman, G. Shi, K. Shibasoki, J. R. Slusser, eds., Proc. SPIE4896, 232–238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kerr, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, S. B. Diaz, N. Krotkov, D. Lubin, R. L. McKenzie, A. A. Sabziparvar, J. Verdebout, “Surface ultraviolet radiation: past and future,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, (World Meteorological Organization, 2003), Chap. 5.

G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation. 1. Spectral instruments,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2001).

J. Gröbner, A. F. Bais, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, S. Wuttke, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe (QASUME),” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Kos, Greece, 1–8 June 2004.

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2002, (European Commission, 2003).

Bernhard, G.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14,321–14,345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation. 1. Spectral instruments,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2001).

J. B. Kerr, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, S. B. Diaz, N. Krotkov, D. Lubin, R. L. McKenzie, A. A. Sabziparvar, J. Verdebout, “Surface ultraviolet radiation: past and future,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, (World Meteorological Organization, 2003), Chap. 5.

Bigelow, D.

A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, K. Leszcynski, V. A. Mohnen, P. Johnston, N. Harrison, D. Bigelow, “Quality assurance in monitoring solar ultraviolet radiation: the state of the art,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2003).

Blumthaler, M.

J. Gröbner, D. Rembges, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, W. Josefsson, T. Koskela, T. M. Thorseth, A. R. Webb, U. Wester, “Quality assurance of reference standards from nine European ultraviolet monitoring laboratories,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4278–4282 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Slaper, J. M. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2721–2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2002, (European Commission, 2003).

J. Gröbner, A. F. Bais, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, S. Wuttke, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe (QASUME),” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Kos, Greece, 1–8 June 2004.

J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, “Characterisation report of the travelling standard B5503,” (European Communities, 2003).

G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation. 1. Spectral instruments,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2001).

A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Gröbner, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, P. Görts, T. Koskela, D. Rembges, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, P. Cotton, P. Kelly, N. Kouremeti, K. Rikkonen, H. Studemund, R. Tax, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit (QASUME),” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects II,W. Gao, J. R. Herman, G. Shi, K. Shibasoki, J. R. Slusser, eds., Proc. SPIE4896, 232–238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kerr, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, S. B. Diaz, N. Krotkov, D. Lubin, R. L. McKenzie, A. A. Sabziparvar, J. Verdebout, “Surface ultraviolet radiation: past and future,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, (World Meteorological Organization, 2003), Chap. 5.

Booth, C. R.

G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation. 1. Spectral instruments,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2001).

Brogniez, C.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cabot, T.

J. Gröbner, D. Rembges, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, W. Josefsson, T. Koskela, T. M. Thorseth, A. R. Webb, U. Wester, “Quality assurance of reference standards from nine European ultraviolet monitoring laboratories,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4278–4282 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, S. J. Schreder, T. Cabot, P. Görts, B. Johnson, W. Josefsson, J. Karhu, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, A. Siani, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2003, (European Commission, 2003).

Cotton, P.

A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Gröbner, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, P. Görts, T. Koskela, D. Rembges, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, P. Cotton, P. Kelly, N. Kouremeti, K. Rikkonen, H. Studemund, R. Tax, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit (QASUME),” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects II,W. Gao, J. R. Herman, G. Shi, K. Shibasoki, J. R. Slusser, eds., Proc. SPIE4896, 232–238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cuevas, E.

O. Meinander, T. Koskela, K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, C. Torres, E. Cuevas, G. Deferrari, J. Gröbner, “Antarctic NILU-UV Network linked to QASUME and NSF Irradiance scales,” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Kos, Greece, 1–8 June 2004.

Deferrari, G.

O. Meinander, T. Koskela, K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, C. Torres, E. Cuevas, G. Deferrari, J. Gröbner, “Antarctic NILU-UV Network linked to QASUME and NSF Irradiance scales,” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Kos, Greece, 1–8 June 2004.

Diaz, S.

J. Herman, R. McKenzie, S. Diaz, J. Kerr, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Ultraviolet radiation at the Earth’s surface,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, (World Meteorological Organization, 1999), Chap. 9.

Diaz, S. B.

J. B. Kerr, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, S. B. Diaz, N. Krotkov, D. Lubin, R. L. McKenzie, A. A. Sabziparvar, J. Verdebout, “Surface ultraviolet radiation: past and future,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, (World Meteorological Organization, 2003), Chap. 5.

