Abstract

Arrays of photon-counting avalanche photodiodes with time-resolved readout can improve the performance of three-dimensional laser radars. A comparison of the detection and false-alarm probabilities for detectors in linear mode and in Geiger mode is shown. With low background radiation their performance is comparable. It is shown that in both cases it will be necessary to process several laser shots of the same scene to improve detection and reduce the false-alarm rate. Additional calculations show that the linear mode detector is much better at detecting targets behind semitransparent obscurations such as vegetation and camouflage nets.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. Richmond, R. Stettner, J. Glessner, “Eye safe laser radar focal plane array for three-dimensional imaging,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications V, G. Kamerman, U. Singh, C. Werner, V. Molebny, eds., Proc. SPIE4035, 172–178 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. Heinrichs, B. Aull, R. Marino, D. Fouche, A. McIntosh, J. Zayhowski, T. Stephens, M. O’Brien, M. Albota, “Three-dimensional laser radar with APD arrays,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 106–117 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Dorokhov, A. Glauser, Y. Musienko, C. Regenfus, S. Reucroft, J. Swain, “Recent progress on cooled avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1351–1357 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  9. O. K. Steinvall, H. Larsson, F. Gustafsson, T. R. Chevalier, Å. Persson, L. M. Klasen, “Characterizing targets and backgrounds for 3D laser radars,” in Military Remote Sensing, G. W. Kamerman, D. V. Willetts, eds., Proc. SPIE5613, 51–66 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

A. Dorokhov, A. Glauser, Y. Musienko, C. Regenfus, S. Reucroft, J. Swain, “Recent progress on cooled avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1351–1357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

Albota, M.

M. Albota, R. Heinrichs, D. Kocher, D. Fouche, B. Player, M. O’Brien, B. Aull, J. Zayhowski, J. Mooney, B. Willard, R. Carlson, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radar with a photon-counting avalanche photodiode array and microchip laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7671–7678 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Heinrichs, B. Aull, R. Marino, D. Fouche, A. McIntosh, J. Zayhowski, T. Stephens, M. O’Brien, M. Albota, “Three-dimensional laser radar with APD arrays,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 106–117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, C.

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Asbrock, J.

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Aull, B.

M. Albota, R. Heinrichs, D. Kocher, D. Fouche, B. Player, M. O’Brien, B. Aull, J. Zayhowski, J. Mooney, B. Willard, R. Carlson, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radar with a photon-counting avalanche photodiode array and microchip laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7671–7678 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Heinrichs, B. Aull, R. Marino, D. Fouche, A. McIntosh, J. Zayhowski, T. Stephens, M. O’Brien, M. Albota, “Three-dimensional laser radar with APD arrays,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 106–117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bailey, S.

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Balcerak, R.

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Barr, D.

Boisvert, J.

J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, D. McAlister, T. Isshiki, R. Sudharsanan, M. Krainak, “Large area AlAs3InGaAs single photon counting avalanche photodiodes,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications IX, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE5412, 126–136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, R.

Chapman, G.

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chevalier, T. R.

O. K. Steinvall, H. Larsson, F. Gustafsson, T. R. Chevalier, Å. Persson, L. M. Klasen, “Characterizing targets and backgrounds for 3D laser radars,” in Military Remote Sensing, G. W. Kamerman, D. V. Willetts, eds., Proc. SPIE5613, 51–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

DeLyon, T.

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dorokhov, A.

A. Dorokhov, A. Glauser, Y. Musienko, C. Regenfus, S. Reucroft, J. Swain, “Recent progress on cooled avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1351–1357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fouche, D.

Glauser, A.

A. Dorokhov, A. Glauser, Y. Musienko, C. Regenfus, S. Reucroft, J. Swain, “Recent progress on cooled avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1351–1357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Glessner, J.

R. Richmond, R. Stettner, J. Glessner, “Eye safe laser radar focal plane array for three-dimensional imaging,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications V, G. Kamerman, U. Singh, C. Werner, V. Molebny, eds., Proc. SPIE4035, 172–178 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, E.

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gustafsson, F.

O. K. Steinvall, H. Larsson, F. Gustafsson, T. R. Chevalier, Å. Persson, L. M. Klasen, “Characterizing targets and backgrounds for 3D laser radars,” in Military Remote Sensing, G. W. Kamerman, D. V. Willetts, eds., Proc. SPIE5613, 51–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Halmos, M.

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Heinrichs, R.

