Abstract

A novel compact silicon-on-insulator- (SOI-)based multimode interference (MMI) coupler with bilevel taper structures was designed. The MMI section and the S-bend sections of the input–output waveguides are deeply etched. The input–output waveguides connecting to single-mode fibers or other photonic light circuits are etched shallowly to yield single-mode operation. A bilevel taper is introduced in the transition region between the shallowly and deeply etched regions. It is predicted theoretically that this design will not only improve the quality of the self-imaging in the MMI section but will also make the structure compact. Both the excess loss and the nonuniformity of the MMI coupler are reduced. By use of a three-dimensional beam propagation method, the performance of a 1 × 4 MMI coupler based on a SOI is simulated as a numerical example of the novel design. The simulated nonuniformity and the excess loss are approximately 0.0285 and 0.2 dB, respectively.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Chaudhari, D. S. Patil, D. K. Gautam, “A new technique for the reduction of the power loss in the Y-branch optical power splitter,” Opt. Commun. 193, 121–125 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Kishioka, “A design method to achieve wide wavelength-flattened responses in the directional coupler-type optical power splitters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1705–1715 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminow, R. C. Kistler, “Efficient multichannel integrated optics star coupler on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 241–243 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. L. Mašanović, E. J. Skogen, J. S. Barton, J. M. Sullivan, D. J. Blumenthal, L. A. Coldren, “Multimode interference-based two-stage 1 × 2 light splitter for compact photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 706–708 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, F. Arndt, K. Petermann, “0.1 dB/cm waveguide losses in single-mode SOI rib waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 647–648 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. L. Tsao, P. C. Peng, “Design of two-dimensional 1 × 16 and 1 × 32 array waveguide optical power splitters,” in Optoelectronic Materials and Devices II, Y.-K. Su, P. Bhattacharya, eds., Proc. SPIE4078, 373–382 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Wei, J. Yu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Shi, C. Fang, “Fabrication of 4 × 4 tapered MMI coupler with large cross section,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 466–468 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. D. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, B. Jalali, “Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi/multiplexer with extremely low-polarization sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 940–942 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Rajarajan, B. M. Azizur Rahman, T. Wongcharoen, K. T. V. Grattan, “Accurate analysis of MMI devices with two dimensional confinement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1078–2084 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. He, X. Ao, V. Romanov, “General properties of N× M self-images in a strongly confined rectangular waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4855–4859 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. S. Lvescan, A. Vonsovici, “The single-mode condition for semiconductor rib waveguides with large cross section,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1851–1853 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Xia, J. K. Thomson, M. R. Gokhale, P. V. Studenkov, J. Wei, W. Lin, S. R. Forrest, “An asymmetric twin-waveguide high-bandwidth photodiode using a lateral taper coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 845–847 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Popović, K. Wada, S. Akiyama, H. A. Haus, J. Michel, “Air trenches for sharp silica waveguide bends,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1762–1771 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Yamuchi, J. Shibayama, O. Saito, O. Uchiyama, H. Nakano, “Improved finite difference beam-propagation method based on the generalized Douglas scheme and its application to semivectorial analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2401–2406 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. M. Lorenzo, C. Llorente, E. J. Abril, M. Lopéz, “Improved self-imaging characteristics in 1 × N multimode couplers,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 65–69 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. Yin, J. Yang, X. Jiang, J. Li, M. Wang, “Improved approach to low-loss and high-uniformity MMI devices,” Opt. Commun. 181, 317–321 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Q. Wang, J. Lu, S. He, “Optimal design of a multimode interference coupler using a genetic algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 209, 131–136 (2002).
    [CrossRef]

2003

M. L. Mašanović, E. J. Skogen, J. S. Barton, J. M. Sullivan, D. J. Blumenthal, L. A. Coldren, “Multimode interference-based two-stage 1 × 2 light splitter for compact photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 706–708 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. He, X. Ao, V. Romanov, “General properties of N× M self-images in a strongly confined rectangular waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4855–4859 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