Disterhoft, P.

G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation. 1. Spectral instruments,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2001).

Eriksen, P.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation. 1. Spectral instruments,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2001).

Gardiner, B. G.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, K. Leszcynski, V. A. Mohnen, P. Johnston, N. Harrison, D. Bigelow, “Quality assurance in monitoring solar ultraviolet radiation: the state of the art,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2003).

A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, T. J. Martin, K. Leszcynski, J. Metzdorf, V. A. Mohnen, “Guidelines for site quality control of UV monitoring,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2000).

Gillotay, D.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Görts, P.

A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Gröbner, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, P. Görts, T. Koskela, D. Rembges, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, P. Cotton, P. Kelly, N. Kouremeti, K. Rikkonen, H. Studemund, R. Tax, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit (QASUME),” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects II,W. Gao, J. R. Herman, G. Shi, K. Shibasoki, J. R. Slusser, eds., Proc. SPIE4896, 232–238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, S. J. Schreder, T. Cabot, P. Görts, B. Johnson, W. Josefsson, J. Karhu, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, A. Siani, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2003, (European Commission, 2003).

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2002, (European Commission, 2003).

J. Gröbner, A. F. Bais, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, S. Wuttke, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe (QASUME),” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Kos, Greece, 1–8 June 2004.

Gröbner, J.

J. Gröbner, P. Sperfeld, “Direct traceability of the portable QASUME irradiance scale to the primary irradiance standard of the PTB,” Metrologia 42, 134–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, D. Rembges, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, W. Josefsson, T. Koskela, T. M. Thorseth, A. R. Webb, U. Wester, “Quality assurance of reference standards from nine European ultraviolet monitoring laboratories,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4278–4282 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, H. Slaper, D. Rembges, “An investigation on the long term wavelength accuracy of two Brewer spectrophotometers,” Geophys. Res. Abstr. 3, 5127 (2001).

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, D. I. Wardle, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, “Investigation of the wavelength accuracy of Brewer spectrophotometers,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8352–8360 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, “Characterisation report of the travelling standard B5503,” (European Communities, 2003).

J. Gröbner, A. F. Bais, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, S. Wuttke, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe (QASUME),” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Kos, Greece, 1–8 June 2004.

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2002, (European Commission, 2003).

J. Gröbner, “Progress report of the travelling reference spectroradiometer B5503: photomultiplier stability study,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2003, (European Communities, 2003).

A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Gröbner, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, P. Görts, T. Koskela, D. Rembges, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, P. Cotton, P. Kelly, N. Kouremeti, K. Rikkonen, H. Studemund, R. Tax, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit (QASUME),” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects II,W. Gao, J. R. Herman, G. Shi, K. Shibasoki, J. R. Slusser, eds., Proc. SPIE4896, 232–238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Meinander, T. Koskela, K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, C. Torres, E. Cuevas, G. Deferrari, J. Gröbner, “Antarctic NILU-UV Network linked to QASUME and NSF Irradiance scales,” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Kos, Greece, 1–8 June 2004.

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, S. J. Schreder, T. Cabot, P. Görts, B. Johnson, W. Josefsson, J. Karhu, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, A. Siani, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2003, (European Commission, 2003).

Harrison, N.

A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, K. Leszcynski, V. A. Mohnen, P. Johnston, N. Harrison, D. Bigelow, “Quality assurance in monitoring solar ultraviolet radiation: the state of the art,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2003).

Herman, J.

J. Herman, R. McKenzie, S. Diaz, J. Kerr, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Ultraviolet radiation at the Earth’s surface,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, (World Meteorological Organization, 1999), Chap. 9.

Huber, M.

H. A. Slaper, J. M. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2721–2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, J. K.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, K. D. Mielenz, “Results of a CCPR Intercomparison of Spectral Irradiance Measurements by National Laboratories,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 647–668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B.

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, S. J. Schreder, T. Cabot, P. Görts, B. Johnson, W. Josefsson, J. Karhu, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, A. Siani, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2003, (European Commission, 2003).

Johnston, P.

A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, K. Leszcynski, V. A. Mohnen, P. Johnston, N. Harrison, D. Bigelow, “Quality assurance in monitoring solar ultraviolet radiation: the state of the art,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2003).

