Abstract

A novel long-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) apparatus for measuring tropospheric trace gases and the first results from its use are presented: We call it the multibeam instrument. It is the first active DOAS device that emits several light beams simultaneously through only one telescope and with only one lamp as a light source, allowing simultaneous measurement along multiple light paths. In contrast to conventional DOAS instruments, several small mirrors are positioned near the lamp, creating multiple virtual light sources that emit one light beam each in one specific direction. The possibility of error due to scattering between the light beams is negligible. The trace-gas detection limits of NO2, SO2, O3, and H2CO are similar to those of the traditional long-path DOAS instrument.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. U. Platt, “Dry deposition of SO2,” J. Atmos. Environ. 12, 363–367 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  2. U. Platt, D. Perner, “An instrument for the spectroscopic measurement of trace substances in the atmosphere,” Z. Anal. Chem. 317, 309–313 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  3. U. Platt, D. Perner, H. Pätz, “Simultaneous measurement of atmospheric CH2O, O3, and NO2by differential optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6329–6335 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  4. U. Platt, D. Perner, “Measurements of atmospheric trace gases by long path differential UV/visible absorption spectroscopy,” Springer Ser. Opt. Sci. 39, 95–105 (1983).
  5. U. Platt, “Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS),” in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, Chemical Analysis Series Vol. 127, M. W. Sigrist, ed. (Wiley, 1994), pp. 27–84.
  6. A. Geyer, R. Ackermann, R. Dubois, B. Lohrmann, T. Müller, U. Platt, “Long-term observation of nitrate radicals in the continental boundary layer near Berlin,” J. Atmos. Environ. 35, 3619–3631 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. Hübler, D. Perner, U. Platt, A. Toennissen, D. H. Ehalt, “Ground-level OH radical concentration: new measurements by optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 1309–1319 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. Axelsson, B. Galle, K. Gustavsson, P. Regnarsson, M. Rudin, “A transmitting/receiving telescope for DOAS measurements using the retroreflector technique,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 4 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1990), pp. 641–644.
  10. I. Pundt, K. U. Mettendorf, T. Laepple, V. Knab, P. Xie, J. Lösch, C. v. Friedeburg, U. Platt, T. Wagner, “Measurements of trace-gas distributions using long-path DOAS tomography during the motorway campaign BAB II: experimental setup and results for NO2,” J. Atmos. Environ. 39, 967–975 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  11. T. Laepple, V. Knab, K. U. Mettendorf, I. Pundt, “Long-path DOAS tomography on a motorway exhaust gas plume: numerical studies and application to data from the BAB II campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1323–1342 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. A. Hashmonay, M. G. Yost, C.-F. Wu, “Computed tomography of air pollutants using radial scanning path-integrated optical remote sensing,” J. Atmos. Environ. 33, 267–274 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  13. P. N. Price, “Pollutant tomography using integrated concentration data from nonintersecting optical paths,” J. Atmos. Environ. 33, 275–280 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. U. Corsmeier, M. Kohler, B. Vogel, H. Vogel, F. Fiedler, “BAB II: a project to evaluate the accuracy of real world traffic emissions for a motorway,” submitted to J. Atmos. Environ.
  15. J. Stutz, “Messung der Konzentration troposphärischer Spurenstoffe mittels Differentieller—Optischer-Absorptions-spektroskopie: Eine neue Generation von Geräten und Algorithmen,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Heidelberg, 1996).
  16. C. Hak, I. Pundt, S. Trick, C. Kern, U. Platt, J. Dommen, C. Ordonez, A. S. H. Prevot, W. Junkermann, C. Astorga-Llorens, B. R. Larsen, J. Mellqvist, A. Strandberg, Y. Yu, B. Galle, J. Kleffmann, J. Loerzer, G. O. Braathen, R. Volkamer, “Intercomparison of four different in situ techniques for ambient formaldehyde measurements in an urban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 2897–2945 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Gomer, T. Brauers, F. Heintz, J. Stutz, U. Platt, MFC Manual (University of Heidelberg, 1996).
  18. S. Voigt, J. Orphal, J. P. Burrows, “The temperature and pressure dependence of the absorption cross sections of NO2 in the 250–800-nm region measured by Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A. 149, 1–7 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Stutz, E. S. Kim, U. Platt, P. Bruno, C. Perrino, A. Febo, “UV-visible absorption cross section of nitrous acid,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D11), 14585–14592 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Meller, G. K. Moortgat, “Temperature dependence of the absorption cross sections of formaldehyde between 223 and 323 K in the wavelength range 225–375 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 201(D6), 7089–7101 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Voigt, J. Orphal, K. Bogumil, J. P. Burrows, “The temperature dependence (203–293 K of the absorption cross sections of O3 in the 230–850 nm region measured by Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 143, 1–9 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, A. Jenouvier, B. Coquart, M.-F. Merienne, “Absorption cross sections of atmospheric constituents: NO2, O2, and H2O,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 6, 151–158 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross section measurements in the UV using a Fourier-transform spectrometer (295 K),” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25599–25605 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (2)

