Abstract

We present a new technique based on the spectral characteristics associated with the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect for studying lubricants in elastohydrodynamic (EHD) dimples. The pressure inside the EHD dimple causes a localized change of the refractive index (RI) of the entrapped lubricant. This also results in a shift in the spectral SPR absorption dip. By monitoring the color changes within the SPR image, one can obtain a direct measurement of the RI of the entrapped lubricant, from which the pressure distribution within the elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) dimple can be deduced by means of a predetermined relation of pressure and RI of the tested lubricant. Dimples formed with the lubricants PB 2400 and H 1900 were studied in our experiments. Because SPR is sensitive only to the RI variation within a thin region (approximately one wavelength) close to the sensor’s surface, the new technique does not require any measurement of the absolute film thickness of the lubricant. This is much simpler than the existing two-beam interferometric technique for measuring the RI of lubricants in EHD dimples, which requires simultaneous measurements of optical film thickness by use of two beams of different angles of incidence. In light of this advantage we anticipate that the new technique can be applied to pressure field mapping in highly loaded rolling and sliding EHL contacts.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Cameron, R. Gohar, “Theoretical and experimental studies of the oil film in lubricated point contact,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 291, 520–536 (1966).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. Gohar, A. Cameron, “Optical measurement of oil film thickness under elastohydrodynamic lubrication,” Nature 200, 458–459 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. A. Foord, L. D. Wedeven, F. J. Westlake, A. Cameron, “Optical elastohydrodynamics,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 184, 487–505 (1969–70).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. R. Paul, A. Cameron, “An absolute high-pressure microviscometer based on refractive index,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 331, 171–184 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. L. Wong, S. Lingard, A. Cameron, “A simplified impact microviscometer,” Tribol. Int. 25, 363–366 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. M. A. Safa, J. C. Anderson, J. A. Leather, “Transducers for pressure, temperature and oil film thickness measurement in bearings,” Sens. Actuators 3, 119–128 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. Niggemann, A. Katerkamp, M. Pellmann, P. Boismann, J. Reinbold, K. Cammann, “Remote sensing of tetrachloroethene with a micro-fibre optical gas sensor based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators B 34, 328–333 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. C. P. Cahill, K. S. Jahnston, S. S. Yee, “A surface plasmon resonance sensor probe based on retro-reflection,” Sens. Actuators B 45, 161–166 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. E. Kretschmann, H. Raether, “Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 23, 2135–2136 (1968).
  10. A. Otto, “Excitation of surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. 216, 398–410 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gordon, M. R. Philpott, “Surface plasmon spectroscopy of organic monolayer assemblies,” Surf. Science 74, 237–244 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3, 79–88 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, I. Lundström, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sens. Actuators 4, 299–304 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Homola, S. S. Yee, G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. J. Lee, T. T. Goodrich, R. M. Corn, “SPR imaging measurement of 1-D and 2-D DNA microarrays created from microfluidic channels on gold thin films,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5525–5531 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J.-M. Jung, Y.-B. Shin, M.-G. Kim, H.-S. Ro, H.-T. Jung, B. H. Chung, “A fusion protein expression analysis using surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Anal. Biochem. 330, 251–256 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. Hartl, I. Krupka, M. Liska, “Elastohydrodynamic film thickness mapping by computer differential colorimetry,” Tribol. Trans. 42, 361–368 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. L. Wong, F. Guo, C. Feng, “The measurement of the refractive index of a liquid lubricant at high pressure within an EHL impact dimple using a single optical interferogram,” Tribology Int. 36, 497–504 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  19. P. L. Wong, S. Lingard, A. Cameron, “The high pressure impact microviscometer,” Tribol. Trans. 35, 500–508 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  20. E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985), pp. 275–358.
  21. Department of Applied and Computer Optics of the St. Petersburg State Institute of Fine Mechanics and Glass, “Glass bank” http://glassbank.ifmo.ru .

2004

J.-M. Jung, Y.-B. Shin, M.-G. Kim, H.-S. Ro, H.-T. Jung, B. H. Chung, “A fusion protein expression analysis using surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Anal. Biochem. 330, 251–256 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

P. L. Wong, F. Guo, C. Feng, “The measurement of the refractive index of a liquid lubricant at high pressure within an EHL impact dimple using a single optical interferogram,” Tribology Int. 36, 497–504 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

H. J. Lee, T. T. Goodrich, R. M. Corn, “SPR imaging measurement of 1-D and 2-D DNA microarrays created from microfluidic channels on gold thin films,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5525–5531 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999

M. Hartl, I. Krupka, M. Liska, “Elastohydrodynamic film thickness mapping by computer differential colorimetry,” Tribol. Trans. 42, 361–368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