Johnston, P. V.

R. L. McKenzie, P. V. Johnston, G. Seckmeyer, “UV spectroradiometry in the network for the detection of stratospheric change (NDSC),” in Solar Ultraviolet Radiation, Modelling, Measurements and Effects,C. S. Zerefos, A. F. Bais, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1995), pp. 279–287.

Josefsson, W.

J. Gröbner, D. Rembges, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, W. Josefsson, T. Koskela, T. M. Thorseth, A. R. Webb, U. Wester, “Quality assurance of reference standards from nine European ultraviolet monitoring laboratories,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4278–4282 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, S. J. Schreder, T. Cabot, P. Görts, B. Johnson, W. Josefsson, J. Karhu, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, A. Siani, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2003, (European Commission, 2003).

Karhu, J.

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, S. J. Schreder, T. Cabot, P. Görts, B. Johnson, W. Josefsson, J. Karhu, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, A. Siani, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2003, (European Commission, 2003).

Kazadzis, S.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Gröbner, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, P. Görts, T. Koskela, D. Rembges, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, P. Cotton, P. Kelly, N. Kouremeti, K. Rikkonen, H. Studemund, R. Tax, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit (QASUME),” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects II,W. Gao, J. R. Herman, G. Shi, K. Shibasoki, J. R. Slusser, eds., Proc. SPIE4896, 232–238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, S. J. Schreder, T. Cabot, P. Görts, B. Johnson, W. Josefsson, J. Karhu, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, A. Siani, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2003, (European Commission, 2003).

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2002, (European Commission, 2003).

J. Gröbner, A. F. Bais, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, S. Wuttke, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe (QASUME),” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Kos, Greece, 1–8 June 2004.

Kelly, P.

A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Gröbner, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, P. Görts, T. Koskela, D. Rembges, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, P. Cotton, P. Kelly, N. Kouremeti, K. Rikkonen, H. Studemund, R. Tax, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit (QASUME),” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects II,W. Gao, J. R. Herman, G. Shi, K. Shibasoki, J. R. Slusser, eds., Proc. SPIE4896, 232–238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kerr, J.

J. Herman, R. McKenzie, S. Diaz, J. Kerr, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Ultraviolet radiation at the Earth’s surface,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, (World Meteorological Organization, 1999), Chap. 9.

Kerr, J. B.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, H. Slaper, D. Rembges, “An investigation on the long term wavelength accuracy of two Brewer spectrophotometers,” Geophys. Res. Abstr. 3, 5127 (2001).

J. Gröbner, D. I. Wardle, C. T. McElroy, J. B. Kerr, “Investigation of the wavelength accuracy of Brewer spectrophotometers,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8352–8360 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Kerr, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, S. B. Diaz, N. Krotkov, D. Lubin, R. L. McKenzie, A. A. Sabziparvar, J. Verdebout, “Surface ultraviolet radiation: past and future,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, (World Meteorological Organization, 2003), Chap. 5.

Kirsch, P.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kjeldstad, B.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, S. J. Schreder, T. Cabot, P. Görts, B. Johnson, W. Josefsson, J. Karhu, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, A. Siani, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2003, (European Commission, 2003).

Koskela, T.

J. Gröbner, D. Rembges, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, W. Josefsson, T. Koskela, T. M. Thorseth, A. R. Webb, U. Wester, “Quality assurance of reference standards from nine European ultraviolet monitoring laboratories,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4278–4282 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Gröbner, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, P. Görts, T. Koskela, D. Rembges, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, P. Cotton, P. Kelly, N. Kouremeti, K. Rikkonen, H. Studemund, R. Tax, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit (QASUME),” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects II,W. Gao, J. R. Herman, G. Shi, K. Shibasoki, J. R. Slusser, eds., Proc. SPIE4896, 232–238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

O. Meinander, T. Koskela, K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, C. Torres, E. Cuevas, G. Deferrari, J. Gröbner, “Antarctic NILU-UV Network linked to QASUME and NSF Irradiance scales,” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Kos, Greece, 1–8 June 2004.

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, S. J. Schreder, T. Cabot, P. Görts, B. Johnson, W. Josefsson, J. Karhu, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, A. Siani, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2003, (European Commission, 2003).

