Abstract

The acousto-optic effect in a bent fiber is studied experimentally and numerically by using the scalar finite-element method. The resulting transmission spectra show that new mode-coupling peaks appear due to the breaking of the mode spatial symmetry. The strength of new peaks increases as the fiber-bending curvature increases with a redshift or blueshift in wavelength, strongly depending on the orientation of fiber bending with respect to the acoustic-wave vibration direction.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, D. O. Culverhouse, “The acousto-optic effect in single-mode fiber tapers and couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2519–2529 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. S. Kim, S. H. Yun, H. K. Kim, N. Park, B. Y. Kim, “Actively gain flattened erbium doped fiber amplifier over 35 nm by using all fiber acoustooptic tunable filters,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 790–792 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. Z. Dashi, Q. Li, H. P. Lee, “All-fiber narrowband polarization controller based on coherent acousto-optic mode coupling in single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2426–2428 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Q. Li, X. Liu, J. Peng, B. Zhou, E. R. Lyons, H. P. Lee, “Highly efficient acoustooptic tunable filter based on cladding etched single-mode fiber,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 337–339 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Q. Li, A. A. Au, C. Lin, E. R. Lyons, H. P. Lee, “An efficient all-fiber variable optical attenuator via acoustooptic mode coupling,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1563–1565 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Li, T. Liu, C. Wen, Y. C. Soh, Y. Zhang, “All-fiber acousto-optical tunable filter with loop structure,” Opt. Eng. 42, 3409–3410 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Diez, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, “High strain-induced wavelength tunability in tapered fibre acousto-optic filters,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1187–1188 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. S. Lee, H. S. Kim, I. K. Hwang, S. H. Yun, “Highly-efficient broadband acoustic transducer for all-fiber acousto-optic devices,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1309–1310 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. H. Yun, H. S. Kim, “Resonance in fiber-based acoustooptic devices via acoustic radiation to air,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 147–149 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. A. Au, Q. Li, C. Lin, H. P. Lee, “Effects of acoustic reflection on the performance of a cladding-etched all-fiber acoustooptic variable optical attenuator,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 150–152 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 130–135 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Zhao, X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, “Bend sensors with direction recognition based on long-period gratings written in D-shaped fiber,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5425–5428 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. Q. Li, X. Liu, H. P. Lee, “Demonstration of narrow-band acoustooptic tunable filters on dispersion-enhanced single-mode fibers,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1551–1553 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Renner, “Bending losses of coated single-mode fibers: a simple approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 544–551 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Y. Murakami, H. Tsuchiya, “Bending losses of coated single-mode optical fibers,” J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 495–501 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. V. Steblina, J. D. Love, R. H. Stolen, J.-S. Wang, “Cladding mode degeneracy in bent W-fibres beyond cutoff,” Opt. Commun. 156, 271–274 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fevrier, P. Roy, J.-L. Auguste, J.-M. Blondy, “Long period grating filters fabricated with electric arc in dual concentric core fibers,” Opt. Commun. 225, 47–53 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (5)

S. H. Yun, H. S. Kim, “Resonance in fiber-based acoustooptic devices via acoustic radiation to air,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 147–149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Au, Q. Li, C. Lin, H. P. Lee, “Effects of acoustic reflection on the performance of a cladding-etched all-fiber acoustooptic variable optical attenuator,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 150–152 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 130–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhao, X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, “Bend sensors with direction recognition based on long-period gratings written in D-shaped fiber,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5425–5428 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Z. Dashi, Q. Li, H. P. Lee, “All-fiber narrowband polarization controller based on coherent acousto-optic mode coupling in single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2426–2428 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

S. S. Lee, H. S. Kim, I. K. Hwang, S. H. Yun, “Highly-efficient broadband acoustic transducer for all-fiber acousto-optic devices,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1309–1310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fevrier, P. Roy, J.-L. Auguste, J.-M. Blondy, “Long period grating filters fabricated with electric arc in dual concentric core fibers,” Opt. Commun. 225, 47–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Li, T. Liu, C. Wen, Y. C. Soh, Y. Zhang, “All-fiber acousto-optical tunable filter with loop structure,” Opt. Eng. 42, 3409–3410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

