Abstract

This research evaluated the feasibility of using Fourier-transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy to quantify the soluble-solids content (SSC) and the available acidity (VA) in intact apples. Partial least-squares calibration models, obtained from several preprocessing techniques (smoothing, derivative, etc.) in several wave-number ranges were compared. The best models were obtained with the high coefficient determination (r2) 0.940 for the SSC and a moderate r2 of 0.801 for the VA, root-mean-square errors of prediction of 0.272% and 0.053%, and root-mean-square errors of calibration of 0.261% and 0.046%, respectively. The results indicate that the FT-NIR spectroscopy yields good predictions of the SSC and also showed the feasibility of using it to predict the VA of apples.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. N. Schaare, D. G. Fraser, “Comparison of reflectance, interactance and transmission modes of visible–near infrared spectroscopy for measuring internal properties of kiwifruit,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 20, 175–184 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. S. Birth, G. G. Dull, W. T. Renfore, S. J. Kays, “Nondestructive spectrophotometric determination of dry matter in onions,” J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 110, 297–303 (1985).
  3. G. G. Dull, G. S. Birth, R. G. Leffler, A. Zaltzman, Z. Schmmilovitch, “The near infrared determination of moisture in whole dates,” HortScience 26, 1303–1305 (1991).
  4. G. G. Dull, G. S. Birth, R. G. Leffler, “Near infrared analysis of soluble solids in intact cantaloupe,” J. Food Sci. 54, 393–395 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. G. Dull, R. G. Leffler, G. S. Birth, D. A. Smittle, “Instrument for nondestructive measurement of soluble solids in honeydew melons,” Trans. of ASAE 35, 735–737 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Kawano, T. Fujiwara, M. Iwamoto, “Nondestructive determination of SC in Satsum mandarin using near infrared transmittance,” J. Jpn. Soc. Hort. Sci. 62, 465–470 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. V. Bellon, J. L. Vigneau, M. A. Leclercq, “Feasibility and performance of a new multiplexed, fast and low-cost fiber-optic NIR spectrometer for the on-line quantification of sugar in fruits,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 1079–1083 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. C. Slaughter, “Nondestructive determination of internal quality in peaches and nectarines,” Trans. ASAE 38, 617–623 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. H. S. Piers, G. G. Dull, R. G. Leffler, S. J. Kays, “Nondestructive determination of sugar content of peach by near infrared spectroscopy,” presented at the Conference on Sensors for Nondestructive Testing, Orlando, Fla., 18–21 February 1997.
  10. R. B. Jordan, S. D. Osborne, R. Kunnemeyer, “Harvest time prediction of eating time properties of kiwifruit using NIR transmission,” presented at the Conference on Sensors for Nondestructive Testing, Orlando, Fla., 18–21 February 1997.
  11. E. Moons, A. P. Dardenne, M. Sindic, “Nondestructive visible and NIR spectroscopy for the determination of internal quality in apple,” presented at the Conference on Sensors for Nondestructive Testing, Orlando, Fla., 18–21 February 1997.
  12. J. Lammertyn, B. M. Nicolai, K. Ooms, V. De-Smedt, J. De-Baerdemaeker, “Non-destructive measurement of acidity, soluble solids and firmness of Jonagold apples using NIR-spectroscopy,” Trans. ASAE 41, 1089–1094 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. H. S. Peirs, G. G. Dull, R. G. Leffler, S. J. Kays, “Spatial variability of soluble solids or dry-matter content within individual fruits, bulbs, or tubers: implications for the development and use of NIR spectrometric analysis,” Hort. Sci. 34, 114–118 (1999).
  14. J. Lammertyn, A. Peirs, J. D. Baerdemaeker, B. M. Nicolai, “Light penetration properties of NIR radiation in fruit with respect to non-destructive quality assessment,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 18, 121–132 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. Lu, D. A. Ariana, “Near-infrared sensing analysis for measuring internal quality of apple fruit,” Trans. ASAE 18, 585–590 (2002).
  16. M. Tanaka, T. Kojima, “Near-infrared monitoring of the growth period of Japanese pear fruit based on constituent sugar concentrations,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 44, 2272–2277 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Kawano, “Present condition of non-destructive quality evaluation of fruit and vegetables in Japan,” Jpn. Agric. Res. Q. 28, 212–216 (1994).
  18. A. N. Peirs, K. T. Scheerlinck, B. M. Nicolai, “Comparison of Fourier transform and dispersive near-infrared reflectance spectrometer for apple measurements,” Biosyst. Eng. 81, 305–311 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Martens, T. Naes, “Multivariate calibration by data compression,” in Near-Infrared Technology in the Agricultural and Food Industries, P. Williams, K. H. Norris, eds. (American Association of Cereal Chemists, 1987).
  20. S. Chen, W. H. Chang, K. W. Hsieh, “The study on prediction models for determination of sugar content in fruit juice,” J. Taipei Chin. Inst. Agric. Mach. 7, 41–60 (1998).