J. Gröbner, A. F. Bais, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, S. Wuttke, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe (QASUME),” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Kos, Greece, 1–8 June 2004.

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2002, (European Commission, 2003).

Kouremeti, N.

A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Gröbner, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, P. Görts, T. Koskela, D. Rembges, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, P. Cotton, P. Kelly, N. Kouremeti, K. Rikkonen, H. Studemund, R. Tax, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit (QASUME),” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects II,W. Gao, J. R. Herman, G. Shi, K. Shibasoki, J. R. Slusser, eds., Proc. SPIE4896, 232–238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Krotkov, N.

J. B. Kerr, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, S. B. Diaz, N. Krotkov, D. Lubin, R. L. McKenzie, A. A. Sabziparvar, J. Verdebout, “Surface ultraviolet radiation: past and future,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, (World Meteorological Organization, 2003), Chap. 5.

Kuik, F.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Slaper, J. M. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2721–2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lakkala, K.

O. Meinander, T. Koskela, K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, C. Torres, E. Cuevas, G. Deferrari, J. Gröbner, “Antarctic NILU-UV Network linked to QASUME and NSF Irradiance scales,” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Kos, Greece, 1–8 June 2004.

Leszcynski, K.

A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, T. J. Martin, K. Leszcynski, J. Metzdorf, V. A. Mohnen, “Guidelines for site quality control of UV monitoring,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2000).

A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, K. Leszcynski, V. A. Mohnen, P. Johnston, N. Harrison, D. Bigelow, “Quality assurance in monitoring solar ultraviolet radiation: the state of the art,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2003).

Leszczynski, K.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lubin, D.

J. B. Kerr, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, S. B. Diaz, N. Krotkov, D. Lubin, R. L. McKenzie, A. A. Sabziparvar, J. Verdebout, “Surface ultraviolet radiation: past and future,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, (World Meteorological Organization, 2003), Chap. 5.

Madronich, S.

S. Madronich, “Trends in surface UV radiation,” in The Role of the Stratosphere in Global Change, M. L. Chanin, ed., Vol. 18 of NATO ASI Series (Springer-Verlag, 1993), pp. 463–471.
[CrossRef]

J. Herman, R. McKenzie, S. Diaz, J. Kerr, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Ultraviolet radiation at the Earth’s surface,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, (World Meteorological Organization, 1999), Chap. 9.

Martin, T. J.

A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, T. J. Martin, K. Leszcynski, J. Metzdorf, V. A. Mohnen, “Guidelines for site quality control of UV monitoring,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2000).

McElroy, C. T.

McKenzie, R.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Herman, R. McKenzie, S. Diaz, J. Kerr, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Ultraviolet radiation at the Earth’s surface,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, (World Meteorological Organization, 1999), Chap. 9.

McKenzie, R. L.

G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation. 1. Spectral instruments,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2001).

R. L. McKenzie, P. V. Johnston, G. Seckmeyer, “UV spectroradiometry in the network for the detection of stratospheric change (NDSC),” in Solar Ultraviolet Radiation, Modelling, Measurements and Effects,C. S. Zerefos, A. F. Bais, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1995), pp. 279–287.

J. B. Kerr, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, S. B. Diaz, N. Krotkov, D. Lubin, R. L. McKenzie, A. A. Sabziparvar, J. Verdebout, “Surface ultraviolet radiation: past and future,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, (World Meteorological Organization, 2003), Chap. 5.

Meinander, O.

O. Meinander, T. Koskela, K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, C. Torres, E. Cuevas, G. Deferrari, J. Gröbner, “Antarctic NILU-UV Network linked to QASUME and NSF Irradiance scales,” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Kos, Greece, 1–8 June 2004.

Metzdorf, J.

A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, T. J. Martin, K. Leszcynski, J. Metzdorf, V. A. Mohnen, “Guidelines for site quality control of UV monitoring,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2000).

Mielenz, K. D.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, K. D. Mielenz, “Results of a CCPR Intercomparison of Spectral Irradiance Measurements by National Laboratories,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 647–668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miyauchi, M.

G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation. 1. Spectral instruments,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2001).

Mohnen, V. A.

A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, K. Leszcynski, V. A. Mohnen, P. Johnston, N. Harrison, D. Bigelow, “Quality assurance in monitoring solar ultraviolet radiation: the state of the art,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2003).

