Abstract

We present what is to our knowledge the first demonstration of a potentially low-cost refractive-index sensor based on UV processing. A channel waveguide and a Bragg grating are defined in a single UV processing step, resulting in a buried structure with a well-defined grating period. A subsequent wet etch process located over the Bragg grating opens a sensing window in the device and reveals the grating structure. Sensitivity of as much as 5 × 10−6 was inferred from our device.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Mouvet, R. D. Harris, C. Maciag, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, A. Brecht, G. Gauglitz, A. Abuknesha, G. Ismail, “Determination of simazine in water samples by waveguide surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chim. Acta 338, 109–117 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. Lukosz, “Integrated optical chemical and direct biochemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 37–50 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, N. Fabricius, “Integrated optical Mach–Zehnder biosensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 583–592 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. J. Veldhuist, J. H. Berends, R. G. Heideman, P. V. Lambeck, “An integrated optical Bragg-reflector used as a chemo-optical sensor,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L23–L26 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Othonos, K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, 1999).
  6. G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, P. G. R. Smith, S. G. McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, R. I. Laming, “All-UV-written integrated planar Bragg gratings and channel waveguides through single-step direct grating writing,” in IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 151, 119–122 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Poumellec, P. Guenot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, J. F. Bayon, “UV induced densification during Bragg grating inscription in Ge:SiO2preforms,” Opt. Mater. 4, 441–449 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Nishii, H. Yamanaka, “Bragg gratings printed upon thin glass films by excimer laser irradiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6852–6856 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lettt. 16, 1149–1151 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  10. K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, A. Andreev, “A fibre Bragg grating refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757–764 (2001).
    [CrossRef]

2004

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, P. G. R. Smith, S. G. McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, R. I. Laming, “All-UV-written integrated planar Bragg gratings and channel waveguides through single-step direct grating writing,” in IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 151, 119–122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lettt. 16, 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, A. Andreev, “A fibre Bragg grating refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1998

B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, N. Fabricius, “Integrated optical Mach–Zehnder biosensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 583–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Veldhuist, J. H. Berends, R. G. Heideman, P. V. Lambeck, “An integrated optical Bragg-reflector used as a chemo-optical sensor,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L23–L26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

C. Mouvet, R. D. Harris, C. Maciag, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, A. Brecht, G. Gauglitz, A. Abuknesha, G. Ismail, “Determination of simazine in water samples by waveguide surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chim. Acta 338, 109–117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishii, H. Yamanaka, “Bragg gratings printed upon thin glass films by excimer laser irradiation and selective chemical etching,” Appl. Opt. 36, 6852–6856 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

W. Lukosz, “Integrated optical chemical and direct biochemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 37–50 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Poumellec, P. Guenot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, J. F. Bayon, “UV induced densification during Bragg grating inscription in Ge:SiO2preforms,” Opt. Mater. 4, 441–449 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Abuknesha, A.

C. Mouvet, R. D. Harris, C. Maciag, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, A. Brecht, G. Gauglitz, A. Abuknesha, G. Ismail, “Determination of simazine in water samples by waveguide surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chim. Acta 338, 109–117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Andreev, A.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, A. Andreev, “A fibre Bragg grating refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Bayon, J. F.

B. Poumellec, P. Guenot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, J. F. Bayon, “UV induced densification during Bragg grating inscription in Ge:SiO2preforms,” Opt. Mater. 4, 441–449 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Berends, J. H.

G. J. Veldhuist, J. H. Berends, R. G. Heideman, P. V. Lambeck, “An integrated optical Bragg-reflector used as a chemo-optical sensor,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L23–L26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bernage, P.

B. Poumellec, P. Guenot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, J. F. Bayon, “UV induced densification during Bragg grating inscription in Ge:SiO2preforms,” Opt. Mater. 4, 441–449 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bernini, R.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lettt. 16, 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bonar, J. R.

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, P. G. R. Smith, S. G. McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, R. I. Laming, “All-UV-written integrated planar Bragg gratings and channel waveguides through single-step direct grating writing,” in IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 151, 119–122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brecht, A.