C. P. Cahill, K. S. Jahnston, S. S. Yee, “A surface plasmon resonance sensor probe based on retro-reflection,” Sens. Actuators B 45, 161–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Niggemann, A. Katerkamp, M. Pellmann, P. Boismann, J. Reinbold, K. Cammann, “Remote sensing of tetrachloroethene with a micro-fibre optical gas sensor based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators B 34, 328–333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1992

P. L. Wong, S. Lingard, A. Cameron, “A simplified impact microviscometer,” Tribol. Int. 25, 363–366 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Wong, S. Lingard, A. Cameron, “The high pressure impact microviscometer,” Tribol. Trans. 35, 500–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, I. Lundström, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sens. Actuators 4, 299–304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3, 79–88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

M. M. A. Safa, J. C. Anderson, J. A. Leather, “Transducers for pressure, temperature and oil film thickness measurement in bearings,” Sens. Actuators 3, 119–128 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1978

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gordon, M. R. Philpott, “Surface plasmon spectroscopy of organic monolayer assemblies,” Surf. Science 74, 237–244 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1972

G. R. Paul, A. Cameron, “An absolute high-pressure microviscometer based on refractive index,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 331, 171–184 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968

E. Kretschmann, H. Raether, “Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 23, 2135–2136 (1968).

A. Otto, “Excitation of surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. 216, 398–410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966

A. Cameron, R. Gohar, “Theoretical and experimental studies of the oil film in lubricated point contact,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 291, 520–536 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1963

R. Gohar, A. Cameron, “Optical measurement of oil film thickness under elastohydrodynamic lubrication,” Nature 200, 458–459 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J. C.

M. M. A. Safa, J. C. Anderson, J. A. Leather, “Transducers for pressure, temperature and oil film thickness measurement in bearings,” Sens. Actuators 3, 119–128 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Boismann, P.

M. Niggemann, A. Katerkamp, M. Pellmann, P. Boismann, J. Reinbold, K. Cammann, “Remote sensing of tetrachloroethene with a micro-fibre optical gas sensor based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators B 34, 328–333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cahill, C. P.

C. P. Cahill, K. S. Jahnston, S. S. Yee, “A surface plasmon resonance sensor probe based on retro-reflection,” Sens. Actuators B 45, 161–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cameron, A.

P. L. Wong, S. Lingard, A. Cameron, “A simplified impact microviscometer,” Tribol. Int. 25, 363–366 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Wong, S. Lingard, A. Cameron, “The high pressure impact microviscometer,” Tribol. Trans. 35, 500–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Paul, A. Cameron, “An absolute high-pressure microviscometer based on refractive index,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 331, 171–184 (1972).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Foord, L. D. Wedeven, F. J. Westlake, A. Cameron, “Optical elastohydrodynamics,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 184, 487–505 (1969–70).
[CrossRef]

A. Cameron, R. Gohar, “Theoretical and experimental studies of the oil film in lubricated point contact,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 291, 520–536 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. Gohar, A. Cameron, “Optical measurement of oil film thickness under elastohydrodynamic lubrication,” Nature 200, 458–459 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Cammann, K.

M. Niggemann, A. Katerkamp, M. Pellmann, P. Boismann, J. Reinbold, K. Cammann, “Remote sensing of tetrachloroethene with a micro-fibre optical gas sensor based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators B 34, 328–333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chung, B. H.

J.-M. Jung, Y.-B. Shin, M.-G. Kim, H.-S. Ro, H.-T. Jung, B. H. Chung, “A fusion protein expression analysis using surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Anal. Biochem. 330, 251–256 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corn, R. M.

H. J. Lee, T. T. Goodrich, R. M. Corn, “SPR imaging measurement of 1-D and 2-D DNA microarrays created from microfluidic channels on gold thin films,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5525–5531 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Feng, C.

P. L. Wong, F. Guo, C. Feng, “The measurement of the refractive index of a liquid lubricant at high pressure within an EHL impact dimple using a single optical interferogram,” Tribology Int. 36, 497–504 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Foord, C. A.

C. A. Foord, L. D. Wedeven, F. J. Westlake, A. Cameron, “Optical elastohydrodynamics,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 184, 487–505 (1969–70).
[CrossRef]

Gauglitz, G.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gohar, R.

A. Cameron, R. Gohar, “Theoretical and experimental studies of the oil film in lubricated point contact,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 291, 520–536 (1966).
[CrossRef]

R. Gohar, A. Cameron, “Optical measurement of oil film thickness under elastohydrodynamic lubrication,” Nature 200, 458–459 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Goodrich, T. T.

H. J. Lee, T. T. Goodrich, R. M. Corn, “SPR imaging measurement of 1-D and 2-D DNA microarrays created from microfluidic channels on gold thin films,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5525–5531 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. G.

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gordon, M. R. Philpott, “Surface plasmon spectroscopy of organic monolayer assemblies,” Surf. Science 74, 237–244 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Guo, F.

