Two-dimensional arrays of microlenses can be used in wearable display applications as numerical aperture expanders or exit-pupil expanders (EPEs) to increase the size of the display exit pupil. A novel EPE approach that uses two microlens arrays (MLAs) is presented. The approach is based on cascading two identical microlens arrays spaced precisely at one focal-length distance with submicrometer registration tolerances relative to each other. The ideal MLA for this application requires a 100% fill factor, sharp seams between microlenses, and a perfect spherical profile. We demonstrate a dual-MLA-based EPE that produces excellent exit-pupil uniformity and better than 90% diffraction efficiency for all three wavelengths in a color-display system. Two-MLA registration is performed with submicrometer precision by use of far-field alignment techniques. Fourier optics theory is used to derive the analytical formulas, and physical optics beam propagation is used for numerical computations. Three MLA fabrication technologies, including gray-scale lithography, photoresist reflow, and isotropic etching, are evaluated and compared for an EPE application.
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