Abstract

The use of metal 2D subwavelength structures (SWSs) is a promising solution for all those applications where a selective emission from a thermal source is desirable, e.g., photovoltaic and blackbody emission. The investigation of the SWS’s photonic bandgap properties is challenging, especially for the infrared and visible spectra, where the fabrication difficulties have always represented an obstacle. In this paper, the anodization of aluminum films as a self-assembly method for the SWS fabrication is proposed. A rigorous calculation of 2D SWSs of gold having high absorptivity in the visible and low absorptivity in the NIR, their fabrication by DC-sputtering deposition through anodic porous alumina templates, and their optical and topographic characterization are presented.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. M. Cornelius, J. P. Dowling, “Modification of Planck black body radiation by photonic band-gap structures,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4736 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Ferber, J. Aschaber, C. Hebling, A. Heinzel, R. Wiehle, M. Zenker, J. Luther, “Microstructured tungsten surfaces as selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic systems,” presented at the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Glasgow, 1–5 May 2000.
  3. M. G. Moharam, E. B. Grann, D. A. Pommet, T. K. Gaylord, “Formulation for stable and efficient implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis of binary gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1068–1076 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Moharam, D. Pommet, E. Grann, “Stable implementation of the rigorous coupled-wave analysis for surface-relief gratings: enhanced transmittance matrix approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1077–1086 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Lalanne, G. Morris, “Highly improved convergence of the coupled-wave method for TM polarization,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 779–784 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50–420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6023–6026 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50–420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6023–6026 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. K. Nielsch, F. Muller, A.-P. Li, U. Gosele, “Uniform nickel deposition into ordered alumina pores by pulsed electrodeposition,” Adv. Mater. 12, 582–586 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, New York, 1991).
  10. J. T. Londergan, J. Carini, D. Murdock, Binding and Scattering in Two Dimensional Systems; Applications to Quantum Wires, Waveguide and Photonic Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin , 1999).

2000

K. Nielsch, F. Muller, A.-P. Li, U. Gosele, “Uniform nickel deposition into ordered alumina pores by pulsed electrodeposition,” Adv. Mater. 12, 582–586 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. M. Cornelius, J. P. Dowling, “Modification of Planck black body radiation by photonic band-gap structures,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4736 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50–420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50–420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996

1995

Aschaber, J.

J. Ferber, J. Aschaber, C. Hebling, A. Heinzel, R. Wiehle, M. Zenker, J. Luther, “Microstructured tungsten surfaces as selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic systems,” presented at the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Glasgow, 1–5 May 2000.

Birner, A.

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50–420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50–420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carini, J.

J. T. Londergan, J. Carini, D. Murdock, Binding and Scattering in Two Dimensional Systems; Applications to Quantum Wires, Waveguide and Photonic Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin , 1999).

Cornelius, C. M.

C. M. Cornelius, J. P. Dowling, “Modification of Planck black body radiation by photonic band-gap structures,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4736 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dowling, J. P.

C. M. Cornelius, J. P. Dowling, “Modification of Planck black body radiation by photonic band-gap structures,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4736 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ferber, J.

J. Ferber, J. Aschaber, C. Hebling, A. Heinzel, R. Wiehle, M. Zenker, J. Luther, “Microstructured tungsten surfaces as selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic systems,” presented at the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Glasgow, 1–5 May 2000.

Gaylord, T. K.

Gosele, U.

K. Nielsch, F. Muller, A.-P. Li, U. Gosele, “Uniform nickel deposition into ordered alumina pores by pulsed electrodeposition,” Adv. Mater. 12, 582–586 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50–420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50–420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Grann, E.

Grann, E. B.

Hebling, C.

J. Ferber, J. Aschaber, C. Hebling, A. Heinzel, R. Wiehle, M. Zenker, J. Luther, “Microstructured tungsten surfaces as selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic systems,” presented at the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Glasgow, 1–5 May 2000.

Heinzel, A.

J. Ferber, J. Aschaber, C. Hebling, A. Heinzel, R. Wiehle, M. Zenker, J. Luther, “Microstructured tungsten surfaces as selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic systems,” presented at the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Glasgow, 1–5 May 2000.

Lalanne, P.

Li, A. P.

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50–420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50–420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, A.-P.

K. Nielsch, F. Muller, A.-P. Li, U. Gosele, “Uniform nickel deposition into ordered alumina pores by pulsed electrodeposition,” Adv. Mater. 12, 582–586 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Londergan, J. T.