M. Popović, K. Wada, S. Akiyama, H. A. Haus, J. Michel, “Air trenches for sharp silica waveguide bends,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20, 1762–1771 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Q. Wang, J. Lu, S. He, “Optimal design of a multimode interference coupler using a genetic algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 209, 131–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001

F. Xia, J. K. Thomson, M. R. Gokhale, P. V. Studenkov, J. Wei, W. Lin, S. R. Forrest, “An asymmetric twin-waveguide high-bandwidth photodiode using a lateral taper coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 845–847 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Wei, J. Yu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Shi, C. Fang, “Fabrication of 4 × 4 tapered MMI coupler with large cross section,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 466–468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Chaudhari, D. S. Patil, D. K. Gautam, “A new technique for the reduction of the power loss in the Y-branch optical power splitter,” Opt. Commun. 193, 121–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kishioka, “A design method to achieve wide wavelength-flattened responses in the directional coupler-type optical power splitters,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1705–1715 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. Yin, J. Yang, X. Jiang, J. Li, M. Wang, “Improved approach to low-loss and high-uniformity MMI devices,” Opt. Commun. 181, 317–321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminow, R. C. Kistler, “Efficient multichannel integrated optics star coupler on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 241–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. M. Lorenzo, C. Llorente, E. J. Abril, M. Lopéz, “Improved self-imaging characteristics in 1 × N multimode couplers,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 65–69 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Lvescan, A. Vonsovici, “The single-mode condition for semiconductor rib waveguides with large cross section,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 1851–1853 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

P. D. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, B. Jalali, “Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi/multiplexer with extremely low-polarization sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 940–942 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Rajarajan, B. M. Azizur Rahman, T. Wongcharoen, K. T. V. Grattan, “Accurate analysis of MMI devices with two dimensional confinement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1078–2084 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, F. Arndt, K. Petermann, “0.1 dB/cm waveguide losses in single-mode SOI rib waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 647–648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Yamuchi, J. Shibayama, O. Saito, O. Uchiyama, H. Nakano, “Improved finite difference beam-propagation method based on the generalized Douglas scheme and its application to semivectorial analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2401–2406 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Abril, E. J.

R. M. Lorenzo, C. Llorente, E. J. Abril, M. Lopéz, “Improved self-imaging characteristics in 1 × N multimode couplers,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 65–69 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, S.

Ao, X.

Arndt, F.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, F. Arndt, K. Petermann, “0.1 dB/cm waveguide losses in single-mode SOI rib waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 647–648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Azizur Rahman, B. M.

M. Rajarajan, B. M. Azizur Rahman, T. Wongcharoen, K. T. V. Grattan, “Accurate analysis of MMI devices with two dimensional confinement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1078–2084 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barton, J. S.

M. L. Mašanović, E. J. Skogen, J. S. Barton, J. M. Sullivan, D. J. Blumenthal, L. A. Coldren, “Multimode interference-based two-stage 1 × 2 light splitter for compact photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 706–708 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blumenthal, D. J.

M. L. Mašanović, E. J. Skogen, J. S. Barton, J. M. Sullivan, D. J. Blumenthal, L. A. Coldren, “Multimode interference-based two-stage 1 × 2 light splitter for compact photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 706–708 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chaudhari, C.

C. Chaudhari, D. S. Patil, D. K. Gautam, “A new technique for the reduction of the power loss in the Y-branch optical power splitter,” Opt. Commun. 193, 121–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Coldren, L. A.

M. L. Mašanović, E. J. Skogen, J. S. Barton, J. M. Sullivan, D. J. Blumenthal, L. A. Coldren, “Multimode interference-based two-stage 1 × 2 light splitter for compact photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 706–708 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Coppinger, F.

P. D. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, B. Jalali, “Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi/multiplexer with extremely low-polarization sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 940–942 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dragone, C.

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminow, R. C. Kistler, “Efficient multichannel integrated optics star coupler on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 241–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fang, C.