C. Mouvet, R. D. Harris, C. Maciag, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, A. Brecht, G. Gauglitz, A. Abuknesha, G. Ismail, “Determination of simazine in water samples by waveguide surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chim. Acta 338, 109–117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cusano, A.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lettt. 16, 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cutolo, A.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lettt. 16, 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ecke, W.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, A. Andreev, “A fibre Bragg grating refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Emmerson, G. D.

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, P. G. R. Smith, S. G. McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, R. I. Laming, “All-UV-written integrated planar Bragg gratings and channel waveguides through single-step direct grating writing,” in IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 151, 119–122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fabricius, N.

Gauglitz, G.

C. Mouvet, R. D. Harris, C. Maciag, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, A. Brecht, G. Gauglitz, A. Abuknesha, G. Ismail, “Determination of simazine in water samples by waveguide surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chim. Acta 338, 109–117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gawith, C. B. E.

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, P. G. R. Smith, S. G. McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, R. I. Laming, “All-UV-written integrated planar Bragg gratings and channel waveguides through single-step direct grating writing,” in IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 151, 119–122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Giordano, M.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lettt. 16, 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Guenot, P.

B. Poumellec, P. Guenot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, J. F. Bayon, “UV induced densification during Bragg grating inscription in Ge:SiO2preforms,” Opt. Mater. 4, 441–449 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Harris, R. D.

C. Mouvet, R. D. Harris, C. Maciag, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, A. Brecht, G. Gauglitz, A. Abuknesha, G. Ismail, “Determination of simazine in water samples by waveguide surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chim. Acta 338, 109–117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heideman, R. G.

G. J. Veldhuist, J. H. Berends, R. G. Heideman, P. V. Lambeck, “An integrated optical Bragg-reflector used as a chemo-optical sensor,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L23–L26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hollenbach, U.

Iadicicco, A.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lettt. 16, 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ingenhoff, J.

Ismail, G.

C. Mouvet, R. D. Harris, C. Maciag, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, A. Brecht, G. Gauglitz, A. Abuknesha, G. Ismail, “Determination of simazine in water samples by waveguide surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chim. Acta 338, 109–117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kalli, K.

A. Othonos, K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, 1999).

Lambeck, P. V.

G. J. Veldhuist, J. H. Berends, R. G. Heideman, P. V. Lambeck, “An integrated optical Bragg-reflector used as a chemo-optical sensor,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L23–L26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R. I.

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, P. G. R. Smith, S. G. McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, R. I. Laming, “All-UV-written integrated planar Bragg gratings and channel waveguides through single-step direct grating writing,” in IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 151, 119–122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Luff, B. J.

B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, N. Fabricius, “Integrated optical Mach–Zehnder biosensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 583–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Mouvet, R. D. Harris, C. Maciag, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, A. Brecht, G. Gauglitz, A. Abuknesha, G. Ismail, “Determination of simazine in water samples by waveguide surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chim. Acta 338, 109–117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lukosz, W.

W. Lukosz, “Integrated optical chemical and direct biochemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 37–50 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maciag, C.

C. Mouvet, R. D. Harris, C. Maciag, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, A. Brecht, G. Gauglitz, A. Abuknesha, G. Ismail, “Determination of simazine in water samples by waveguide surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chim. Acta 338, 109–117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McMeekin, S. G.

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, P. G. R. Smith, S. G. McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, R. I. Laming, “All-UV-written integrated planar Bragg gratings and channel waveguides through single-step direct grating writing,” in IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 151, 119–122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mouvet, C.

C. Mouvet, R. D. Harris, C. Maciag, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, A. Brecht, G. Gauglitz, A. Abuknesha, G. Ismail, “Determination of simazine in water samples by waveguide surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chim. Acta 338, 109–117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, R.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, A. Andreev, “A fibre Bragg grating refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Niay, P.

B. Poumellec, P. Guenot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, J. F. Bayon, “UV induced densification during Bragg grating inscription in Ge:SiO2preforms,” Opt. Mater. 4, 441–449 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nishii, J.

Othonos, A.

A. Othonos, K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, 1999).

Piehler, J.

B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, N. Fabricius, “Integrated optical Mach–Zehnder biosensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 583–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Mouvet, R. D. Harris, C. Maciag, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, A. Brecht, G. Gauglitz, A. Abuknesha, G. Ismail, “Determination of simazine in water samples by waveguide surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chim. Acta 338, 109–117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Poumellec, B.