A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, T. J. Martin, K. Leszcynski, J. Metzdorf, V. A. Mohnen, “Guidelines for site quality control of UV monitoring,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2000).

Redondas, A.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

O. Meinander, T. Koskela, K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, C. Torres, E. Cuevas, G. Deferrari, J. Gröbner, “Antarctic NILU-UV Network linked to QASUME and NSF Irradiance scales,” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Kos, Greece, 1–8 June 2004.

Reinen, H.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reinen, J. M.

H. A. Slaper, J. M. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2721–2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rembges, D.

J. Gröbner, D. Rembges, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, W. Josefsson, T. Koskela, T. M. Thorseth, A. R. Webb, U. Wester, “Quality assurance of reference standards from nine European ultraviolet monitoring laboratories,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4278–4282 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, H. Slaper, D. Rembges, “An investigation on the long term wavelength accuracy of two Brewer spectrophotometers,” Geophys. Res. Abstr. 3, 5127 (2001).

A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Gröbner, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, P. Görts, T. Koskela, D. Rembges, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, P. Cotton, P. Kelly, N. Kouremeti, K. Rikkonen, H. Studemund, R. Tax, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit (QASUME),” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects II,W. Gao, J. R. Herman, G. Shi, K. Shibasoki, J. R. Slusser, eds., Proc. SPIE4896, 232–238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rikkonen, K.

A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Gröbner, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, P. Görts, T. Koskela, D. Rembges, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, P. Cotton, P. Kelly, N. Kouremeti, K. Rikkonen, H. Studemund, R. Tax, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit (QASUME),” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects II,W. Gao, J. R. Herman, G. Shi, K. Shibasoki, J. R. Slusser, eds., Proc. SPIE4896, 232–238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Roy, C.

G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation. 1. Spectral instruments,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2001).

Sabziparvar, A. A.

J. B. Kerr, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, S. B. Diaz, N. Krotkov, D. Lubin, R. L. McKenzie, A. A. Sabziparvar, J. Verdebout, “Surface ultraviolet radiation: past and future,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, (World Meteorological Organization, 2003), Chap. 5.

Saunders, R. D.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, K. D. Mielenz, “Results of a CCPR Intercomparison of Spectral Irradiance Measurements by National Laboratories,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 647–668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schreder, J.

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2002, (European Commission, 2003).

J. Gröbner, A. F. Bais, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, S. Wuttke, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe (QASUME),” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Kos, Greece, 1–8 June 2004.

J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, “Characterisation report of the travelling standard B5503,” (European Communities, 2003).

L. Ylianttila, J. Schreder, “Temperature effects of PTFE diffusers,” Opt. Mater. (to be published).

A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Gröbner, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, P. Görts, T. Koskela, D. Rembges, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, P. Cotton, P. Kelly, N. Kouremeti, K. Rikkonen, H. Studemund, R. Tax, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit (QASUME),” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects II,W. Gao, J. R. Herman, G. Shi, K. Shibasoki, J. R. Slusser, eds., Proc. SPIE4896, 232–238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schreder, S. J.

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, S. J. Schreder, T. Cabot, P. Görts, B. Johnson, W. Josefsson, J. Karhu, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, A. Siani, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2003, (European Commission, 2003).

Seckmeyer, G.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14,321–14,345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Seckmeyer, “Spektralradiometer für die Ökologische Pflanzenforschung,” Licht 41, 7–8 (1989).

J. B. Kerr, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, S. B. Diaz, N. Krotkov, D. Lubin, R. L. McKenzie, A. A. Sabziparvar, J. Verdebout, “Surface ultraviolet radiation: past and future,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, (World Meteorological Organization, 2003), Chap. 5.

A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Gröbner, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, P. Görts, T. Koskela, D. Rembges, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, P. Cotton, P. Kelly, N. Kouremeti, K. Rikkonen, H. Studemund, R. Tax, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit (QASUME),” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects II,W. Gao, J. R. Herman, G. Shi, K. Shibasoki, J. R. Slusser, eds., Proc. SPIE4896, 232–238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. L. McKenzie, P. V. Johnston, G. Seckmeyer, “UV spectroradiometry in the network for the detection of stratospheric change (NDSC),” in Solar Ultraviolet Radiation, Modelling, Measurements and Effects,C. S. Zerefos, A. F. Bais, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1995), pp. 279–287.