2002 (2)

R. Lu, D. A. Ariana, “Near-infrared sensing analysis for measuring internal quality of apple fruit,” Trans. ASAE 18, 585–590 (2002).

A. N. Peirs, K. T. Scheerlinck, B. M. Nicolai, “Comparison of Fourier transform and dispersive near-infrared reflectance spectrometer for apple measurements,” Biosyst. Eng. 81, 305–311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J. Lammertyn, A. Peirs, J. D. Baerdemaeker, B. M. Nicolai, “Light penetration properties of NIR radiation in fruit with respect to non-destructive quality assessment,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 18, 121–132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Schaare, D. G. Fraser, “Comparison of reflectance, interactance and transmission modes of visible–near infrared spectroscopy for measuring internal properties of kiwifruit,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 20, 175–184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

K. H. S. Peirs, G. G. Dull, R. G. Leffler, S. J. Kays, “Spatial variability of soluble solids or dry-matter content within individual fruits, bulbs, or tubers: implications for the development and use of NIR spectrometric analysis,” Hort. Sci. 34, 114–118 (1999).

1998 (2)

J. Lammertyn, B. M. Nicolai, K. Ooms, V. De-Smedt, J. De-Baerdemaeker, “Non-destructive measurement of acidity, soluble solids and firmness of Jonagold apples using NIR-spectroscopy,” Trans. ASAE 41, 1089–1094 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, W. H. Chang, K. W. Hsieh, “The study on prediction models for determination of sugar content in fruit juice,” J. Taipei Chin. Inst. Agric. Mach. 7, 41–60 (1998).

1996 (1)

M. Tanaka, T. Kojima, “Near-infrared monitoring of the growth period of Japanese pear fruit based on constituent sugar concentrations,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 44, 2272–2277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

D. C. Slaughter, “Nondestructive determination of internal quality in peaches and nectarines,” Trans. ASAE 38, 617–623 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

S. Kawano, “Present condition of non-destructive quality evaluation of fruit and vegetables in Japan,” Jpn. Agric. Res. Q. 28, 212–216 (1994).

1993 (2)

S. Kawano, T. Fujiwara, M. Iwamoto, “Nondestructive determination of SC in Satsum mandarin using near infrared transmittance,” J. Jpn. Soc. Hort. Sci. 62, 465–470 (1993).
[CrossRef]

V. Bellon, J. L. Vigneau, M. A. Leclercq, “Feasibility and performance of a new multiplexed, fast and low-cost fiber-optic NIR spectrometer for the on-line quantification of sugar in fruits,” Appl. Spectrosc. 47, 1079–1083 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

G. G. Dull, R. G. Leffler, G. S. Birth, D. A. Smittle, “Instrument for nondestructive measurement of soluble solids in honeydew melons,” Trans. of ASAE 35, 735–737 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

G. G. Dull, G. S. Birth, R. G. Leffler, A. Zaltzman, Z. Schmmilovitch, “The near infrared determination of moisture in whole dates,” HortScience 26, 1303–1305 (1991).