Q. Li, X. Liu, J. Peng, B. Zhou, E. R. Lyons, H. P. Lee, “Highly efficient acoustooptic tunable filter based on cladding etched single-mode fiber,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 337–339 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, A. A. Au, C. Lin, E. R. Lyons, H. P. Lee, “An efficient all-fiber variable optical attenuator via acoustooptic mode coupling,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1563–1565 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, X. Liu, H. P. Lee, “Demonstration of narrow-band acoustooptic tunable filters on dispersion-enhanced single-mode fibers,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1551–1553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. Diez, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, “High strain-induced wavelength tunability in tapered fibre acousto-optic filters,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1187–1188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

V. V. Steblina, J. D. Love, R. H. Stolen, J.-S. Wang, “Cladding mode degeneracy in bent W-fibres beyond cutoff,” Opt. Commun. 156, 271–274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kim, S. H. Yun, H. K. Kim, N. Park, B. Y. Kim, “Actively gain flattened erbium doped fiber amplifier over 35 nm by using all fiber acoustooptic tunable filters,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 790–792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, D. O. Culverhouse, “The acousto-optic effect in single-mode fiber tapers and couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2519–2529 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. Renner, “Bending losses of coated single-mode fibers: a simple approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 544–551 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

Y. Murakami, H. Tsuchiya, “Bending losses of coated single-mode optical fibers,” J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 495–501 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Allsop, T.

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 130–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Au, A. A.

A. A. Au, Q. Li, C. Lin, H. P. Lee, “Effects of acoustic reflection on the performance of a cladding-etched all-fiber acoustooptic variable optical attenuator,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 150–152 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, A. A. Au, C. Lin, E. R. Lyons, H. P. Lee, “An efficient all-fiber variable optical attenuator via acoustooptic mode coupling,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1563–1565 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Auguste, J.-L.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fevrier, P. Roy, J.-L. Auguste, J.-M. Blondy, “Long period grating filters fabricated with electric arc in dual concentric core fibers,” Opt. Commun. 225, 47–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. S.

Bennion, I.

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 130–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. Zhao, X. Chen, K. Zhou, L. Zhang, I. Bennion, W. N. MacPherson, J. S. Barton, J. D. C. Jones, “Bend sensors with direction recognition based on long-period gratings written in D-shaped fiber,” Appl. Opt. 43, 5425–5428 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A.

A. Diez, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, “High strain-induced wavelength tunability in tapered fibre acousto-optic filters,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1187–1188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, D. O. Culverhouse, “The acousto-optic effect in single-mode fiber tapers and couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2519–2529 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Blondy, J.-M.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fevrier, P. Roy, J.-L. Auguste, J.-M. Blondy, “Long period grating filters fabricated with electric arc in dual concentric core fibers,” Opt. Commun. 225, 47–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X.

Culverhouse, D. O.

T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, D. O. Culverhouse, “The acousto-optic effect in single-mode fiber tapers and couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2519–2529 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dashi, P. Z.

Diez, A.

A. Diez, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, “High strain-induced wavelength tunability in tapered fibre acousto-optic filters,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1187–1188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Earthgrowl-Gould, T.

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 130–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fevrier, S.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fevrier, P. Roy, J.-L. Auguste, J.-M. Blondy, “Long period grating filters fabricated with electric arc in dual concentric core fibers,” Opt. Commun. 225, 47–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gillooly, A.

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 130–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Humbert, G.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fevrier, P. Roy, J.-L. Auguste, J.-M. Blondy, “Long period grating filters fabricated with electric arc in dual concentric core fibers,” Opt. Commun. 225, 47–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, I. K.

S. S. Lee, H. S. Kim, I. K. Hwang, S. H. Yun, “Highly-efficient broadband acoustic transducer for all-fiber acousto-optic devices,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1309–1310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jones, J. D. C.

Kakarantzas, G.

A. Diez, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, “High strain-induced wavelength tunability in tapered fibre acousto-optic filters,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1187–1188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. Y.