G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation. 1. Spectral instruments,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2001).

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2002, (European Commission, 2003).

J. Gröbner, A. F. Bais, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, S. Wuttke, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe (QASUME),” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Kos, Greece, 1–8 June 2004.

J. Herman, R. McKenzie, S. Diaz, J. Kerr, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Ultraviolet radiation at the Earth’s surface,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, (World Meteorological Organization, 1999), Chap. 9.

Siani, A.

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, S. J. Schreder, T. Cabot, P. Görts, B. Johnson, W. Josefsson, J. Karhu, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, A. Siani, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2003, (European Commission, 2003).

Slaper, H.

J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, H. Slaper, D. Rembges, “An investigation on the long term wavelength accuracy of two Brewer spectrophotometers,” Geophys. Res. Abstr. 3, 5127 (2001).

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Slaper, H. A.

H. A. Slaper, J. M. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2721–2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sperfeld, P.

J. Gröbner, P. Sperfeld, “Direct traceability of the portable QASUME irradiance scale to the primary irradiance standard of the PTB,” Metrologia 42, 134–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Studemund, H.

A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Gröbner, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, P. Görts, T. Koskela, D. Rembges, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, P. Cotton, P. Kelly, N. Kouremeti, K. Rikkonen, H. Studemund, R. Tax, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit (QASUME),” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects II,W. Gao, J. R. Herman, G. Shi, K. Shibasoki, J. R. Slusser, eds., Proc. SPIE4896, 232–238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Svenoe, T.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tax, R.

A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Gröbner, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, P. Görts, T. Koskela, D. Rembges, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, P. Cotton, P. Kelly, N. Kouremeti, K. Rikkonen, H. Studemund, R. Tax, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit (QASUME),” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects II,W. Gao, J. R. Herman, G. Shi, K. Shibasoki, J. R. Slusser, eds., Proc. SPIE4896, 232–238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, A. F. Bais, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, S. Wuttke, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe (QASUME),” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Kos, Greece, 1–8 June 2004.

Thorseth, T. M.

Torres, C.

O. Meinander, T. Koskela, K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, C. Torres, E. Cuevas, G. Deferrari, J. Gröbner, “Antarctic NILU-UV Network linked to QASUME and NSF Irradiance scales,” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Kos, Greece, 1–8 June 2004.

Verdebout, J.

J. B. Kerr, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, S. B. Diaz, N. Krotkov, D. Lubin, R. L. McKenzie, A. A. Sabziparvar, J. Verdebout, “Surface ultraviolet radiation: past and future,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, (World Meteorological Organization, 2003), Chap. 5.

Walker, J. H.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, K. D. Mielenz, “Results of a CCPR Intercomparison of Spectral Irradiance Measurements by National Laboratories,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 647–668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wardle, D.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wardle, D. I.

Webb, A. R.

J. Gröbner, D. Rembges, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, T. Cabot, W. Josefsson, T. Koskela, T. M. Thorseth, A. R. Webb, U. Wester, “Quality assurance of reference standards from nine European ultraviolet monitoring laboratories,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4278–4282 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Gröbner, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, P. Görts, T. Koskela, D. Rembges, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, P. Cotton, P. Kelly, N. Kouremeti, K. Rikkonen, H. Studemund, R. Tax, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit (QASUME),” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects II,W. Gao, J. R. Herman, G. Shi, K. Shibasoki, J. R. Slusser, eds., Proc. SPIE4896, 232–238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, S. J. Schreder, T. Cabot, P. Görts, B. Johnson, W. Josefsson, J. Karhu, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, A. Siani, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2003, (European Commission, 2003).

A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, T. J. Martin, K. Leszcynski, J. Metzdorf, V. A. Mohnen, “Guidelines for site quality control of UV monitoring,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2000).

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2002, (European Commission, 2003).

J. Gröbner, A. F. Bais, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, S. Wuttke, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe (QASUME),” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Kos, Greece, 1–8 June 2004.

A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, K. Leszcynski, V. A. Mohnen, P. Johnston, N. Harrison, D. Bigelow, “Quality assurance in monitoring solar ultraviolet radiation: the state of the art,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2003).