1989 (1)

G. G. Dull, G. S. Birth, R. G. Leffler, “Near infrared analysis of soluble solids in intact cantaloupe,” J. Food Sci. 54, 393–395 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

G. S. Birth, G. G. Dull, W. T. Renfore, S. J. Kays, “Nondestructive spectrophotometric determination of dry matter in onions,” J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 110, 297–303 (1985).

Ariana, D. A.

R. Lu, D. A. Ariana, “Near-infrared sensing analysis for measuring internal quality of apple fruit,” Trans. ASAE 18, 585–590 (2002).

Baerdemaeker, J. D.

J. Lammertyn, A. Peirs, J. D. Baerdemaeker, B. M. Nicolai, “Light penetration properties of NIR radiation in fruit with respect to non-destructive quality assessment,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 18, 121–132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bellon, V.

Birth, G. S.

G. G. Dull, R. G. Leffler, G. S. Birth, D. A. Smittle, “Instrument for nondestructive measurement of soluble solids in honeydew melons,” Trans. of ASAE 35, 735–737 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Dull, G. S. Birth, R. G. Leffler, A. Zaltzman, Z. Schmmilovitch, “The near infrared determination of moisture in whole dates,” HortScience 26, 1303–1305 (1991).

G. G. Dull, G. S. Birth, R. G. Leffler, “Near infrared analysis of soluble solids in intact cantaloupe,” J. Food Sci. 54, 393–395 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Birth, G. G. Dull, W. T. Renfore, S. J. Kays, “Nondestructive spectrophotometric determination of dry matter in onions,” J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 110, 297–303 (1985).

Chang, W. H.

S. Chen, W. H. Chang, K. W. Hsieh, “The study on prediction models for determination of sugar content in fruit juice,” J. Taipei Chin. Inst. Agric. Mach. 7, 41–60 (1998).

Chen, S.

S. Chen, W. H. Chang, K. W. Hsieh, “The study on prediction models for determination of sugar content in fruit juice,” J. Taipei Chin. Inst. Agric. Mach. 7, 41–60 (1998).

Dardenne, A. P.

E. Moons, A. P. Dardenne, M. Sindic, “Nondestructive visible and NIR spectroscopy for the determination of internal quality in apple,” presented at the Conference on Sensors for Nondestructive Testing, Orlando, Fla., 18–21 February 1997.

De-Baerdemaeker, J.

J. Lammertyn, B. M. Nicolai, K. Ooms, V. De-Smedt, J. De-Baerdemaeker, “Non-destructive measurement of acidity, soluble solids and firmness of Jonagold apples using NIR-spectroscopy,” Trans. ASAE 41, 1089–1094 (1998).
[CrossRef]

De-Smedt, V.

J. Lammertyn, B. M. Nicolai, K. Ooms, V. De-Smedt, J. De-Baerdemaeker, “Non-destructive measurement of acidity, soluble solids and firmness of Jonagold apples using NIR-spectroscopy,” Trans. ASAE 41, 1089–1094 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dull, G. G.

K. H. S. Peirs, G. G. Dull, R. G. Leffler, S. J. Kays, “Spatial variability of soluble solids or dry-matter content within individual fruits, bulbs, or tubers: implications for the development and use of NIR spectrometric analysis,” Hort. Sci. 34, 114–118 (1999).

G. G. Dull, R. G. Leffler, G. S. Birth, D. A. Smittle, “Instrument for nondestructive measurement of soluble solids in honeydew melons,” Trans. of ASAE 35, 735–737 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Dull, G. S. Birth, R. G. Leffler, A. Zaltzman, Z. Schmmilovitch, “The near infrared determination of moisture in whole dates,” HortScience 26, 1303–1305 (1991).