H. S. Kim, S. H. Yun, H. K. Kim, N. Park, B. Y. Kim, “Actively gain flattened erbium doped fiber amplifier over 35 nm by using all fiber acoustooptic tunable filters,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 790–792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. K.

H. S. Kim, S. H. Yun, H. K. Kim, N. Park, B. Y. Kim, “Actively gain flattened erbium doped fiber amplifier over 35 nm by using all fiber acoustooptic tunable filters,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 790–792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H. S.

S. H. Yun, H. S. Kim, “Resonance in fiber-based acoustooptic devices via acoustic radiation to air,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 147–149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Lee, H. S. Kim, I. K. Hwang, S. H. Yun, “Highly-efficient broadband acoustic transducer for all-fiber acousto-optic devices,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1309–1310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kim, S. H. Yun, H. K. Kim, N. Park, B. Y. Kim, “Actively gain flattened erbium doped fiber amplifier over 35 nm by using all fiber acoustooptic tunable filters,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 790–792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. P.

P. Z. Dashi, Q. Li, H. P. Lee, “All-fiber narrowband polarization controller based on coherent acousto-optic mode coupling in single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2426–2428 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Au, Q. Li, C. Lin, H. P. Lee, “Effects of acoustic reflection on the performance of a cladding-etched all-fiber acoustooptic variable optical attenuator,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 150–152 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, X. Liu, H. P. Lee, “Demonstration of narrow-band acoustooptic tunable filters on dispersion-enhanced single-mode fibers,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1551–1553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, X. Liu, J. Peng, B. Zhou, E. R. Lyons, H. P. Lee, “Highly efficient acoustooptic tunable filter based on cladding etched single-mode fiber,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 337–339 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, A. A. Au, C. Lin, E. R. Lyons, H. P. Lee, “An efficient all-fiber variable optical attenuator via acoustooptic mode coupling,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1563–1565 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. S.

S. S. Lee, H. S. Kim, I. K. Hwang, S. H. Yun, “Highly-efficient broadband acoustic transducer for all-fiber acousto-optic devices,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1309–1310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, H.

H. Li, T. Liu, C. Wen, Y. C. Soh, Y. Zhang, “All-fiber acousto-optical tunable filter with loop structure,” Opt. Eng. 42, 3409–3410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

P. Z. Dashi, Q. Li, H. P. Lee, “All-fiber narrowband polarization controller based on coherent acousto-optic mode coupling in single-mode fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 2426–2428 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Au, Q. Li, C. Lin, H. P. Lee, “Effects of acoustic reflection on the performance of a cladding-etched all-fiber acoustooptic variable optical attenuator,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 150–152 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, X. Liu, H. P. Lee, “Demonstration of narrow-band acoustooptic tunable filters on dispersion-enhanced single-mode fibers,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1551–1553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, A. A. Au, C. Lin, E. R. Lyons, H. P. Lee, “An efficient all-fiber variable optical attenuator via acoustooptic mode coupling,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1563–1565 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, X. Liu, J. Peng, B. Zhou, E. R. Lyons, H. P. Lee, “Highly efficient acoustooptic tunable filter based on cladding etched single-mode fiber,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 337–339 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.

A. A. Au, Q. Li, C. Lin, H. P. Lee, “Effects of acoustic reflection on the performance of a cladding-etched all-fiber acoustooptic variable optical attenuator,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 150–152 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, A. A. Au, C. Lin, E. R. Lyons, H. P. Lee, “An efficient all-fiber variable optical attenuator via acoustooptic mode coupling,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1563–1565 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T.

H. Li, T. Liu, C. Wen, Y. C. Soh, Y. Zhang, “All-fiber acousto-optical tunable filter with loop structure,” Opt. Eng. 42, 3409–3410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

Q. Li, X. Liu, J. Peng, B. Zhou, E. R. Lyons, H. P. Lee, “Highly efficient acoustooptic tunable filter based on cladding etched single-mode fiber,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 337–339 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, X. Liu, H. P. Lee, “Demonstration of narrow-band acoustooptic tunable filters on dispersion-enhanced single-mode fibers,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1551–1553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Love, J. D.