H. Wei, J. Yu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Shi, C. Fang, “Fabrication of 4 × 4 tapered MMI coupler with large cross section,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 466–468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, U.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, F. Arndt, K. Petermann, “0.1 dB/cm waveguide losses in single-mode SOI rib waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 647–648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

F. Xia, J. K. Thomson, M. R. Gokhale, P. V. Studenkov, J. Wei, W. Lin, S. R. Forrest, “An asymmetric twin-waveguide high-bandwidth photodiode using a lateral taper coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 845–847 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gautam, D. K.

C. Chaudhari, D. S. Patil, D. K. Gautam, “A new technique for the reduction of the power loss in the Y-branch optical power splitter,” Opt. Commun. 193, 121–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gokhale, M. R.

F. Xia, J. K. Thomson, M. R. Gokhale, P. V. Studenkov, J. Wei, W. Lin, S. R. Forrest, “An asymmetric twin-waveguide high-bandwidth photodiode using a lateral taper coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 845–847 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Grattan, K. T. V.

M. Rajarajan, B. M. Azizur Rahman, T. Wongcharoen, K. T. V. Grattan, “Accurate analysis of MMI devices with two dimensional confinement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1078–2084 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

He, S.

S. He, X. Ao, V. Romanov, “General properties of N× M self-images in a strongly confined rectangular waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4855–4859 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Wang, J. Lu, S. He, “Optimal design of a multimode interference coupler using a genetic algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 209, 131–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C. H.

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminow, R. C. Kistler, “Efficient multichannel integrated optics star coupler on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 241–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

P. D. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, B. Jalali, “Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi/multiplexer with extremely low-polarization sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 940–942 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, X.

R. Yin, J. Yang, X. Jiang, J. Li, M. Wang, “Improved approach to low-loss and high-uniformity MMI devices,” Opt. Commun. 181, 317–321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kaminow, I. P.

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminow, R. C. Kistler, “Efficient multichannel integrated optics star coupler on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 241–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kishioka, K.

Kistler, R. C.

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminow, R. C. Kistler, “Efficient multichannel integrated optics star coupler on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 241–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kropp, J.-R.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, F. Arndt, K. Petermann, “0.1 dB/cm waveguide losses in single-mode SOI rib waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 647–648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

R. Yin, J. Yang, X. Jiang, J. Li, M. Wang, “Improved approach to low-loss and high-uniformity MMI devices,” Opt. Commun. 181, 317–321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W.

F. Xia, J. K. Thomson, M. R. Gokhale, P. V. Studenkov, J. Wei, W. Lin, S. R. Forrest, “An asymmetric twin-waveguide high-bandwidth photodiode using a lateral taper coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 845–847 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z.

H. Wei, J. Yu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Shi, C. Fang, “Fabrication of 4 × 4 tapered MMI coupler with large cross section,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 466–468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Llorente, C.

R. M. Lorenzo, C. Llorente, E. J. Abril, M. Lopéz, “Improved self-imaging characteristics in 1 × N multimode couplers,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 65–69 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lopéz, M.

R. M. Lorenzo, C. Llorente, E. J. Abril, M. Lopéz, “Improved self-imaging characteristics in 1 × N multimode couplers,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 65–69 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lorenzo, R. M.

R. M. Lorenzo, C. Llorente, E. J. Abril, M. Lopéz, “Improved self-imaging characteristics in 1 × N multimode couplers,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 65–69 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J.

Q. Wang, J. Lu, S. He, “Optimal design of a multimode interference coupler using a genetic algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 209, 131–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lvescan, S.

Mašanovic, M. L.

M. L. Mašanović, E. J. Skogen, J. S. Barton, J. M. Sullivan, D. J. Blumenthal, L. A. Coldren, “Multimode interference-based two-stage 1 × 2 light splitter for compact photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 706–708 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Michel, J.

Nakano, H.

J. Yamuchi, J. Shibayama, O. Saito, O. Uchiyama, H. Nakano, “Improved finite difference beam-propagation method based on the generalized Douglas scheme and its application to semivectorial analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2401–2406 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Patil, D. S.