Weihs, P.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wester, U.

Wuttke, S.

A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Gröbner, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, P. Görts, T. Koskela, D. Rembges, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, P. Cotton, P. Kelly, N. Kouremeti, K. Rikkonen, H. Studemund, R. Tax, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit (QASUME),” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects II,W. Gao, J. R. Herman, G. Shi, K. Shibasoki, J. R. Slusser, eds., Proc. SPIE4896, 232–238 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2002, (European Commission, 2003).

J. Gröbner, A. F. Bais, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, S. Wuttke, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe (QASUME),” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Kos, Greece, 1–8 June 2004.

Ylianttila, L.

L. Ylianttila, J. Schreder, “Temperature effects of PTFE diffusers,” Opt. Mater. (to be published).

Appl. Opt.

Geophys. Res. Abstr.

J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, H. Slaper, D. Rembges, “An investigation on the long term wavelength accuracy of two Brewer spectrophotometers,” Geophys. Res. Abstr. 3, 5127 (2001).

Geophys. Res. Lett.

H. A. Slaper, J. M. Reinen, M. Blumthaler, M. Huber, F. Kuik, “Comparing ground-level spectrally resolved solar UV measurements using various instruments: a technique resolving effects of wavelength shift and slit width,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2721–2724 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res.

A. F. Bais, B. G. Gardiner, H. Slaper, M. Blumthaler, G. Bernhard, R. McKenzie, A. R. Webb, G. Seckmeyer, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, P. Kirsch, J. Gröbner, J. B. Kerr, S. Kazadzis, K. Leszczynski, D. Wardle, C. Brogniez, W. Josefsson, D. Gillotay, H. Reinen, P. Weihs, T. Svenoe, P. Eriksen, F. Kuik, A. Redondas, “SUSPEN intercomparison of ultraviolet spectroradiometers,” J. Geophys. Res.12,509–12,526 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Bernhard, G. Seckmeyer, “Uncertainty of measurements of spectral solar UV irradiance,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 14,321–14,345 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol.

J. H. Walker, R. D. Saunders, J. K. Jackson, K. D. Mielenz, “Results of a CCPR Intercomparison of Spectral Irradiance Measurements by National Laboratories,” J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 96, 647–668 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Licht

G. Seckmeyer, “Spektralradiometer für die Ökologische Pflanzenforschung,” Licht 41, 7–8 (1989).

Metrologia

J. Gröbner, P. Sperfeld, “Direct traceability of the portable QASUME irradiance scale to the primary irradiance standard of the PTB,” Metrologia 42, 134–139 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Gröbner, “Progress report of the travelling reference spectroradiometer B5503: photomultiplier stability study,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2003, (European Communities, 2003).

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, S. J. Schreder, T. Cabot, P. Görts, B. Johnson, W. Josefsson, J. Karhu, B. Kjeldstad, T. Koskela, A. Siani, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2003, (European Commission, 2003).

J. Gröbner, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, “Characterisation report of the travelling standard B5503,” (European Communities, 2003).

J. Gröbner, P. Disterhoft, report located on the QASUME Web page ( http://lap.phys.auth.gr/qasume/ ) (2004).

L. Ylianttila, J. Schreder, “Temperature effects of PTFE diffusers,” Opt. Mater. (to be published).

A. R. Webb, ed., “Advances in solar ultraviolet spectroradiometry,” (European Communities, 1997).

J. Gröbner, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, P. Görts, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit,” in QASUME—Report of Site Visits, Round 2002, (European Commission, 2003).

J. Gröbner, A. F. Bais, S. Kazadzis, M. Blumthaler, J. Schreder, P. Görts, R. Tax, T. Koskela, G. Seckmeyer, S. Wuttke, A. R. Webb, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe (QASUME),” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Kos, Greece, 1–8 June 2004.

O. Meinander, T. Koskela, K. Lakkala, A. Redondas, C. Torres, E. Cuevas, G. Deferrari, J. Gröbner, “Antarctic NILU-UV Network linked to QASUME and NSF Irradiance scales,” presented at the Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Kos, Greece, 1–8 June 2004.

J. Herman, R. McKenzie, S. Diaz, J. Kerr, S. Madronich, G. Seckmeyer, “Ultraviolet radiation at the Earth’s surface,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, (World Meteorological Organization, 1999), Chap. 9.