M. Albota, R. Heinrichs, D. Kocher, D. Fouche, B. Player, M. O’Brien, B. Aull, J. Zayhowski, J. Mooney, B. Willard, R. Carlson, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radar with a photon-counting avalanche photodiode array and microchip laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7671–7678 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Heinrichs, B. Aull, R. Marino, D. Fouche, A. McIntosh, J. Zayhowski, T. Stephens, M. O’Brien, M. Albota, “Three-dimensional laser radar with APD arrays,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 106–117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Herning, P.

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, A.

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A.

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Isshiki, T.

J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, D. McAlister, T. Isshiki, R. Sudharsanan, M. Krainak, “Large area AlAs3InGaAs single photon counting avalanche photodiodes,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications IX, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE5412, 126–136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jack, M.

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, J.

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kalisher, M.

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kingston, R. H.

R. H. Kingston, Detection of Optical and Infrared Radiation (Springer-Verlag, 1978).
[CrossRef]

Kinsey, G.

J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, D. McAlister, T. Isshiki, R. Sudharsanan, M. Krainak, “Large area AlAs3InGaAs single photon counting avalanche photodiodes,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications IX, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE5412, 126–136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Klaras, L.

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Klasen, L. M.

O. K. Steinvall, H. Larsson, F. Gustafsson, T. R. Chevalier, Å. Persson, L. M. Klasen, “Characterizing targets and backgrounds for 3D laser radars,” in Military Remote Sensing, G. W. Kamerman, D. V. Willetts, eds., Proc. SPIE5613, 51–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kocher, D.

Kosai, K.

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Krainak, M.

J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, D. McAlister, T. Isshiki, R. Sudharsanan, M. Krainak, “Large area AlAs3InGaAs single photon counting avalanche photodiodes,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications IX, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE5412, 126–136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, H.

O. K. Steinvall, H. Larsson, F. Gustafsson, T. R. Chevalier, Å. Persson, L. M. Klasen, “Characterizing targets and backgrounds for 3D laser radars,” in Military Remote Sensing, G. W. Kamerman, D. V. Willetts, eds., Proc. SPIE5613, 51–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liquori, V.

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Marino, R.

R. Heinrichs, B. Aull, R. Marino, D. Fouche, A. McIntosh, J. Zayhowski, T. Stephens, M. O’Brien, M. Albota, “Three-dimensional laser radar with APD arrays,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 106–117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

McAlister, D.

J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, D. McAlister, T. Isshiki, R. Sudharsanan, M. Krainak, “Large area AlAs3InGaAs single photon counting avalanche photodiodes,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications IX, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE5412, 126–136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, A.

R. Heinrichs, B. Aull, R. Marino, D. Fouche, A. McIntosh, J. Zayhowski, T. Stephens, M. O’Brien, M. Albota, “Three-dimensional laser radar with APD arrays,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 106–117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mizerka, L.

Mooney, J.

Musienko, Y.

A. Dorokhov, A. Glauser, Y. Musienko, C. Regenfus, S. Reucroft, J. Swain, “Recent progress on cooled avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1351–1357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O’Brien, M.

M. Albota, R. Heinrichs, D. Kocher, D. Fouche, B. Player, M. O’Brien, B. Aull, J. Zayhowski, J. Mooney, B. Willard, R. Carlson, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radar with a photon-counting avalanche photodiode array and microchip laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7671–7678 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Heinrichs, B. Aull, R. Marino, D. Fouche, A. McIntosh, J. Zayhowski, T. Stephens, M. O’Brien, M. Albota, “Three-dimensional laser radar with APD arrays,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 106–117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Persson, Å.

O. K. Steinvall, H. Larsson, F. Gustafsson, T. R. Chevalier, Å. Persson, L. M. Klasen, “Characterizing targets and backgrounds for 3D laser radars,” in Military Remote Sensing, G. W. Kamerman, D. V. Willetts, eds., Proc. SPIE5613, 51–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Pines, M.

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Player, B.

Randall, V.

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Reeder, R.

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Regenfus, C.

A. Dorokhov, A. Glauser, Y. Musienko, C. Regenfus, S. Reucroft, J. Swain, “Recent progress on cooled avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1351–1357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Reucroft, S.

A. Dorokhov, A. Glauser, Y. Musienko, C. Regenfus, S. Reucroft, J. Swain, “Recent progress on cooled avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1351–1357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Richmond, R.