G. G. Dull, G. S. Birth, R. G. Leffler, “Near infrared analysis of soluble solids in intact cantaloupe,” J. Food Sci. 54, 393–395 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Birth, G. G. Dull, W. T. Renfore, S. J. Kays, “Nondestructive spectrophotometric determination of dry matter in onions,” J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 110, 297–303 (1985).

K. H. S. Piers, G. G. Dull, R. G. Leffler, S. J. Kays, “Nondestructive determination of sugar content of peach by near infrared spectroscopy,” presented at the Conference on Sensors for Nondestructive Testing, Orlando, Fla., 18–21 February 1997.

Fraser, D. G.

P. N. Schaare, D. G. Fraser, “Comparison of reflectance, interactance and transmission modes of visible–near infrared spectroscopy for measuring internal properties of kiwifruit,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 20, 175–184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, T.

S. Kawano, T. Fujiwara, M. Iwamoto, “Nondestructive determination of SC in Satsum mandarin using near infrared transmittance,” J. Jpn. Soc. Hort. Sci. 62, 465–470 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, K. W.

S. Chen, W. H. Chang, K. W. Hsieh, “The study on prediction models for determination of sugar content in fruit juice,” J. Taipei Chin. Inst. Agric. Mach. 7, 41–60 (1998).

Iwamoto, M.

S. Kawano, T. Fujiwara, M. Iwamoto, “Nondestructive determination of SC in Satsum mandarin using near infrared transmittance,” J. Jpn. Soc. Hort. Sci. 62, 465–470 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, R. B.

R. B. Jordan, S. D. Osborne, R. Kunnemeyer, “Harvest time prediction of eating time properties of kiwifruit using NIR transmission,” presented at the Conference on Sensors for Nondestructive Testing, Orlando, Fla., 18–21 February 1997.

Kawano, S.

S. Kawano, “Present condition of non-destructive quality evaluation of fruit and vegetables in Japan,” Jpn. Agric. Res. Q. 28, 212–216 (1994).

S. Kawano, T. Fujiwara, M. Iwamoto, “Nondestructive determination of SC in Satsum mandarin using near infrared transmittance,” J. Jpn. Soc. Hort. Sci. 62, 465–470 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kays, S. J.

K. H. S. Peirs, G. G. Dull, R. G. Leffler, S. J. Kays, “Spatial variability of soluble solids or dry-matter content within individual fruits, bulbs, or tubers: implications for the development and use of NIR spectrometric analysis,” Hort. Sci. 34, 114–118 (1999).

G. S. Birth, G. G. Dull, W. T. Renfore, S. J. Kays, “Nondestructive spectrophotometric determination of dry matter in onions,” J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 110, 297–303 (1985).

K. H. S. Piers, G. G. Dull, R. G. Leffler, S. J. Kays, “Nondestructive determination of sugar content of peach by near infrared spectroscopy,” presented at the Conference on Sensors for Nondestructive Testing, Orlando, Fla., 18–21 February 1997.

Kojima, T.

M. Tanaka, T. Kojima, “Near-infrared monitoring of the growth period of Japanese pear fruit based on constituent sugar concentrations,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 44, 2272–2277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kunnemeyer, R.

R. B. Jordan, S. D. Osborne, R. Kunnemeyer, “Harvest time prediction of eating time properties of kiwifruit using NIR transmission,” presented at the Conference on Sensors for Nondestructive Testing, Orlando, Fla., 18–21 February 1997.

Lammertyn, J.

J. Lammertyn, A. Peirs, J. D. Baerdemaeker, B. M. Nicolai, “Light penetration properties of NIR radiation in fruit with respect to non-destructive quality assessment,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 18, 121–132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lammertyn, B. M. Nicolai, K. Ooms, V. De-Smedt, J. De-Baerdemaeker, “Non-destructive measurement of acidity, soluble solids and firmness of Jonagold apples using NIR-spectroscopy,” Trans. ASAE 41, 1089–1094 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leclercq, M. A.