C. Chaudhari, D. S. Patil, D. K. Gautam, “A new technique for the reduction of the power loss in the Y-branch optical power splitter,” Opt. Commun. 193, 121–125 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Peng, P. C.

S. L. Tsao, P. C. Peng, “Design of two-dimensional 1 × 16 and 1 × 32 array waveguide optical power splitters,” in Optoelectronic Materials and Devices II, Y.-K. Su, P. Bhattacharya, eds., Proc. SPIE4078, 373–382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Pennings, E. C. M.

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Petermann, K.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, F. Arndt, K. Petermann, “0.1 dB/cm waveguide losses in single-mode SOI rib waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 647–648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Popovic, M.

Rajarajan, M.

M. Rajarajan, B. M. Azizur Rahman, T. Wongcharoen, K. T. V. Grattan, “Accurate analysis of MMI devices with two dimensional confinement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1078–2084 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Romanov, V.

Saito, O.

J. Yamuchi, J. Shibayama, O. Saito, O. Uchiyama, H. Nakano, “Improved finite difference beam-propagation method based on the generalized Douglas scheme and its application to semivectorial analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2401–2406 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W.

H. Wei, J. Yu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Shi, C. Fang, “Fabrication of 4 × 4 tapered MMI coupler with large cross section,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 466–468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shibayama, J.

J. Yamuchi, J. Shibayama, O. Saito, O. Uchiyama, H. Nakano, “Improved finite difference beam-propagation method based on the generalized Douglas scheme and its application to semivectorial analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2401–2406 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Skogen, E. J.

M. L. Mašanović, E. J. Skogen, J. S. Barton, J. M. Sullivan, D. J. Blumenthal, L. A. Coldren, “Multimode interference-based two-stage 1 × 2 light splitter for compact photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 706–708 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Soldano, L. B.

L. B. Soldano, E. C. M. Pennings, “Optical multi-mode interference devices based on self-imaging: principles and applications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 615–627 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Studenkov, P. V.

F. Xia, J. K. Thomson, M. R. Gokhale, P. V. Studenkov, J. Wei, W. Lin, S. R. Forrest, “An asymmetric twin-waveguide high-bandwidth photodiode using a lateral taper coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 845–847 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, J. M.

M. L. Mašanović, E. J. Skogen, J. S. Barton, J. M. Sullivan, D. J. Blumenthal, L. A. Coldren, “Multimode interference-based two-stage 1 × 2 light splitter for compact photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 706–708 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, J. K.

F. Xia, J. K. Thomson, M. R. Gokhale, P. V. Studenkov, J. Wei, W. Lin, S. R. Forrest, “An asymmetric twin-waveguide high-bandwidth photodiode using a lateral taper coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 845–847 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Trinh, P. D.

P. D. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, B. Jalali, “Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi/multiplexer with extremely low-polarization sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 940–942 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsao, S. L.

S. L. Tsao, P. C. Peng, “Design of two-dimensional 1 × 16 and 1 × 32 array waveguide optical power splitters,” in Optoelectronic Materials and Devices II, Y.-K. Su, P. Bhattacharya, eds., Proc. SPIE4078, 373–382 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Uchiyama, O.

J. Yamuchi, J. Shibayama, O. Saito, O. Uchiyama, H. Nakano, “Improved finite difference beam-propagation method based on the generalized Douglas scheme and its application to semivectorial analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2401–2406 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vonsovici, A.

Wada, K.

Wang, M.

R. Yin, J. Yang, X. Jiang, J. Li, M. Wang, “Improved approach to low-loss and high-uniformity MMI devices,” Opt. Commun. 181, 317–321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, J. Lu, S. He, “Optimal design of a multimode interference coupler using a genetic algorithm,” Opt. Commun. 209, 131–136 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wei, H.

H. Wei, J. Yu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Shi, C. Fang, “Fabrication of 4 × 4 tapered MMI coupler with large cross section,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 466–468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wei, J.