V. V. Steblina, J. D. Love, R. H. Stolen, J.-S. Wang, “Cladding mode degeneracy in bent W-fibres beyond cutoff,” Opt. Commun. 156, 271–274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lyons, E. R.

Q. Li, X. Liu, J. Peng, B. Zhou, E. R. Lyons, H. P. Lee, “Highly efficient acoustooptic tunable filter based on cladding etched single-mode fiber,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 337–339 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, A. A. Au, C. Lin, E. R. Lyons, H. P. Lee, “An efficient all-fiber variable optical attenuator via acoustooptic mode coupling,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1563–1565 (2002).
[CrossRef]

MacPherson, W. N.

Malki, A.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fevrier, P. Roy, J.-L. Auguste, J.-M. Blondy, “Long period grating filters fabricated with electric arc in dual concentric core fibers,” Opt. Commun. 225, 47–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mezentsev, V.

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 130–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Murakami, Y.

Y. Murakami, H. Tsuchiya, “Bending losses of coated single-mode optical fibers,” J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 495–501 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Neal, R.

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 130–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Park, N.

H. S. Kim, S. H. Yun, H. K. Kim, N. Park, B. Y. Kim, “Actively gain flattened erbium doped fiber amplifier over 35 nm by using all fiber acoustooptic tunable filters,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 790–792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peng, J.

Q. Li, X. Liu, J. Peng, B. Zhou, E. R. Lyons, H. P. Lee, “Highly efficient acoustooptic tunable filter based on cladding etched single-mode fiber,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 337–339 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Renner, H.

H. Renner, “Bending losses of coated single-mode fibers: a simple approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 544–551 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Roy, P.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fevrier, P. Roy, J.-L. Auguste, J.-M. Blondy, “Long period grating filters fabricated with electric arc in dual concentric core fibers,” Opt. Commun. 225, 47–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. S. J.

A. Diez, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, “High strain-induced wavelength tunability in tapered fibre acousto-optic filters,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1187–1188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, D. O. Culverhouse, “The acousto-optic effect in single-mode fiber tapers and couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2519–2529 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Soh, Y. C.

H. Li, T. Liu, C. Wen, Y. C. Soh, Y. Zhang, “All-fiber acousto-optical tunable filter with loop structure,” Opt. Eng. 42, 3409–3410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steblina, V. V.

V. V. Steblina, J. D. Love, R. H. Stolen, J.-S. Wang, “Cladding mode degeneracy in bent W-fibres beyond cutoff,” Opt. Commun. 156, 271–274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

V. V. Steblina, J. D. Love, R. H. Stolen, J.-S. Wang, “Cladding mode degeneracy in bent W-fibres beyond cutoff,” Opt. Commun. 156, 271–274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, H.

Y. Murakami, H. Tsuchiya, “Bending losses of coated single-mode optical fibers,” J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 495–501 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.-S.

V. V. Steblina, J. D. Love, R. H. Stolen, J.-S. Wang, “Cladding mode degeneracy in bent W-fibres beyond cutoff,” Opt. Commun. 156, 271–274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 130–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wen, C.

H. Li, T. Liu, C. Wen, Y. C. Soh, Y. Zhang, “All-fiber acousto-optical tunable filter with loop structure,” Opt. Eng. 42, 3409–3410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yun, S. H.

S. H. Yun, H. S. Kim, “Resonance in fiber-based acoustooptic devices via acoustic radiation to air,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 147–149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Lee, H. S. Kim, I. K. Hwang, S. H. Yun, “Highly-efficient broadband acoustic transducer for all-fiber acousto-optic devices,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1309–1310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Kim, S. H. Yun, H. K. Kim, N. Park, B. Y. Kim, “Actively gain flattened erbium doped fiber amplifier over 35 nm by using all fiber acoustooptic tunable filters,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 790–792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, Y.

H. Li, T. Liu, C. Wen, Y. C. Soh, Y. Zhang, “All-fiber acousto-optical tunable filter with loop structure,” Opt. Eng. 42, 3409–3410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, D.

