Abstract

Long-period fiber gratings written by arc discharge are heated at different temperatures, and the postheating changes of transmission characteristics are investigated. The resonance wavelengths are shifted to longer wavelengths by heating at a temperature lower than the fictive temperature of the fiber, and they move more quickly with increasing heating temperature. The resonance wavelength shifts more for the loss peak generated by the higher cladding mode. It is shown that the resonance wavelengths can be changed and adjusted up to 63–76 nm without significant degradation by the glass-structure change induced by heating.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Nishimura, K. Morishita, “Control of spectral characteristics of dispersive optical fibers by annealing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 294–298 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Nishimura, K. Morishita, “Changing multimode dispersive fibers into single-mode fibers by annealing and guided mode analysis of annealed fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 990–997 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. Nishimura, K. Morishita, “Mode-field expansion and reduction in dispersive fibers by local heat treatments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1260–1265 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. K. Morishita, S. F. Yuan, Y. Miyake, T. Fujihara, “Refractive index variations and long-period fiber gratings made by the glass structure change,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E86-C, 1749–1758 (2003).
  5. K. Morishita, Y. Miyake, “Long-period gratings written in a pure silica holey fiber by the glass structure change,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communications/International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fibre Communication (AEI Ufficio Centrale, Milano, Italy, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 4–5.
  6. K. Morishita, Y. Miyake, “Fabrication and resonance wavelengths of long-period gratings written in a pure silica photonic crystal fiber by the glass structure change,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 625–630 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Rego, O. Okhotnikov, E. Dianov, V. Sulimov, “High-temperature stability of long-period fiber gratings produced using an electric arc,” J. Lightwave Technol. 19, 1574–1579 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Humbert, A. Malki, “Electric-arc-induced gratings in non-hydrogenated fibres: fabrication and high-temperature characterizations,” J. Opt. A 4, 194–198 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, “Characterizations at high temperatures of long-period gratings written in germanium-free air-silica microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 38–40 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. K. Morishita, A. Kaino, “Changing resonance wavelengths of long-period fiber gratings by the glass structure modification,” in Proceedings of the Optical Networks and Technologies Conference (Springer, New York, 2004), pp. 489–496.
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    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Saito, “Toward more lucent optical fibers,” Jpn. J. Opt. 32, 20–22 (2003).
  15. S. Ishikawa, H. Kanamori, T. Kohgo, M. Nishimura, H. Yokota, “New mode-field conversion technique in optical fiber using thermal relaxation of residual stress,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication/International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1993), paper TuB4.

2004 (2)

2003 (2)

K. Morishita, S. F. Yuan, Y. Miyake, T. Fujihara, “Refractive index variations and long-period fiber gratings made by the glass structure change,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E86-C, 1749–1758 (2003).

K. Saito, “Toward more lucent optical fibers,” Jpn. J. Opt. 32, 20–22 (2003).

2002 (1)

G. Humbert, A. Malki, “Electric-arc-induced gratings in non-hydrogenated fibres: fabrication and high-temperature characterizations,” J. Opt. A 4, 194–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

1999 (1)

J. Nishimura, K. Morishita, “Mode-field expansion and reduction in dispersive fibers by local heat treatments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1260–1265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

J. Nishimura, K. Morishita, “Control of spectral characteristics of dispersive optical fibers by annealing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 294–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

R. Brücker, “Properties and structure of vitreous silica. I,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 5, 123–175 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Brücker, R.

R. Brücker, “Properties and structure of vitreous silica. I,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 5, 123–175 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Dianov, E.

Dubois, S.

Février, S.

Fujihara, T.

K. Morishita, S. F. Yuan, Y. Miyake, T. Fujihara, “Refractive index variations and long-period fiber gratings made by the glass structure change,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E86-C, 1749–1758 (2003).