I. Pundt, K. U. Mettendorf, T. Laepple, V. Knab, P. Xie, J. Lösch, C. v. Friedeburg, U. Platt, T. Wagner, “Measurements of trace-gas distributions using long-path DOAS tomography during the motorway campaign BAB II: experimental setup and results for NO2,” J. Atmos. Environ. 39, 967–975 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Hak, I. Pundt, S. Trick, C. Kern, U. Platt, J. Dommen, C. Ordonez, A. S. H. Prevot, W. Junkermann, C. Astorga-Llorens, B. R. Larsen, J. Mellqvist, A. Strandberg, Y. Yu, B. Galle, J. Kleffmann, J. Loerzer, G. O. Braathen, R. Volkamer, “Intercomparison of four different in situ techniques for ambient formaldehyde measurements in an urban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 2897–2945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Laepple, V. Knab, K. U. Mettendorf, I. Pundt, “Long-path DOAS tomography on a motorway exhaust gas plume: numerical studies and application to data from the BAB II campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1323–1342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Voigt, J. Orphal, J. P. Burrows, “The temperature and pressure dependence of the absorption cross sections of NO2 in the 250–800-nm region measured by Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A. 149, 1–7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

A. Geyer, R. Ackermann, R. Dubois, B. Lohrmann, T. Müller, U. Platt, “Long-term observation of nitrate radicals in the continental boundary layer near Berlin,” J. Atmos. Environ. 35, 3619–3631 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Voigt, J. Orphal, K. Bogumil, J. P. Burrows, “The temperature dependence (203–293 K of the absorption cross sections of O3 in the 230–850 nm region measured by Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 143, 1–9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J. Stutz, E. S. Kim, U. Platt, P. Bruno, C. Perrino, A. Febo, “UV-visible absorption cross section of nitrous acid,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D11), 14585–14592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Meller, G. K. Moortgat, “Temperature dependence of the absorption cross sections of formaldehyde between 223 and 323 K in the wavelength range 225–375 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 201(D6), 7089–7101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, A. Jenouvier, B. Coquart, M.-F. Merienne, “Absorption cross sections of atmospheric constituents: NO2, O2, and H2O,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 6, 151–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Hashmonay, M. G. Yost, C.-F. Wu, “Computed tomography of air pollutants using radial scanning path-integrated optical remote sensing,” J. Atmos. Environ. 33, 267–274 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Price, “Pollutant tomography using integrated concentration data from nonintersecting optical paths,” J. Atmos. Environ. 33, 275–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross section measurements in the UV using a Fourier-transform spectrometer (295 K),” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25599–25605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1984 (2)

G. Hübler, D. Perner, U. Platt, A. Toennissen, D. H. Ehalt, “Ground-level OH radical concentration: new measurements by optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 1309–1319 (1984).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, D. Perner, “An instrument for the spectroscopic measurement of trace substances in the atmosphere,” Z. Anal. Chem. 317, 309–313 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

U. Platt, D. Perner, “Measurements of atmospheric trace gases by long path differential UV/visible absorption spectroscopy,” Springer Ser. Opt. Sci. 39, 95–105 (1983).

1979 (1)

U. Platt, D. Perner, H. Pätz, “Simultaneous measurement of atmospheric CH2O, O3, and NO2by differential optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6329–6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

U. Platt, “Dry deposition of SO2,” J. Atmos. Environ. 12, 363–367 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ackermann, R.

A. Geyer, R. Ackermann, R. Dubois, B. Lohrmann, T. Müller, U. Platt, “Long-term observation of nitrate radicals in the continental boundary layer near Berlin,” J. Atmos. Environ. 35, 3619–3631 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Astorga-Llorens, C.

C. Hak, I. Pundt, S. Trick, C. Kern, U. Platt, J. Dommen, C. Ordonez, A. S. H. Prevot, W. Junkermann, C. Astorga-Llorens, B. R. Larsen, J. Mellqvist, A. Strandberg, Y. Yu, B. Galle, J. Kleffmann, J. Loerzer, G. O. Braathen, R. Volkamer, “Intercomparison of four different in situ techniques for ambient formaldehyde measurements in an urban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 2897–2945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Axelsson, H.

H. Axelsson, B. Galle, K. Gustavsson, P. Regnarsson, M. Rudin, “A transmitting/receiving telescope for DOAS measurements using the retroreflector technique,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 4 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1990), pp. 641–644.

Bergqvist, B.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bogumil, K.

S. Voigt, J. Orphal, K. Bogumil, J. P. Burrows, “The temperature dependence (203–293 K of the absorption cross sections of O3 in the 230–850 nm region measured by Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 143, 1–9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Braathen, G. O.

C. Hak, I. Pundt, S. Trick, C. Kern, U. Platt, J. Dommen, C. Ordonez, A. S. H. Prevot, W. Junkermann, C. Astorga-Llorens, B. R. Larsen, J. Mellqvist, A. Strandberg, Y. Yu, B. Galle, J. Kleffmann, J. Loerzer, G. O. Braathen, R. Volkamer, “Intercomparison of four different in situ techniques for ambient formaldehyde measurements in an urban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 2897–2945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Brauers, T.