B. Poumellec, P. Guenot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, J. F. Bayon, “UV induced densification during Bragg grating inscription in Ge:SiO2preforms,” Opt. Mater. 4, 441–449 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Riant, I.

B. Poumellec, P. Guenot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, J. F. Bayon, “UV induced densification during Bragg grating inscription in Ge:SiO2preforms,” Opt. Mater. 4, 441–449 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sansonetti, P.

B. Poumellec, P. Guenot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, J. F. Bayon, “UV induced densification during Bragg grating inscription in Ge:SiO2preforms,” Opt. Mater. 4, 441–449 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, K.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, A. Andreev, “A fibre Bragg grating refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. G. R.

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, P. G. R. Smith, S. G. McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, R. I. Laming, “All-UV-written integrated planar Bragg gratings and channel waveguides through single-step direct grating writing,” in IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 151, 119–122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Veldhuist, G. J.

G. J. Veldhuist, J. H. Berends, R. G. Heideman, P. V. Lambeck, “An integrated optical Bragg-reflector used as a chemo-optical sensor,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L23–L26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Watts, S. P.

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, P. G. R. Smith, S. G. McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, R. I. Laming, “All-UV-written integrated planar Bragg gratings and channel waveguides through single-step direct grating writing,” in IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 151, 119–122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, U. Hollenbach, J. Ingenhoff, N. Fabricius, “Integrated optical Mach–Zehnder biosensor,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 583–592 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Mouvet, R. D. Harris, C. Maciag, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, A. Brecht, G. Gauglitz, A. Abuknesha, G. Ismail, “Determination of simazine in water samples by waveguide surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chim. Acta 338, 109–117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Williams, R. B.

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, P. G. R. Smith, S. G. McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, R. I. Laming, “All-UV-written integrated planar Bragg gratings and channel waveguides through single-step direct grating writing,” in IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 151, 119–122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Willsch, R.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, A. Andreev, “A fibre Bragg grating refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamanaka, H.

Anal. Chim. Acta

C. Mouvet, R. D. Harris, C. Maciag, B. J. Luff, J. S. Wilkinson, J. Piehler, A. Brecht, G. Gauglitz, A. Abuknesha, G. Ismail, “Determination of simazine in water samples by waveguide surface plasmon resonance,” Anal. Chim. Acta 338, 109–117 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lettt.

A. Iadicicco, A. Cusano, A. Cutolo, R. Bernini, M. Giordano, “Thinned fiber Bragg gratings as high sensitivity refractive index sensor,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lettt. 16, 1149–1151 (2004).
[CrossRef]

in IEE Proc. Optoelectron.

G. D. Emmerson, C. B. E. Gawith, S. P. Watts, R. B. Williams, P. G. R. Smith, S. G. McMeekin, J. R. Bonar, R. I. Laming, “All-UV-written integrated planar Bragg gratings and channel waveguides through single-step direct grating writing,” in IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 151, 119–122 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Meas. Sci. Technol.

K. Schroeder, W. Ecke, R. Mueller, R. Willsch, A. Andreev, “A fibre Bragg grating refractometer,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 12, 757–764 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Mater.

B. Poumellec, P. Guenot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, J. F. Bayon, “UV induced densification during Bragg grating inscription in Ge:SiO2preforms,” Opt. Mater. 4, 441–449 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pure Appl. Opt.

G. J. Veldhuist, J. H. Berends, R. G. Heideman, P. V. Lambeck, “An integrated optical Bragg-reflector used as a chemo-optical sensor,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, L23–L26 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

W. Lukosz, “Integrated optical chemical and direct biochemical sensors,” Sens. Actuators B 29, 37–50 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

A. Othonos, K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing (Artech House, 1999).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(i) DGW technique for defining channel waveguides and Bragg grating structures and (ii) the subsequent wet-etched widow forming the sensing window.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Scanning-electron microscope image providing the first reported direct observation of the Bragg grating structure defined through DGW.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the sensor configuration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependence on wavelength of the light reflected from the sensor as a function of the refractive index of the liquid in the sensing window.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence on wavelength of a comparable sample produced by use of the same response. A linear fit results in a temperature dependence of 11.1 ± 0.1 pm °C−1.

Equations (1)

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λ b = 2 n eff Λ ,

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