Humbert, G.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, “Characterizations at high temperatures of long-period gratings written in germanium-free air-silica microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 38–40 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Humbert, A. Malki, “Electric-arc-induced gratings in non-hydrogenated fibres: fabrication and high-temperature characterizations,” J. Opt. A 4, 194–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ishikawa, S.

S. Ishikawa, H. Kanamori, T. Kohgo, M. Nishimura, H. Yokota, “New mode-field conversion technique in optical fiber using thermal relaxation of residual stress,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication/International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1993), paper TuB4.

Izumitani, T. S.

T. S. Izumitani, Optical Glass (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), Chaps. 1 and 3.

Kaino, A.

K. Morishita, A. Kaino, “Changing resonance wavelengths of long-period fiber gratings by the glass structure modification,” in Proceedings of the Optical Networks and Technologies Conference (Springer, New York, 2004), pp. 489–496.

Kanamori, H.

S. Ishikawa, H. Kanamori, T. Kohgo, M. Nishimura, H. Yokota, “New mode-field conversion technique in optical fiber using thermal relaxation of residual stress,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication/International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1993), paper TuB4.

Kim, D.-L.

Kohgo, T.

S. Ishikawa, H. Kanamori, T. Kohgo, M. Nishimura, H. Yokota, “New mode-field conversion technique in optical fiber using thermal relaxation of residual stress,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication/International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1993), paper TuB4.

Malki, A.

G. Humbert, A. Malki, S. Février, P. Roy, D. Pagnoux, “Characterizations at high temperatures of long-period gratings written in germanium-free air-silica microstructure fiber,” Opt. Lett. 29, 38–40 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Humbert, A. Malki, “Electric-arc-induced gratings in non-hydrogenated fibres: fabrication and high-temperature characterizations,” J. Opt. A 4, 194–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miyake, Y.

K. Morishita, Y. Miyake, “Fabrication and resonance wavelengths of long-period gratings written in a pure silica photonic crystal fiber by the glass structure change,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 625–630 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Morishita, S. F. Yuan, Y. Miyake, T. Fujihara, “Refractive index variations and long-period fiber gratings made by the glass structure change,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E86-C, 1749–1758 (2003).

K. Morishita, Y. Miyake, “Long-period gratings written in a pure silica holey fiber by the glass structure change,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communications/International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fibre Communication (AEI Ufficio Centrale, Milano, Italy, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 4–5.

Morishita, K.

K. Morishita, Y. Miyake, “Fabrication and resonance wavelengths of long-period gratings written in a pure silica photonic crystal fiber by the glass structure change,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 625–630 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Morishita, S. F. Yuan, Y. Miyake, T. Fujihara, “Refractive index variations and long-period fiber gratings made by the glass structure change,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E86-C, 1749–1758 (2003).

J. Nishimura, K. Morishita, “Mode-field expansion and reduction in dispersive fibers by local heat treatments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1260–1265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishimura, K. Morishita, “Changing multimode dispersive fibers into single-mode fibers by annealing and guided mode analysis of annealed fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 990–997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishimura, K. Morishita, “Control of spectral characteristics of dispersive optical fibers by annealing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 294–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Morishita, Y. Miyake, “Long-period gratings written in a pure silica holey fiber by the glass structure change,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communications/International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fibre Communication (AEI Ufficio Centrale, Milano, Italy, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 4–5.

K. Morishita, A. Kaino, “Changing resonance wavelengths of long-period fiber gratings by the glass structure modification,” in Proceedings of the Optical Networks and Technologies Conference (Springer, New York, 2004), pp. 489–496.

Nishimura, J.

J. Nishimura, K. Morishita, “Mode-field expansion and reduction in dispersive fibers by local heat treatments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1260–1265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishimura, K. Morishita, “Changing multimode dispersive fibers into single-mode fibers by annealing and guided mode analysis of annealed fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16, 990–997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Nishimura, K. Morishita, “Control of spectral characteristics of dispersive optical fibers by annealing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 294–298 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, M.