R. Richmond, R. Stettner, J. Glessner, “Eye safe laser radar focal plane array for three-dimensional imaging,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications V, G. Kamerman, U. Singh, C. Werner, V. Molebny, eds., Proc. SPIE4035, 172–178 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rosbeck, J.

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, B.

Sen, S.

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Steinvall, O. K.

O. K. Steinvall, H. Larsson, F. Gustafsson, T. R. Chevalier, Å. Persson, L. M. Klasen, “Characterizing targets and backgrounds for 3D laser radars,” in Military Remote Sensing, G. W. Kamerman, D. V. Willetts, eds., Proc. SPIE5613, 51–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, T.

R. Heinrichs, B. Aull, R. Marino, D. Fouche, A. McIntosh, J. Zayhowski, T. Stephens, M. O’Brien, M. Albota, “Three-dimensional laser radar with APD arrays,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 106–117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stettner, R.

R. Richmond, R. Stettner, J. Glessner, “Eye safe laser radar focal plane array for three-dimensional imaging,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications V, G. Kamerman, U. Singh, C. Werner, V. Molebny, eds., Proc. SPIE4035, 172–178 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sudharsanan, R.

J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, D. McAlister, T. Isshiki, R. Sudharsanan, M. Krainak, “Large area AlAs3InGaAs single photon counting avalanche photodiodes,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications IX, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE5412, 126–136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Swain, J.

A. Dorokhov, A. Glauser, Y. Musienko, C. Regenfus, S. Reucroft, J. Swain, “Recent progress on cooled avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1351–1357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Templeton, G.

Trotta, P.

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Trussell, W.

B. Schilling, D. Barr, G. Templeton, L. Mizerka, W. Trussell, “Multiple-return laser radar for three-dimensional imaging through obscurations,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2791–2799 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wetzel, P.

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Willard, B.

Zayhowski, J.

M. Albota, R. Heinrichs, D. Kocher, D. Fouche, B. Player, M. O’Brien, B. Aull, J. Zayhowski, J. Mooney, B. Willard, R. Carlson, “Three-dimensional imaging laser radar with a photon-counting avalanche photodiode array and microchip laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 7671–7678 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Heinrichs, B. Aull, R. Marino, D. Fouche, A. McIntosh, J. Zayhowski, T. Stephens, M. O’Brien, M. Albota, “Three-dimensional laser radar with APD arrays,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 106–117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

A. Dorokhov, A. Glauser, Y. Musienko, C. Regenfus, S. Reucroft, J. Swain, “Recent progress on cooled avalanche photodiodes for single photon detection,” J. Mod. Opt. 51, 1351–1357 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

J. Boisvert, G. Kinsey, D. McAlister, T. Isshiki, R. Sudharsanan, M. Krainak, “Large area AlAs3InGaAs single photon counting avalanche photodiodes,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications IX, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE5412, 126–136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. Richmond, R. Stettner, J. Glessner, “Eye safe laser radar focal plane array for three-dimensional imaging,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications V, G. Kamerman, U. Singh, C. Werner, V. Molebny, eds., Proc. SPIE4035, 172–178 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Halmos, M. Jack, J. Asbrock, C. Anderson, S. Bailey, G. Chapman, E. Gordon, P. Herning, M. Kalisher, L. Klaras, K. Kosai, V. Liquori, M. Pines, V. Randall, R. Reeder, J. Rosbeck, S. Sen, P. Trotta, P. Wetzel, A. Hunter, J. Jensen, T. DeLyon, W. Trussell, A. Hutchinson, R. Balcerak, “3-D flash ladar at Raytheon,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 84–97 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Heinrichs, B. Aull, R. Marino, D. Fouche, A. McIntosh, J. Zayhowski, T. Stephens, M. O’Brien, M. Albota, “Three-dimensional laser radar with APD arrays,” in Laser Radar Technology and Applications VI, G. W. Kamerman, ed., Proc. SPIE4377, 106–117 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Kingston, Detection of Optical and Infrared Radiation (Springer-Verlag, 1978).
[CrossRef]