T. Gomer, T. Brauers, F. Heintz, J. Stutz, U. Platt, MFC Manual (University of Heidelberg, 1996).

Bruno, P.

J. Stutz, E. S. Kim, U. Platt, P. Bruno, C. Perrino, A. Febo, “UV-visible absorption cross section of nitrous acid,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D11), 14585–14592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Burrows, J. P.

S. Voigt, J. Orphal, J. P. Burrows, “The temperature and pressure dependence of the absorption cross sections of NO2 in the 250–800-nm region measured by Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A. 149, 1–7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Voigt, J. Orphal, K. Bogumil, J. P. Burrows, “The temperature dependence (203–293 K of the absorption cross sections of O3 in the 230–850 nm region measured by Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 143, 1–9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Carleer, M.

C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, A. Jenouvier, B. Coquart, M.-F. Merienne, “Absorption cross sections of atmospheric constituents: NO2, O2, and H2O,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 6, 151–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross section measurements in the UV using a Fourier-transform spectrometer (295 K),” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25599–25605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Clerbaux, C.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Colin, R.

C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, A. Jenouvier, B. Coquart, M.-F. Merienne, “Absorption cross sections of atmospheric constituents: NO2, O2, and H2O,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 6, 151–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross section measurements in the UV using a Fourier-transform spectrometer (295 K),” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25599–25605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Coquart, B.

C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, A. Jenouvier, B. Coquart, M.-F. Merienne, “Absorption cross sections of atmospheric constituents: NO2, O2, and H2O,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 6, 151–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Corsmeier, U.

U. Corsmeier, M. Kohler, B. Vogel, H. Vogel, F. Fiedler, “BAB II: a project to evaluate the accuracy of real world traffic emissions for a motorway,” submitted to J. Atmos. Environ.

Dommen, J.

C. Hak, I. Pundt, S. Trick, C. Kern, U. Platt, J. Dommen, C. Ordonez, A. S. H. Prevot, W. Junkermann, C. Astorga-Llorens, B. R. Larsen, J. Mellqvist, A. Strandberg, Y. Yu, B. Galle, J. Kleffmann, J. Loerzer, G. O. Braathen, R. Volkamer, “Intercomparison of four different in situ techniques for ambient formaldehyde measurements in an urban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 2897–2945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, R.

A. Geyer, R. Ackermann, R. Dubois, B. Lohrmann, T. Müller, U. Platt, “Long-term observation of nitrate radicals in the continental boundary layer near Berlin,” J. Atmos. Environ. 35, 3619–3631 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ehalt, D. H.

G. Hübler, D. Perner, U. Platt, A. Toennissen, D. H. Ehalt, “Ground-level OH radical concentration: new measurements by optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 1309–1319 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Fally, S.

C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, A. Jenouvier, B. Coquart, M.-F. Merienne, “Absorption cross sections of atmospheric constituents: NO2, O2, and H2O,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 6, 151–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fayt, C.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Febo, A.

J. Stutz, E. S. Kim, U. Platt, P. Bruno, C. Perrino, A. Febo, “UV-visible absorption cross section of nitrous acid,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D11), 14585–14592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fiedler, F.

U. Corsmeier, M. Kohler, B. Vogel, H. Vogel, F. Fiedler, “BAB II: a project to evaluate the accuracy of real world traffic emissions for a motorway,” submitted to J. Atmos. Environ.

Friedeburg, C. v.

I. Pundt, K. U. Mettendorf, T. Laepple, V. Knab, P. Xie, J. Lösch, C. v. Friedeburg, U. Platt, T. Wagner, “Measurements of trace-gas distributions using long-path DOAS tomography during the motorway campaign BAB II: experimental setup and results for NO2,” J. Atmos. Environ. 39, 967–975 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Galle, B.

C. Hak, I. Pundt, S. Trick, C. Kern, U. Platt, J. Dommen, C. Ordonez, A. S. H. Prevot, W. Junkermann, C. Astorga-Llorens, B. R. Larsen, J. Mellqvist, A. Strandberg, Y. Yu, B. Galle, J. Kleffmann, J. Loerzer, G. O. Braathen, R. Volkamer, “Intercomparison of four different in situ techniques for ambient formaldehyde measurements in an urban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 2897–2945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Axelsson, B. Galle, K. Gustavsson, P. Regnarsson, M. Rudin, “A transmitting/receiving telescope for DOAS measurements using the retroreflector technique,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 4 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1990), pp. 641–644.

Geyer, A.

A. Geyer, R. Ackermann, R. Dubois, B. Lohrmann, T. Müller, U. Platt, “Long-term observation of nitrate radicals in the continental boundary layer near Berlin,” J. Atmos. Environ. 35, 3619–3631 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gomer, T.

T. Gomer, T. Brauers, F. Heintz, J. Stutz, U. Platt, MFC Manual (University of Heidelberg, 1996).

Goutail, F.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Guilmot, J. M.