Leffler, R. G.

K. H. S. Peirs, G. G. Dull, R. G. Leffler, S. J. Kays, “Spatial variability of soluble solids or dry-matter content within individual fruits, bulbs, or tubers: implications for the development and use of NIR spectrometric analysis,” Hort. Sci. 34, 114–118 (1999).

G. G. Dull, R. G. Leffler, G. S. Birth, D. A. Smittle, “Instrument for nondestructive measurement of soluble solids in honeydew melons,” Trans. of ASAE 35, 735–737 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Dull, G. S. Birth, R. G. Leffler, A. Zaltzman, Z. Schmmilovitch, “The near infrared determination of moisture in whole dates,” HortScience 26, 1303–1305 (1991).

G. G. Dull, G. S. Birth, R. G. Leffler, “Near infrared analysis of soluble solids in intact cantaloupe,” J. Food Sci. 54, 393–395 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. H. S. Piers, G. G. Dull, R. G. Leffler, S. J. Kays, “Nondestructive determination of sugar content of peach by near infrared spectroscopy,” presented at the Conference on Sensors for Nondestructive Testing, Orlando, Fla., 18–21 February 1997.

Lu, R.

R. Lu, D. A. Ariana, “Near-infrared sensing analysis for measuring internal quality of apple fruit,” Trans. ASAE 18, 585–590 (2002).

Martens, H.

H. Martens, T. Naes, “Multivariate calibration by data compression,” in Near-Infrared Technology in the Agricultural and Food Industries, P. Williams, K. H. Norris, eds. (American Association of Cereal Chemists, 1987).

Moons, E.

E. Moons, A. P. Dardenne, M. Sindic, “Nondestructive visible and NIR spectroscopy for the determination of internal quality in apple,” presented at the Conference on Sensors for Nondestructive Testing, Orlando, Fla., 18–21 February 1997.

Naes, T.

H. Martens, T. Naes, “Multivariate calibration by data compression,” in Near-Infrared Technology in the Agricultural and Food Industries, P. Williams, K. H. Norris, eds. (American Association of Cereal Chemists, 1987).

Nicolai, B. M.

A. N. Peirs, K. T. Scheerlinck, B. M. Nicolai, “Comparison of Fourier transform and dispersive near-infrared reflectance spectrometer for apple measurements,” Biosyst. Eng. 81, 305–311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Lammertyn, A. Peirs, J. D. Baerdemaeker, B. M. Nicolai, “Light penetration properties of NIR radiation in fruit with respect to non-destructive quality assessment,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 18, 121–132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Lammertyn, B. M. Nicolai, K. Ooms, V. De-Smedt, J. De-Baerdemaeker, “Non-destructive measurement of acidity, soluble solids and firmness of Jonagold apples using NIR-spectroscopy,” Trans. ASAE 41, 1089–1094 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ooms, K.

J. Lammertyn, B. M. Nicolai, K. Ooms, V. De-Smedt, J. De-Baerdemaeker, “Non-destructive measurement of acidity, soluble solids and firmness of Jonagold apples using NIR-spectroscopy,” Trans. ASAE 41, 1089–1094 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Osborne, S. D.

R. B. Jordan, S. D. Osborne, R. Kunnemeyer, “Harvest time prediction of eating time properties of kiwifruit using NIR transmission,” presented at the Conference on Sensors for Nondestructive Testing, Orlando, Fla., 18–21 February 1997.

Peirs, A.

J. Lammertyn, A. Peirs, J. D. Baerdemaeker, B. M. Nicolai, “Light penetration properties of NIR radiation in fruit with respect to non-destructive quality assessment,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 18, 121–132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peirs, A. N.

A. N. Peirs, K. T. Scheerlinck, B. M. Nicolai, “Comparison of Fourier transform and dispersive near-infrared reflectance spectrometer for apple measurements,” Biosyst. Eng. 81, 305–311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peirs, K. H. S.