F. Xia, J. K. Thomson, M. R. Gokhale, P. V. Studenkov, J. Wei, W. Lin, S. R. Forrest, “An asymmetric twin-waveguide high-bandwidth photodiode using a lateral taper coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 845–847 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wongcharoen, T.

M. Rajarajan, B. M. Azizur Rahman, T. Wongcharoen, K. T. V. Grattan, “Accurate analysis of MMI devices with two dimensional confinement,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 1078–2084 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Xia, F.

F. Xia, J. K. Thomson, M. R. Gokhale, P. V. Studenkov, J. Wei, W. Lin, S. R. Forrest, “An asymmetric twin-waveguide high-bandwidth photodiode using a lateral taper coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 845–847 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Yamuchi, J.

J. Yamuchi, J. Shibayama, O. Saito, O. Uchiyama, H. Nakano, “Improved finite difference beam-propagation method based on the generalized Douglas scheme and its application to semivectorial analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol. 14, 2401–2406 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J.

R. Yin, J. Yang, X. Jiang, J. Li, M. Wang, “Improved approach to low-loss and high-uniformity MMI devices,” Opt. Commun. 181, 317–321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yegnanarayanan, S.

P. D. Trinh, S. Yegnanarayanan, F. Coppinger, B. Jalali, “Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) phased-array wavelength multi/multiplexer with extremely low-polarization sensitivity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 9, 940–942 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yin, R.

R. Yin, J. Yang, X. Jiang, J. Li, M. Wang, “Improved approach to low-loss and high-uniformity MMI devices,” Opt. Commun. 181, 317–321 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J.

H. Wei, J. Yu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Shi, C. Fang, “Fabrication of 4 × 4 tapered MMI coupler with large cross section,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 466–468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

H. Wei, J. Yu, Z. Liu, X. Zhang, W. Shi, C. Fang, “Fabrication of 4 × 4 tapered MMI coupler with large cross section,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 466–468 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Zinke, T.

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, F. Arndt, K. Petermann, “0.1 dB/cm waveguide losses in single-mode SOI rib waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 647–648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

IEE Proc. Optoelectron.

R. M. Lorenzo, C. Llorente, E. J. Abril, M. Lopéz, “Improved self-imaging characteristics in 1 × N multimode couplers,” IEE Proc. Optoelectron. 145, 65–69 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

F. Xia, J. K. Thomson, M. R. Gokhale, P. V. Studenkov, J. Wei, W. Lin, S. R. Forrest, “An asymmetric twin-waveguide high-bandwidth photodiode using a lateral taper coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 845–847 (2001).
[CrossRef]

C. Dragone, C. H. Henry, I. P. Kaminow, R. C. Kistler, “Efficient multichannel integrated optics star coupler on silicon,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 241–243 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Mašanović, E. J. Skogen, J. S. Barton, J. M. Sullivan, D. J. Blumenthal, L. A. Coldren, “Multimode interference-based two-stage 1 × 2 light splitter for compact photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 706–708 (2003).
[CrossRef]

U. Fischer, T. Zinke, J.-R. Kropp, F. Arndt, K. Petermann, “0.1 dB/cm waveguide losses in single-mode SOI rib waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 647–648 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic configuration of the present novel SOI-based MMI coupler: (a) top view, (b) scaled view of the bilevel tapered region, (c) S-bend of the output waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Bending loss as the bending radius varies for several widths: (a) pure bending loss, (b) transition loss.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulation for the bilevel tapered section: (a) power propagating in the input waveguide along the z direction, (b) intensity profile at the output end of the taper section.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Field distribution in the MMI section: (a) hr = 2 μm, (b) hr = 5 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Field distribution in the output waveguides of the MMI coupler: (a) hr = 2 μm, (b) hr = 5 μm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the Conventional Design (hr = 2 μm) and the Design Described in This Paper (hr = 5 μm)

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L MMI = 3 L π / N ,
L MMI = 3 L π / 4 N .
E L = - 10 log 10 ( i N P i / P in ) ,
N U = - 10 log 10 ( P min / P max ) ,

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