A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross section measurements in the UV using a Fourier-transform spectrometer (295 K),” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25599–25605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gustavsson, K.

H. Axelsson, B. Galle, K. Gustavsson, P. Regnarsson, M. Rudin, “A transmitting/receiving telescope for DOAS measurements using the retroreflector technique,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 4 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1990), pp. 641–644.

Hak, C.

C. Hak, I. Pundt, S. Trick, C. Kern, U. Platt, J. Dommen, C. Ordonez, A. S. H. Prevot, W. Junkermann, C. Astorga-Llorens, B. R. Larsen, J. Mellqvist, A. Strandberg, Y. Yu, B. Galle, J. Kleffmann, J. Loerzer, G. O. Braathen, R. Volkamer, “Intercomparison of four different in situ techniques for ambient formaldehyde measurements in an urban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 2897–2945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hashmonay, R. A.

R. A. Hashmonay, M. G. Yost, C.-F. Wu, “Computed tomography of air pollutants using radial scanning path-integrated optical remote sensing,” J. Atmos. Environ. 33, 267–274 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hausmann, M.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heintz, F.

T. Gomer, T. Brauers, F. Heintz, J. Stutz, U. Platt, MFC Manual (University of Heidelberg, 1996).

Hermans, C.

C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, A. Jenouvier, B. Coquart, M.-F. Merienne, “Absorption cross sections of atmospheric constituents: NO2, O2, and H2O,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 6, 151–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hübler, G.

G. Hübler, D. Perner, U. Platt, A. Toennissen, D. H. Ehalt, “Ground-level OH radical concentration: new measurements by optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 1309–1319 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Jenouvier, A.

C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, A. Jenouvier, B. Coquart, M.-F. Merienne, “Absorption cross sections of atmospheric constituents: NO2, O2, and H2O,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 6, 151–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Junkermann, W.

C. Hak, I. Pundt, S. Trick, C. Kern, U. Platt, J. Dommen, C. Ordonez, A. S. H. Prevot, W. Junkermann, C. Astorga-Llorens, B. R. Larsen, J. Mellqvist, A. Strandberg, Y. Yu, B. Galle, J. Kleffmann, J. Loerzer, G. O. Braathen, R. Volkamer, “Intercomparison of four different in situ techniques for ambient formaldehyde measurements in an urban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 2897–2945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kern, C.

C. Hak, I. Pundt, S. Trick, C. Kern, U. Platt, J. Dommen, C. Ordonez, A. S. H. Prevot, W. Junkermann, C. Astorga-Llorens, B. R. Larsen, J. Mellqvist, A. Strandberg, Y. Yu, B. Galle, J. Kleffmann, J. Loerzer, G. O. Braathen, R. Volkamer, “Intercomparison of four different in situ techniques for ambient formaldehyde measurements in an urban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 2897–2945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E. S.

J. Stutz, E. S. Kim, U. Platt, P. Bruno, C. Perrino, A. Febo, “UV-visible absorption cross section of nitrous acid,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D11), 14585–14592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kleffmann, J.

C. Hak, I. Pundt, S. Trick, C. Kern, U. Platt, J. Dommen, C. Ordonez, A. S. H. Prevot, W. Junkermann, C. Astorga-Llorens, B. R. Larsen, J. Mellqvist, A. Strandberg, Y. Yu, B. Galle, J. Kleffmann, J. Loerzer, G. O. Braathen, R. Volkamer, “Intercomparison of four different in situ techniques for ambient formaldehyde measurements in an urban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 2897–2945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Knab, V.

I. Pundt, K. U. Mettendorf, T. Laepple, V. Knab, P. Xie, J. Lösch, C. v. Friedeburg, U. Platt, T. Wagner, “Measurements of trace-gas distributions using long-path DOAS tomography during the motorway campaign BAB II: experimental setup and results for NO2,” J. Atmos. Environ. 39, 967–975 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Laepple, V. Knab, K. U. Mettendorf, I. Pundt, “Long-path DOAS tomography on a motorway exhaust gas plume: numerical studies and application to data from the BAB II campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1323–1342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, M.

U. Corsmeier, M. Kohler, B. Vogel, H. Vogel, F. Fiedler, “BAB II: a project to evaluate the accuracy of real world traffic emissions for a motorway,” submitted to J. Atmos. Environ.

Laepple, T.

I. Pundt, K. U. Mettendorf, T. Laepple, V. Knab, P. Xie, J. Lösch, C. v. Friedeburg, U. Platt, T. Wagner, “Measurements of trace-gas distributions using long-path DOAS tomography during the motorway campaign BAB II: experimental setup and results for NO2,” J. Atmos. Environ. 39, 967–975 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Laepple, V. Knab, K. U. Mettendorf, I. Pundt, “Long-path DOAS tomography on a motorway exhaust gas plume: numerical studies and application to data from the BAB II campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1323–1342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, B. R.