J. B. Kerr, G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, S. B. Diaz, N. Krotkov, D. Lubin, R. L. McKenzie, A. A. Sabziparvar, J. Verdebout, “Surface ultraviolet radiation: past and future,” in Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2002, Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project, (World Meteorological Organization, 2003), Chap. 5.

World Health Organization, “Environmental health criteria (EHC) 160: ultraviolet radiation” (World Health Organization, 1994).

G. Seckmeyer, A. F. Bais, G. Bernhard, M. Blumthaler, C. R. Booth, P. Disterhoft, P. Eriksen, R. L. McKenzie, M. Miyauchi, C. Roy, “Instruments to measure solar ultraviolet radiation. 1. Spectral instruments,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2001).

S. Madronich, “Trends in surface UV radiation,” in The Role of the Stratosphere in Global Change, M. L. Chanin, ed., Vol. 18 of NATO ASI Series (Springer-Verlag, 1993), pp. 463–471.
[CrossRef]

R. L. McKenzie, P. V. Johnston, G. Seckmeyer, “UV spectroradiometry in the network for the detection of stratospheric change (NDSC),” in Solar Ultraviolet Radiation, Modelling, Measurements and Effects,C. S. Zerefos, A. F. Bais, eds. (Springer-Verlag, 1995), pp. 279–287.

A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, T. J. Martin, K. Leszcynski, J. Metzdorf, V. A. Mohnen, “Guidelines for site quality control of UV monitoring,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2000).

A. R. Webb, B. G. Gardiner, K. Leszcynski, V. A. Mohnen, P. Johnston, N. Harrison, D. Bigelow, “Quality assurance in monitoring solar ultraviolet radiation: the state of the art,” (World Meteorological Organization, 2003).

A. F. Bais, M. Blumthaler, J. Gröbner, G. Seckmeyer, A. R. Webb, P. Görts, T. Koskela, D. Rembges, S. Kazadzis, J. Schreder, P. Cotton, P. Kelly, N. Kouremeti, K. Rikkonen, H. Studemund, R. Tax, S. Wuttke, “Quality assurance of spectral ultraviolet measurements in Europe through the development of a transportable unit (QASUME),” in Ultraviolet Ground- and Space-Based Measurements, Models, and Effects II,W. Gao, J. R. Herman, G. Shi, K. Shibasoki, J. R. Slusser, eds., Proc. SPIE4896, 232–238 (2003).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Laboratory determination of the linearity of the QASUME unit fitted with an end window photomultiplier. The system uses a six-decade current amplifier; decades are denoted V1–V6.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

ECUV Irradiance scale determined from the average of five radiation sources traceable to the PTB, Germany. The subgroup composed of the two radiation sources labeled F324 and F330 was used until the end of 2003. The radiation sources are tungsten-halogen filament lamps manufactured by Osram-Sylvania.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Average ratios of solar measurements between (a) the ECUV, (b) the FIJ, and (c) the NLR spectroradiometer and the QASUME spectroradiometer. The measurements were obtained during several intercomparisons; the first was a joint intercomparison at ECUV in May of 2002, followed by intercomparisons at the home sites of the FIJ (Jokioinen, Finland) and the NLR (RIVM, Bilthoven, The Netherlands). Dashed curves in (b) and (c) represent the difference in irradiance scales relative to the ECUV irradiance scale. The ECUV spectroradiometer uses the same irradiance scale as the QASUME spectroradiometer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal variation of the ratios at selected wavelengths between (a) the ECUV, (b) the FIJ, and (c) the NLR spectroradiometers relative to the QASUME spectroradiometer. The measurements were obtained in 2003 at the home site of each spectroradiometer. Each data point is calculated from the average over a 5 nm wavelength band.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Radiometric Uncertainty Budget for Spectral Measurements with the QASUME Spectroradiometer

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Table 2 Uncertainty Budget for Solar Measurements with the QASUME Spectroradiometer

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Table 3 Summary Statistics of the Measurement Campaigns in 2002, 2003, and 2004 with the ECUV, FIJ, and NLR Spectroradiometers Relative to the QASUME Spectroradiometer

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Table 4 Characteristics of the Instruments Participating in the Validation Exercisea

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