J. T. Londergan, J. Carini, D. Murdock, Binding and Scattering in Two Dimensional Systems; Applications to Quantum Wires, Waveguide and Photonic Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin , 1999).

Luther, J.

J. Ferber, J. Aschaber, C. Hebling, A. Heinzel, R. Wiehle, M. Zenker, J. Luther, “Microstructured tungsten surfaces as selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic systems,” presented at the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Glasgow, 1–5 May 2000.

Moharam, M.

Moharam, M. G.

Morris, G.

Muller, F.

K. Nielsch, F. Muller, A.-P. Li, U. Gosele, “Uniform nickel deposition into ordered alumina pores by pulsed electrodeposition,” Adv. Mater. 12, 582–586 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50–420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50–420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Murdock, D.

J. T. Londergan, J. Carini, D. Murdock, Binding and Scattering in Two Dimensional Systems; Applications to Quantum Wires, Waveguide and Photonic Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin , 1999).

Nielsch, K.

K. Nielsch, F. Muller, A.-P. Li, U. Gosele, “Uniform nickel deposition into ordered alumina pores by pulsed electrodeposition,” Adv. Mater. 12, 582–586 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50–420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50–420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pommet, D.

Pommet, D. A.

Wiehle, R.

J. Ferber, J. Aschaber, C. Hebling, A. Heinzel, R. Wiehle, M. Zenker, J. Luther, “Microstructured tungsten surfaces as selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic systems,” presented at the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Glasgow, 1–5 May 2000.

Zenker, M.

J. Ferber, J. Aschaber, C. Hebling, A. Heinzel, R. Wiehle, M. Zenker, J. Luther, “Microstructured tungsten surfaces as selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic systems,” presented at the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Glasgow, 1–5 May 2000.

Adv. Mater.

K. Nielsch, F. Muller, A.-P. Li, U. Gosele, “Uniform nickel deposition into ordered alumina pores by pulsed electrodeposition,” Adv. Mater. 12, 582–586 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50–420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Li, F. Muller, A. Birner, K. Nielsch, U. Gosele, “Hexagonal pore arrays with a 50–420 nm interpore distance formed by self-organization in anodic alumina,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 6023–6026 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A

Phys. Rev. A

C. M. Cornelius, J. P. Dowling, “Modification of Planck black body radiation by photonic band-gap structures,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 4736 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Ferber, J. Aschaber, C. Hebling, A. Heinzel, R. Wiehle, M. Zenker, J. Luther, “Microstructured tungsten surfaces as selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic systems,” presented at the 16th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference and Exhibition, Glasgow, 1–5 May 2000.

E. D. Palik, ed., Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, New York, 1991).

J. T. Londergan, J. Carini, D. Murdock, Binding and Scattering in Two Dimensional Systems; Applications to Quantum Wires, Waveguide and Photonic Crystals (Springer-Verlag, Berlin , 1999).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reflectivity curves of single diffraction orders produced by a beam of wavelength 550 nm are shown for two particular square symmetry 2D SWSs of tungsten, and against the beam angle of incidence. Reflectivity is defined as the percentage of the incident beam energy reflected by the structure. (a) A SWS made up of 0.33λ deep square holes of sides 0.75d (where d is the structure period). (b) A SWS made up of 0.38λ deep circular holes of radius 0.4d (where d is the structure period and λ is the wavelength). In both cases, when the incidence angle is higher than 10 degrees, the negative-first diffraction order is not evanescent anymore, but is reflected by the structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated spectral reflectivity curves, R(λ). Each pictured curve corresponds with a 2D Au-SWS-1 and a 2D Au-SWS-2, whereas the pillar height of the first type structure is equal to the hole depth of the second one. Each curve corresponds with a specific feature height/depth.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images of the fabricated 2D Au-SWS. The images show a rhombic symmetry 2D Au-SWS made up of pillars 700 nm high, spaced about 150 nm from each other and of 250 nm diameter circular base: (a) top view, wide area, (b) a detail from a top view, and (c) a 3D image.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectral reflectivity curves. C-curves represent the reflectivity calculated by seventh-order RCWA, while M curves are measurements. The diamond marked curve is the calculated reflectivity of a gold flat surface, while the nonmarked bold curve is the relative measured curve. The line marked with triangles shows the calculated reflectivity of a 2D Au-SWS-1 made of a 700 nm high pillar. The dashed curve is the measured reflectivity of the 2D Au-SWS prototype.

Metrics