C. Hak, I. Pundt, S. Trick, C. Kern, U. Platt, J. Dommen, C. Ordonez, A. S. H. Prevot, W. Junkermann, C. Astorga-Llorens, B. R. Larsen, J. Mellqvist, A. Strandberg, Y. Yu, B. Galle, J. Kleffmann, J. Loerzer, G. O. Braathen, R. Volkamer, “Intercomparison of four different in situ techniques for ambient formaldehyde measurements in an urban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 2897–2945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Loerzer, J.

C. Hak, I. Pundt, S. Trick, C. Kern, U. Platt, J. Dommen, C. Ordonez, A. S. H. Prevot, W. Junkermann, C. Astorga-Llorens, B. R. Larsen, J. Mellqvist, A. Strandberg, Y. Yu, B. Galle, J. Kleffmann, J. Loerzer, G. O. Braathen, R. Volkamer, “Intercomparison of four different in situ techniques for ambient formaldehyde measurements in an urban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 2897–2945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lohrmann, B.

A. Geyer, R. Ackermann, R. Dubois, B. Lohrmann, T. Müller, U. Platt, “Long-term observation of nitrate radicals in the continental boundary layer near Berlin,” J. Atmos. Environ. 35, 3619–3631 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lösch, J.

I. Pundt, K. U. Mettendorf, T. Laepple, V. Knab, P. Xie, J. Lösch, C. v. Friedeburg, U. Platt, T. Wagner, “Measurements of trace-gas distributions using long-path DOAS tomography during the motorway campaign BAB II: experimental setup and results for NO2,” J. Atmos. Environ. 39, 967–975 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meller, R.

R. Meller, G. K. Moortgat, “Temperature dependence of the absorption cross sections of formaldehyde between 223 and 323 K in the wavelength range 225–375 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 201(D6), 7089–7101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mellqvist, J.

C. Hak, I. Pundt, S. Trick, C. Kern, U. Platt, J. Dommen, C. Ordonez, A. S. H. Prevot, W. Junkermann, C. Astorga-Llorens, B. R. Larsen, J. Mellqvist, A. Strandberg, Y. Yu, B. Galle, J. Kleffmann, J. Loerzer, G. O. Braathen, R. Volkamer, “Intercomparison of four different in situ techniques for ambient formaldehyde measurements in an urban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 2897–2945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Merienne, M.-F.

C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, A. Jenouvier, B. Coquart, M.-F. Merienne, “Absorption cross sections of atmospheric constituents: NO2, O2, and H2O,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 6, 151–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mettendorf, K. U.

I. Pundt, K. U. Mettendorf, T. Laepple, V. Knab, P. Xie, J. Lösch, C. v. Friedeburg, U. Platt, T. Wagner, “Measurements of trace-gas distributions using long-path DOAS tomography during the motorway campaign BAB II: experimental setup and results for NO2,” J. Atmos. Environ. 39, 967–975 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Laepple, V. Knab, K. U. Mettendorf, I. Pundt, “Long-path DOAS tomography on a motorway exhaust gas plume: numerical studies and application to data from the BAB II campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1323–1342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Moortgat, G. K.

R. Meller, G. K. Moortgat, “Temperature dependence of the absorption cross sections of formaldehyde between 223 and 323 K in the wavelength range 225–375 nm,” J. Geophys. Res. 201(D6), 7089–7101 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Müller, T.

A. Geyer, R. Ackermann, R. Dubois, B. Lohrmann, T. Müller, U. Platt, “Long-term observation of nitrate radicals in the continental boundary layer near Berlin,” J. Atmos. Environ. 35, 3619–3631 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nunes-Pinharanda, M.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ordonez, C.

C. Hak, I. Pundt, S. Trick, C. Kern, U. Platt, J. Dommen, C. Ordonez, A. S. H. Prevot, W. Junkermann, C. Astorga-Llorens, B. R. Larsen, J. Mellqvist, A. Strandberg, Y. Yu, B. Galle, J. Kleffmann, J. Loerzer, G. O. Braathen, R. Volkamer, “Intercomparison of four different in situ techniques for ambient formaldehyde measurements in an urban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 2897–2945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Orphal, J.

S. Voigt, J. Orphal, J. P. Burrows, “The temperature and pressure dependence of the absorption cross sections of NO2 in the 250–800-nm region measured by Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A. 149, 1–7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Voigt, J. Orphal, K. Bogumil, J. P. Burrows, “The temperature dependence (203–293 K of the absorption cross sections of O3 in the 230–850 nm region measured by Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 143, 1–9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pätz, H.

U. Platt, D. Perner, H. Pätz, “Simultaneous measurement of atmospheric CH2O, O3, and NO2by differential optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6329–6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Perner, D.

U. Platt, D. Perner, “An instrument for the spectroscopic measurement of trace substances in the atmosphere,” Z. Anal. Chem. 317, 309–313 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. Hübler, D. Perner, U. Platt, A. Toennissen, D. H. Ehalt, “Ground-level OH radical concentration: new measurements by optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 1309–1319 (1984).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, D. Perner, “Measurements of atmospheric trace gases by long path differential UV/visible absorption spectroscopy,” Springer Ser. Opt. Sci. 39, 95–105 (1983).