K. H. S. Peirs, G. G. Dull, R. G. Leffler, S. J. Kays, “Spatial variability of soluble solids or dry-matter content within individual fruits, bulbs, or tubers: implications for the development and use of NIR spectrometric analysis,” Hort. Sci. 34, 114–118 (1999).

Piers, K. H. S.

K. H. S. Piers, G. G. Dull, R. G. Leffler, S. J. Kays, “Nondestructive determination of sugar content of peach by near infrared spectroscopy,” presented at the Conference on Sensors for Nondestructive Testing, Orlando, Fla., 18–21 February 1997.

Renfore, W. T.

G. S. Birth, G. G. Dull, W. T. Renfore, S. J. Kays, “Nondestructive spectrophotometric determination of dry matter in onions,” J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 110, 297–303 (1985).

Schaare, P. N.

P. N. Schaare, D. G. Fraser, “Comparison of reflectance, interactance and transmission modes of visible–near infrared spectroscopy for measuring internal properties of kiwifruit,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 20, 175–184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scheerlinck, K. T.

A. N. Peirs, K. T. Scheerlinck, B. M. Nicolai, “Comparison of Fourier transform and dispersive near-infrared reflectance spectrometer for apple measurements,” Biosyst. Eng. 81, 305–311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schmmilovitch, Z.

G. G. Dull, G. S. Birth, R. G. Leffler, A. Zaltzman, Z. Schmmilovitch, “The near infrared determination of moisture in whole dates,” HortScience 26, 1303–1305 (1991).

Sindic, M.

E. Moons, A. P. Dardenne, M. Sindic, “Nondestructive visible and NIR spectroscopy for the determination of internal quality in apple,” presented at the Conference on Sensors for Nondestructive Testing, Orlando, Fla., 18–21 February 1997.

Slaughter, D. C.

D. C. Slaughter, “Nondestructive determination of internal quality in peaches and nectarines,” Trans. ASAE 38, 617–623 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Smittle, D. A.

G. G. Dull, R. G. Leffler, G. S. Birth, D. A. Smittle, “Instrument for nondestructive measurement of soluble solids in honeydew melons,” Trans. of ASAE 35, 735–737 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

M. Tanaka, T. Kojima, “Near-infrared monitoring of the growth period of Japanese pear fruit based on constituent sugar concentrations,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 44, 2272–2277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vigneau, J. L.

Zaltzman, A.

G. G. Dull, G. S. Birth, R. G. Leffler, A. Zaltzman, Z. Schmmilovitch, “The near infrared determination of moisture in whole dates,” HortScience 26, 1303–1305 (1991).

Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

Biosyst. Eng. (1)

A. N. Peirs, K. T. Scheerlinck, B. M. Nicolai, “Comparison of Fourier transform and dispersive near-infrared reflectance spectrometer for apple measurements,” Biosyst. Eng. 81, 305–311 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hort. Sci. (1)

K. H. S. Peirs, G. G. Dull, R. G. Leffler, S. J. Kays, “Spatial variability of soluble solids or dry-matter content within individual fruits, bulbs, or tubers: implications for the development and use of NIR spectrometric analysis,” Hort. Sci. 34, 114–118 (1999).

HortScience (1)

G. G. Dull, G. S. Birth, R. G. Leffler, A. Zaltzman, Z. Schmmilovitch, “The near infrared determination of moisture in whole dates,” HortScience 26, 1303–1305 (1991).

J. Agric. Food Chem. (1)

M. Tanaka, T. Kojima, “Near-infrared monitoring of the growth period of Japanese pear fruit based on constituent sugar concentrations,” J. Agric. Food Chem. 44, 2272–2277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. (1)

G. S. Birth, G. G. Dull, W. T. Renfore, S. J. Kays, “Nondestructive spectrophotometric determination of dry matter in onions,” J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci. 110, 297–303 (1985).