S. Ishikawa, H. Kanamori, T. Kohgo, M. Nishimura, H. Yokota, “New mode-field conversion technique in optical fiber using thermal relaxation of residual stress,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication/International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1993), paper TuB4.

Okhotnikov, O.

Orcel, G.

Pagnoux, D.

Rego, G.

Roy, P.

Saito, K.

K. Saito, “Toward more lucent optical fibers,” Jpn. J. Opt. 32, 20–22 (2003).

Sulimov, V.

Tomozawa, M.

Yokota, H.

S. Ishikawa, H. Kanamori, T. Kohgo, M. Nishimura, H. Yokota, “New mode-field conversion technique in optical fiber using thermal relaxation of residual stress,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication/International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1993), paper TuB4.

Yuan, S. F.

K. Morishita, S. F. Yuan, Y. Miyake, T. Fujihara, “Refractive index variations and long-period fiber gratings made by the glass structure change,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E86-C, 1749–1758 (2003).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Nishimura, K. Morishita, “Mode-field expansion and reduction in dispersive fibers by local heat treatments,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1260–1265 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEICE Trans. Electron. (1)

K. Morishita, S. F. Yuan, Y. Miyake, T. Fujihara, “Refractive index variations and long-period fiber gratings made by the glass structure change,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E86-C, 1749–1758 (2003).

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

R. Brücker, “Properties and structure of vitreous silica. I,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 5, 123–175 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A (1)

G. Humbert, A. Malki, “Electric-arc-induced gratings in non-hydrogenated fibres: fabrication and high-temperature characterizations,” J. Opt. A 4, 194–198 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Opt. (1)

K. Saito, “Toward more lucent optical fibers,” Jpn. J. Opt. 32, 20–22 (2003).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (4)

T. S. Izumitani, Optical Glass (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1986), Chaps. 1 and 3.

K. Morishita, Y. Miyake, “Long-period gratings written in a pure silica holey fiber by the glass structure change,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Optical Communications/International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fibre Communication (AEI Ufficio Centrale, Milano, Italy, 2003), Vol. 1, pp. 4–5.

S. Ishikawa, H. Kanamori, T. Kohgo, M. Nishimura, H. Yokota, “New mode-field conversion technique in optical fiber using thermal relaxation of residual stress,” in Conference on Optical Fiber Communication/International Conference on Integrated Optics and Optical Fiber Communication Vol. 4 of 1993 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, DC, 1993), paper TuB4.

K. Morishita, A. Kaino, “Changing resonance wavelengths of long-period fiber gratings by the glass structure modification,” in Proceedings of the Optical Networks and Technologies Conference (Springer, New York, 2004), pp. 489–496.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of volume–temperature variation of a glass for heat treatments.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Changes of the transmission characteristics of a LPG with the grating period of 500 μm after heating at 900 °C. (a) The transmission spectra before heating and after heating at 900 °C for 5, 10, and 200 minutes, (b) the resonance-wavelength shifts, and (c) the peak losses generated by the LP02, LP03, and LP04 cladding modes against heating time.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Changes of the transmission characteristics of a LPG with the grating period of 500 μm after heating at 1000 °C. (a) The transmission spectra before heating and after heating at 1000 °C for 3, 60, and 400 minutes, (b) the resonance-wavelength shifts, and (c) the peak losses generated by the LP02, LP03, and LP04 cladding modes against heating time.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Changes of the transmission characteristics of a LPG with the grating period of 500 μm after heating at 1100 °C. (a) The transmission spectra before heating and after heating at 1100 °C for 3, 30, and 80 minutes, (b) the resonance-wavelength shifts, and (c) the peak losses generated by the LP02, LP03, and LP04 cladding modes against heating time.

Equations (2)

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λ r e s = ( n 01 - n 0 m ) Λ ,
d T ¯ ( t ) d t = A ( T H - T ¯ ( t ) ) ,

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