U. Platt, D. Perner, H. Pätz, “Simultaneous measurement of atmospheric CH2O, O3, and NO2by differential optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6329–6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Perrino, C.

J. Stutz, E. S. Kim, U. Platt, P. Bruno, C. Perrino, A. Febo, “UV-visible absorption cross section of nitrous acid,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D11), 14585–14592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Plane, J. M. C.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Platt, U.

C. Hak, I. Pundt, S. Trick, C. Kern, U. Platt, J. Dommen, C. Ordonez, A. S. H. Prevot, W. Junkermann, C. Astorga-Llorens, B. R. Larsen, J. Mellqvist, A. Strandberg, Y. Yu, B. Galle, J. Kleffmann, J. Loerzer, G. O. Braathen, R. Volkamer, “Intercomparison of four different in situ techniques for ambient formaldehyde measurements in an urban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 2897–2945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Pundt, K. U. Mettendorf, T. Laepple, V. Knab, P. Xie, J. Lösch, C. v. Friedeburg, U. Platt, T. Wagner, “Measurements of trace-gas distributions using long-path DOAS tomography during the motorway campaign BAB II: experimental setup and results for NO2,” J. Atmos. Environ. 39, 967–975 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Geyer, R. Ackermann, R. Dubois, B. Lohrmann, T. Müller, U. Platt, “Long-term observation of nitrate radicals in the continental boundary layer near Berlin,” J. Atmos. Environ. 35, 3619–3631 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Stutz, E. S. Kim, U. Platt, P. Bruno, C. Perrino, A. Febo, “UV-visible absorption cross section of nitrous acid,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D11), 14585–14592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, D. Perner, “An instrument for the spectroscopic measurement of trace substances in the atmosphere,” Z. Anal. Chem. 317, 309–313 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. Hübler, D. Perner, U. Platt, A. Toennissen, D. H. Ehalt, “Ground-level OH radical concentration: new measurements by optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 1309–1319 (1984).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, D. Perner, “Measurements of atmospheric trace gases by long path differential UV/visible absorption spectroscopy,” Springer Ser. Opt. Sci. 39, 95–105 (1983).

U. Platt, D. Perner, H. Pätz, “Simultaneous measurement of atmospheric CH2O, O3, and NO2by differential optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 84, 6329–6335 (1979).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, “Dry deposition of SO2,” J. Atmos. Environ. 12, 363–367 (1978).
[CrossRef]

U. Platt, “Differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS),” in Air Monitoring by Spectroscopic Techniques, Chemical Analysis Series Vol. 127, M. W. Sigrist, ed. (Wiley, 1994), pp. 27–84.

T. Gomer, T. Brauers, F. Heintz, J. Stutz, U. Platt, MFC Manual (University of Heidelberg, 1996).

Pommereau, J. P.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Prevot, A. S. H.

C. Hak, I. Pundt, S. Trick, C. Kern, U. Platt, J. Dommen, C. Ordonez, A. S. H. Prevot, W. Junkermann, C. Astorga-Llorens, B. R. Larsen, J. Mellqvist, A. Strandberg, Y. Yu, B. Galle, J. Kleffmann, J. Loerzer, G. O. Braathen, R. Volkamer, “Intercomparison of four different in situ techniques for ambient formaldehyde measurements in an urban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 2897–2945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Price, P. N.

P. N. Price, “Pollutant tomography using integrated concentration data from nonintersecting optical paths,” J. Atmos. Environ. 33, 275–280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Pundt, I.

C. Hak, I. Pundt, S. Trick, C. Kern, U. Platt, J. Dommen, C. Ordonez, A. S. H. Prevot, W. Junkermann, C. Astorga-Llorens, B. R. Larsen, J. Mellqvist, A. Strandberg, Y. Yu, B. Galle, J. Kleffmann, J. Loerzer, G. O. Braathen, R. Volkamer, “Intercomparison of four different in situ techniques for ambient formaldehyde measurements in an urban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 2897–2945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

I. Pundt, K. U. Mettendorf, T. Laepple, V. Knab, P. Xie, J. Lösch, C. v. Friedeburg, U. Platt, T. Wagner, “Measurements of trace-gas distributions using long-path DOAS tomography during the motorway campaign BAB II: experimental setup and results for NO2,” J. Atmos. Environ. 39, 967–975 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Laepple, V. Knab, K. U. Mettendorf, I. Pundt, “Long-path DOAS tomography on a motorway exhaust gas plume: numerical studies and application to data from the BAB II campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1323–1342 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Regnarsson, P.

H. Axelsson, B. Galle, K. Gustavsson, P. Regnarsson, M. Rudin, “A transmitting/receiving telescope for DOAS measurements using the retroreflector technique,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 4 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1990), pp. 641–644.

Rudin, M.

H. Axelsson, B. Galle, K. Gustavsson, P. Regnarsson, M. Rudin, “A transmitting/receiving telescope for DOAS measurements using the retroreflector technique,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere, Vol. 4 of 1990 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1990), pp. 641–644.

Rudolph, T.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Simon, P. C.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross section measurements in the UV using a Fourier-transform spectrometer (295 K),” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25599–25605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, N.