O. K. Steinvall, H. Larsson, F. Gustafsson, T. R. Chevalier, Å. Persson, L. M. Klasen, “Characterizing targets and backgrounds for 3D laser radars,” in Military Remote Sensing, G. W. Kamerman, D. V. Willetts, eds., Proc. SPIE5613, 51–66 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Average number of primary electrons S generated by the reflected laser pulse versus target placement for three transmitted pulse energies.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Probability that the returned laser pulse will trigger the detector versus target placement. Solid curves, proportional-mode detectors. The other curves are for Geiger-mode detectors with different noise rates: q = 104, dashed–dotted curves; q = 105, dashed curves; q = 106, dotted curves. The sets of curves that belong to the same pulse energy are equal at k = 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Probability that the detector will not trigger in the measurement gate versus target placement for several noise rates and laser pulse energies. The probabilities are equal for the two types of detector.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Probability that noise will create a ghost point versus target placement. Solid curves, proportional-mode detectors. The other lines are for Geiger-mode detectors with different transmitted pulse energies: Et = 100 μJ, dashed–dotted curves; Et = 50 μJ, dotted curves; Et = 10 μJ, dashed curves. Probabilities above 1 means that on average more than one ghost point will be created per laser shot. This may happen for the proportional-mode detector but is impossible for the Geiger-mode detector.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Probability that the target will be detected by processing 10 laser shots and requiring at least 3 events in the target range bin to count the target as detected. Solid curves, proportional-mode detectors. The other curves are for Geiger-mode detectors with different noise rates: q = 104, dashed–dotted curves; q = 105, dashed curves; q = 106, dotted curves.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Probability of detecting the target when coincidence processing is used. Solid curves are for proportional-mode detectors, and dashed curves are for Geiger-mode detectors. The pulse energy is Et = 10 μJ, and the noise rate is q = 106. The curves are labeled with the number of measurements used for processing while the detection threshold was kept fixed at three events.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Probability of generating ghost points when coincidence processing is used. Solid curves are for proportional-mode detectors, and dashed are for Geiger-mode detectors. The pulse energy is Et = 10 μJ, and the noise rate is q = 106. The curves are labeled with the number of measurements used for the processing while the detection threshold was kept fixed at three events.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Single pulse detection probabilities for a target hidden behind a semitransparent obscuration for several transmitted pulse energies. The target’s effective reflectivity has been lowered because of the attenuation in the obscuration. Solid curves are for proportional-mode detectors and dashed curves are for Geiger-mode detectors.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Penetration of Airborne Laser Radar Through a Forest

Equations (18)

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S = E t γ h ν ρ A IFOV A Spot A R π r 2 T 2 = E t h ν γ η ( φ θ ) 2 exp ( - 2 r V ) ρ d 2 4 r 2 ,
P m ( t 1 , t 2 ) = 1 m ! [ M ( t 1 , t 2 ) ] m exp [ - M ( t 1 , t 2 ) ] , M ( t 1 , t 2 ) = t 1 t 2 f ( t ) d t .
P A = exp ( - q b t ) .
P B = 1 - exp ( - q b t ) .
R B = b [ 1 - exp ( - qt ) ] .
P C = exp [ - q ( k - 1 ) t ] [ 1 - exp ( - S - q t ) ]
P C = 1 - exp ( - S - q t ) .
P D = exp ( - q b t - S ) .
P E = { 1 - exp [ - q ( k - 1 ) t ] } + exp ( - q k t - S ) × { 1 - exp [ - q ( b - k ) t ] } .
P E = 1 - exp [ - ( b - 1 ) q t ] .
R E = ( b - 1 ) [ 1 - exp ( - q t ) ] ,
x j = exp [ - ( j - 1 ) q t ] [ 1 - exp ( - q t ) ] , j < k , x j = exp [ - ( k - 1 ) q t ] [ 1 - exp ( - S - q t ) ] , j = k , x j = exp [ - ( j - 1 ) q t - S ] [ 1 - exp ( - q t ) ] , j > k .
P = 1 - i = 0 N - 1 U ! ( U - i ) ! i ! ( 1 - x j ) U - i x j i .
P Det = 1 - i = 0 N - 1 U ! ( U - i ) ! i ! ( 1 - x k ) U - i x k i
P Noise = j = 1 k - 1 [ 1 - i = 0 N - 1 U ! ( U - i ) ! i ! ( 1 - x j ) U - i x j i ] + j = k + 1 b [ 1 - i = 0 N - 1 U ! ( U - i ) ! i ! ( 1 - x j ) U - i x j i ] .
P Noise , max < ( b - 1 ) { 1 - i = 0 N - 1 U ! ( U - i ) ! i ! × [ exp ( - q t ) ] U - i [ 1 - exp ( - q t ) ] i } .
x j = 1 - exp ( - q t ) , j k , x j = 1 - exp ( - S - q t ) , j = k .
P 2 = exp [ - q ( k - 1 ) t - S 1 ] [ 1 - exp ( - S 2 - q t ) ] .

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