Zhou, B.

Q. Li, X. Liu, J. Peng, B. Zhou, E. R. Lyons, H. P. Lee, “Highly efficient acoustooptic tunable filter based on cladding etched single-mode fiber,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 337–339 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, K.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (2)

A. Diez, G. Kakarantzas, T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, “High strain-induced wavelength tunability in tapered fibre acousto-optic filters,” Electron. Lett. 36, 1187–1188 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Lee, H. S. Kim, I. K. Hwang, S. H. Yun, “Highly-efficient broadband acoustic transducer for all-fiber acousto-optic devices,” Electron. Lett. 39, 1309–1310 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (1)

T. Allsop, A. Gillooly, V. Mezentsev, T. Earthgrowl-Gould, R. Neal, D. J. Webb, I. Bennion, “Bending and orientational characteristics of long period gratings written in D-shaped optical fiber,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 53, 130–135 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

T. A. Birks, P. S. J. Russell, D. O. Culverhouse, “The acousto-optic effect in single-mode fiber tapers and couplers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2519–2529 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Renner, “Bending losses of coated single-mode fibers: a simple approach,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 544–551 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Quantum Electron. (1)

Y. Murakami, H. Tsuchiya, “Bending losses of coated single-mode optical fibers,” J. Quantum Electron. QE-14, 495–501 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

V. V. Steblina, J. D. Love, R. H. Stolen, J.-S. Wang, “Cladding mode degeneracy in bent W-fibres beyond cutoff,” Opt. Commun. 156, 271–274 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Fevrier, P. Roy, J.-L. Auguste, J.-M. Blondy, “Long period grating filters fabricated with electric arc in dual concentric core fibers,” Opt. Commun. 225, 47–53 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

H. Li, T. Liu, C. Wen, Y. C. Soh, Y. Zhang, “All-fiber acousto-optical tunable filter with loop structure,” Opt. Eng. 42, 3409–3410 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

H. S. Kim, S. H. Yun, H. K. Kim, N. Park, B. Y. Kim, “Actively gain flattened erbium doped fiber amplifier over 35 nm by using all fiber acoustooptic tunable filters,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 790–792 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, X. Liu, H. P. Lee, “Demonstration of narrow-band acoustooptic tunable filters on dispersion-enhanced single-mode fibers,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1551–1553 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, X. Liu, J. Peng, B. Zhou, E. R. Lyons, H. P. Lee, “Highly efficient acoustooptic tunable filter based on cladding etched single-mode fiber,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 337–339 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Li, A. A. Au, C. Lin, E. R. Lyons, H. P. Lee, “An efficient all-fiber variable optical attenuator via acoustooptic mode coupling,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 14, 1563–1565 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yun, H. S. Kim, “Resonance in fiber-based acoustooptic devices via acoustic radiation to air,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 147–149 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Au, Q. Li, C. Lin, H. P. Lee, “Effects of acoustic reflection on the performance of a cladding-etched all-fiber acoustooptic variable optical attenuator,” Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 150–152 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic arrangement of the experiment setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a), (b) Experimental and (c), (d) calculated transmission spectra under a range of curvature while the acoustic wave vibrates (a), (c) vertically and (b), (d) horizontally at 3.357 MHz.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a), (c) Calculated far-field patterns and (b), (d) the measured patterns at 14 cm away from the output fiber end. The curvature is 3 m−1, 5 m−1, 4 m−1, and 6 m−1 for (a), (b), (c), and (d) respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated effective indices for seventh (solid), eighth (dash), and ninth (dot) modes as the function of curvature at 1550 nm, and the corresponding mode distributions at bending curvature of 0, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.5 m−1 in the vertical plane.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated coupling coefficients for some different modes at wavelength 1550 nm as a function of curvature. Acoustic wave vibrates vertically (solid curve and labeled with y) or horizontally (dot curve and labeled with x).

Equations (1)

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n 2 ( x , y ) = n 0 2 ( x , y ) ( 1 - 2 y / Re ) ,

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