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Strandberg, A.

C. Hak, I. Pundt, S. Trick, C. Kern, U. Platt, J. Dommen, C. Ordonez, A. S. H. Prevot, W. Junkermann, C. Astorga-Llorens, B. R. Larsen, J. Mellqvist, A. Strandberg, Y. Yu, B. Galle, J. Kleffmann, J. Loerzer, G. O. Braathen, R. Volkamer, “Intercomparison of four different in situ techniques for ambient formaldehyde measurements in an urban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 2897–2945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Stutz, J.

J. Stutz, E. S. Kim, U. Platt, P. Bruno, C. Perrino, A. Febo, “UV-visible absorption cross section of nitrous acid,” J. Geophys. Res. 105(D11), 14585–14592 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Stutz, “Messung der Konzentration troposphärischer Spurenstoffe mittels Differentieller—Optischer-Absorptions-spektroskopie: Eine neue Generation von Geräten und Algorithmen,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Heidelberg, 1996).

T. Gomer, T. Brauers, F. Heintz, J. Stutz, U. Platt, MFC Manual (University of Heidelberg, 1996).

Toennissen, A.

G. Hübler, D. Perner, U. Platt, A. Toennissen, D. H. Ehalt, “Ground-level OH radical concentration: new measurements by optical absorption,” J. Geophys. Res. 89, 1309–1319 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Trick, S.

C. Hak, I. Pundt, S. Trick, C. Kern, U. Platt, J. Dommen, C. Ordonez, A. S. H. Prevot, W. Junkermann, C. Astorga-Llorens, B. R. Larsen, J. Mellqvist, A. Strandberg, Y. Yu, B. Galle, J. Kleffmann, J. Loerzer, G. O. Braathen, R. Volkamer, “Intercomparison of four different in situ techniques for ambient formaldehyde measurements in an urban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 2897–2945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Vandaele, A. C.

C. Hermans, A. C. Vandaele, M. Carleer, S. Fally, R. Colin, A. Jenouvier, B. Coquart, M.-F. Merienne, “Absorption cross sections of atmospheric constituents: NO2, O2, and H2O,” Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 6, 151–158 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Camy-Peyret, B. Bergqvist, B. Galle, M. Carleer, C. Clerbaux, R. Colin, C. Fayt, F. Goutail, M. Nunes-Pinharanda, J. P. Pommereau, M. Hausmann, U. Platt, I. Pundt, T. Rudolph, C. Hermans, P. C. Simon, A. C. Vandaele, J. M. C. Plane, N. Smith, “Intercomparison of instruments for tropospheric measurements using differential optical absorption spectroscopy,” J. Atmos. Chem. 23, 51–80 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. C. Vandaele, P. C. Simon, J. M. Guilmot, M. Carleer, R. Colin, “SO2 absorption cross section measurements in the UV using a Fourier-transform spectrometer (295 K),” J. Geophys. Res. 99, 25599–25605 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, B.

U. Corsmeier, M. Kohler, B. Vogel, H. Vogel, F. Fiedler, “BAB II: a project to evaluate the accuracy of real world traffic emissions for a motorway,” submitted to J. Atmos. Environ.

Vogel, H.

U. Corsmeier, M. Kohler, B. Vogel, H. Vogel, F. Fiedler, “BAB II: a project to evaluate the accuracy of real world traffic emissions for a motorway,” submitted to J. Atmos. Environ.

Voigt, S.

S. Voigt, J. Orphal, J. P. Burrows, “The temperature and pressure dependence of the absorption cross sections of NO2 in the 250–800-nm region measured by Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A. 149, 1–7 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Voigt, J. Orphal, K. Bogumil, J. P. Burrows, “The temperature dependence (203–293 K of the absorption cross sections of O3 in the 230–850 nm region measured by Fourier-transform spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 143, 1–9 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Volkamer, R.

C. Hak, I. Pundt, S. Trick, C. Kern, U. Platt, J. Dommen, C. Ordonez, A. S. H. Prevot, W. Junkermann, C. Astorga-Llorens, B. R. Larsen, J. Mellqvist, A. Strandberg, Y. Yu, B. Galle, J. Kleffmann, J. Loerzer, G. O. Braathen, R. Volkamer, “Intercomparison of four different in situ techniques for ambient formaldehyde measurements in an urban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 2897–2945 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, T.

I. Pundt, K. U. Mettendorf, T. Laepple, V. Knab, P. Xie, J. Lösch, C. v. Friedeburg, U. Platt, T. Wagner, “Measurements of trace-gas distributions using long-path DOAS tomography during the motorway campaign BAB II: experimental setup and results for NO2,” J. Atmos. Environ. 39, 967–975 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.-F.

R. A. Hashmonay, M. G. Yost, C.-F. Wu, “Computed tomography of air pollutants using radial scanning path-integrated optical remote sensing,” J. Atmos. Environ. 33, 267–274 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Xie, P.