J. Food Sci. (1)

G. G. Dull, G. S. Birth, R. G. Leffler, “Near infrared analysis of soluble solids in intact cantaloupe,” J. Food Sci. 54, 393–395 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Jpn. Soc. Hort. Sci. (1)

S. Kawano, T. Fujiwara, M. Iwamoto, “Nondestructive determination of SC in Satsum mandarin using near infrared transmittance,” J. Jpn. Soc. Hort. Sci. 62, 465–470 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Taipei Chin. Inst. Agric. Mach. (1)

S. Chen, W. H. Chang, K. W. Hsieh, “The study on prediction models for determination of sugar content in fruit juice,” J. Taipei Chin. Inst. Agric. Mach. 7, 41–60 (1998).

Jpn. Agric. Res. Q. (1)

S. Kawano, “Present condition of non-destructive quality evaluation of fruit and vegetables in Japan,” Jpn. Agric. Res. Q. 28, 212–216 (1994).

Postharvest Biol. Technol. (2)

J. Lammertyn, A. Peirs, J. D. Baerdemaeker, B. M. Nicolai, “Light penetration properties of NIR radiation in fruit with respect to non-destructive quality assessment,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 18, 121–132 (2000).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Schaare, D. G. Fraser, “Comparison of reflectance, interactance and transmission modes of visible–near infrared spectroscopy for measuring internal properties of kiwifruit,” Postharvest Biol. Technol. 20, 175–184 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Trans. ASAE (3)

D. C. Slaughter, “Nondestructive determination of internal quality in peaches and nectarines,” Trans. ASAE 38, 617–623 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Lu, D. A. Ariana, “Near-infrared sensing analysis for measuring internal quality of apple fruit,” Trans. ASAE 18, 585–590 (2002).

J. Lammertyn, B. M. Nicolai, K. Ooms, V. De-Smedt, J. De-Baerdemaeker, “Non-destructive measurement of acidity, soluble solids and firmness of Jonagold apples using NIR-spectroscopy,” Trans. ASAE 41, 1089–1094 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Trans. of ASAE (1)

G. G. Dull, R. G. Leffler, G. S. Birth, D. A. Smittle, “Instrument for nondestructive measurement of soluble solids in honeydew melons,” Trans. of ASAE 35, 735–737 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

K. H. S. Piers, G. G. Dull, R. G. Leffler, S. J. Kays, “Nondestructive determination of sugar content of peach by near infrared spectroscopy,” presented at the Conference on Sensors for Nondestructive Testing, Orlando, Fla., 18–21 February 1997.

R. B. Jordan, S. D. Osborne, R. Kunnemeyer, “Harvest time prediction of eating time properties of kiwifruit using NIR transmission,” presented at the Conference on Sensors for Nondestructive Testing, Orlando, Fla., 18–21 February 1997.

E. Moons, A. P. Dardenne, M. Sindic, “Nondestructive visible and NIR spectroscopy for the determination of internal quality in apple,” presented at the Conference on Sensors for Nondestructive Testing, Orlando, Fla., 18–21 February 1997.

H. Martens, T. Naes, “Multivariate calibration by data compression,” in Near-Infrared Technology in the Agricultural and Food Industries, P. Williams, K. H. Norris, eds. (American Association of Cereal Chemists, 1987).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup for FT-NIR spectroscopy using fiber optics.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Original spectra for a typical apple with highest, medium, and lowest °Brix values.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Relationship between measured and predicted SSC of the best calibration model: (a) calibration set, (b) validation set.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Relationship between measured and predicted VA of the best calibration model: (a) calibration set, (b) validation set.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Statistical Data on SSC and VA in Calibration and Prediction Samples

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Table 2 SSC and VA Prediction Results of PLS Analysis of Calibration Models at Several Wave-Number Ranges

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Table 3 SSC Prediction Results (at Wave-Number Range 10 341-5461 cm−1) and VA Prediction Results (at Wave-Number Range 10 341-3818 cm−1) of PLS Analysis with Different Mathematical Treatments

Metrics