I. Pundt, K. U. Mettendorf, T. Laepple, V. Knab, P. Xie, J. Lösch, C. v. Friedeburg, U. Platt, T. Wagner, “Measurements of trace-gas distributions using long-path DOAS tomography during the motorway campaign BAB II: experimental setup and results for NO2,” J. Atmos. Environ. 39, 967–975 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yost, M. G.

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C. Hak, I. Pundt, S. Trick, C. Kern, U. Platt, J. Dommen, C. Ordonez, A. S. H. Prevot, W. Junkermann, C. Astorga-Llorens, B. R. Larsen, J. Mellqvist, A. Strandberg, Y. Yu, B. Galle, J. Kleffmann, J. Loerzer, G. O. Braathen, R. Volkamer, “Intercomparison of four different in situ techniques for ambient formaldehyde measurements in an urban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 2897–2945 (2005).
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T. Laepple, V. Knab, K. U. Mettendorf, I. Pundt, “Long-path DOAS tomography on a motorway exhaust gas plume: numerical studies and application to data from the BAB II campaign,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 4, 1323–1342 (2004).
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C. Hak, I. Pundt, S. Trick, C. Kern, U. Platt, J. Dommen, C. Ordonez, A. S. H. Prevot, W. Junkermann, C. Astorga-Llorens, B. R. Larsen, J. Mellqvist, A. Strandberg, Y. Yu, B. Galle, J. Kleffmann, J. Loerzer, G. O. Braathen, R. Volkamer, “Intercomparison of four different in situ techniques for ambient formaldehyde measurements in an urban area,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 5, 2897–2945 (2005).
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Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. (1)

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A. Geyer, R. Ackermann, R. Dubois, B. Lohrmann, T. Müller, U. Platt, “Long-term observation of nitrate radicals in the continental boundary layer near Berlin,” J. Atmos. Environ. 35, 3619–3631 (2001).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Coaxial Newton telescope design of Axelsson et al.,9 frequently employed nowadays, is the basis of the multibeam telescope (A, main mirror; B, outcoupling mirror; C, incoupling mirror).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Instrumental setup of the entire multibeam system (including, A, telescope; B, lamp housing; C, mode mixer; D, spectrograph; E, CCD detector; F, stepper motor controller; G, mirror tower with four mirror units; H, rotating disk retroreflector; I, retroreflector array at a distance between 500 and 5000 m). The distance between the telescope and the mirror tower is usually 10–15 m. The distance between the rotating retroreflector and the tower is also 10–15 m. The rotating disk can be placed close to the telescope.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) View from the front of the telescope. Two virtual light sources can be seen on the main mirror of the telescope. (b) Mirror tower with four mirror units. (c) Retroreflector disk used for the shortcut system.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical principle of the multibeam telescope. In contrast to the conventional setup, additional small mirrors are placed inside the lamp housing (L1, L2). They generate several virtual lamps on the focal plane of the main concave mirror, allowing the emission of multiple light beams. The light path for two light beams is shown: middle panel, emission part of the telescope (plane xy); lower panel, receiving part of the telescope (plane yz).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated relative intensity as a function of the elevation and azimuth angles. (The elevation is defined as the vertical angle above the horizontal of the optical axis and the azimuth as the angle in the horizontal direction away from the optical axis.)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectra from four light beams on the two-dimensional CCD array. The dispersion direction is in the horizontal. For each fiber ending at the entrance slit a complete and separate spectrum is generated on the CCD.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Example of the analysis for a spectrum with beam 3 recorded at 4:17 p.m. central European summer time (CEST) on 7 October 2003: full curve, atmospheric absorption; dotted curve, laboratory cross sections. From top to bottom, left, residual structure, NO2, H2CO, O3; right, total fit, SO2, HONO, lamp, solar spectra.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

NO2 mixing ratios measured during 18 h between 0 a.m. and 6 p.m., 7 October 2003 CEST. All three light beams were directed to the same retroreflector. Except for a time period with strong winds (between 9:00 and 12:00 a.m.) simultaneous measurements were performed continually with all three light beams.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of NO2 mixing ratios presented in Fig. 8. The values of each light beam are plotted against the average values of the three light beams. The result of a linear fit is shown as a full line: upper panel, beam 1; middle panel, beam 2; lower panel, beam 3.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Important Contributions to the Residual Structure and Their Resulting Detection Limits

Tables Icon

Table 2 Specifications and References for the Trace-Gas Absorption Cross Sections Used in This Study

Tables Icon

Table 3 Overview of Fit Parameters Calculated by a Linear Fit between the Trace-Gas Slant Column Densities of One Light Beam and the Average Values Derived with Three Light Beams along the Same Light Path during the Intercalibration Measurement

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Φ 1 ( φ , ϑ ) = Φ 0 1 4 π A E ( φ , ϑ ) f 2 ,
Φ 2 ( φ , ϑ ) = Φ 0 1 4 π A E ( φ , ϑ ) f 2 τ A R ( φ , ϑ ) π r 2 R 7 ,
Q ( φ , ϑ ) = A E ( φ , ϑ ) A R ( φ , ϑ ) A E ( 0 , 0 ) A R ( 0 , 0 ) .

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