P. L. Wong, F. Guo, C. Feng, “The measurement of the refractive index of a liquid lubricant at high pressure within an EHL impact dimple using a single optical interferogram,” Tribology Int. 36, 497–504 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hartl, M.

M. Hartl, I. Krupka, M. Liska, “Elastohydrodynamic film thickness mapping by computer differential colorimetry,” Tribol. Trans. 42, 361–368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Homola, J.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jahnston, K. S.

C. P. Cahill, K. S. Jahnston, S. S. Yee, “A surface plasmon resonance sensor probe based on retro-reflection,” Sens. Actuators B 45, 161–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jung, H.-T.

J.-M. Jung, Y.-B. Shin, M.-G. Kim, H.-S. Ro, H.-T. Jung, B. H. Chung, “A fusion protein expression analysis using surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Anal. Biochem. 330, 251–256 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, J.-M.

J.-M. Jung, Y.-B. Shin, M.-G. Kim, H.-S. Ro, H.-T. Jung, B. H. Chung, “A fusion protein expression analysis using surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Anal. Biochem. 330, 251–256 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Katerkamp, A.

M. Niggemann, A. Katerkamp, M. Pellmann, P. Boismann, J. Reinbold, K. Cammann, “Remote sensing of tetrachloroethene with a micro-fibre optical gas sensor based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators B 34, 328–333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.-G.

J.-M. Jung, Y.-B. Shin, M.-G. Kim, H.-S. Ro, H.-T. Jung, B. H. Chung, “A fusion protein expression analysis using surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Anal. Biochem. 330, 251–256 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kretschmann, E.

E. Kretschmann, H. Raether, “Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 23, 2135–2136 (1968).

Krupka, I.

M. Hartl, I. Krupka, M. Liska, “Elastohydrodynamic film thickness mapping by computer differential colorimetry,” Tribol. Trans. 42, 361–368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Leather, J. A.

M. M. A. Safa, J. C. Anderson, J. A. Leather, “Transducers for pressure, temperature and oil film thickness measurement in bearings,” Sens. Actuators 3, 119–128 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. J.

H. J. Lee, T. T. Goodrich, R. M. Corn, “SPR imaging measurement of 1-D and 2-D DNA microarrays created from microfluidic channels on gold thin films,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5525–5531 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liedberg, B.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, I. Lundström, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sens. Actuators 4, 299–304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3, 79–88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lind, T.

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3, 79–88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Lingard, S.

P. L. Wong, S. Lingard, A. Cameron, “A simplified impact microviscometer,” Tribol. Int. 25, 363–366 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Wong, S. Lingard, A. Cameron, “The high pressure impact microviscometer,” Tribol. Trans. 35, 500–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liska, M.

M. Hartl, I. Krupka, M. Liska, “Elastohydrodynamic film thickness mapping by computer differential colorimetry,” Tribol. Trans. 42, 361–368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lundström, I.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, I. Lundström, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sens. Actuators 4, 299–304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Niggemann, M.

M. Niggemann, A. Katerkamp, M. Pellmann, P. Boismann, J. Reinbold, K. Cammann, “Remote sensing of tetrachloroethene with a micro-fibre optical gas sensor based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators B 34, 328–333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nylander, C.

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, I. Lundström, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sens. Actuators 4, 299–304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3, 79–88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Otto, A.

A. Otto, “Excitation of surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. 216, 398–410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Palik, E. D.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985), pp. 275–358.

Paul, G. R.

G. R. Paul, A. Cameron, “An absolute high-pressure microviscometer based on refractive index,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 331, 171–184 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Pellmann, M.

M. Niggemann, A. Katerkamp, M. Pellmann, P. Boismann, J. Reinbold, K. Cammann, “Remote sensing of tetrachloroethene with a micro-fibre optical gas sensor based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators B 34, 328–333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Philpott, M. R.

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gordon, M. R. Philpott, “Surface plasmon spectroscopy of organic monolayer assemblies,” Surf. Science 74, 237–244 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Pockrand, I.

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gordon, M. R. Philpott, “Surface plasmon spectroscopy of organic monolayer assemblies,” Surf. Science 74, 237–244 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Raether, H.

E. Kretschmann, H. Raether, “Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 23, 2135–2136 (1968).

Reinbold, J.

M. Niggemann, A. Katerkamp, M. Pellmann, P. Boismann, J. Reinbold, K. Cammann, “Remote sensing of tetrachloroethene with a micro-fibre optical gas sensor based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators B 34, 328–333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ro, H.-S.

J.-M. Jung, Y.-B. Shin, M.-G. Kim, H.-S. Ro, H.-T. Jung, B. H. Chung, “A fusion protein expression analysis using surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Anal. Biochem. 330, 251–256 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Safa, M. M. A.

M. M. A. Safa, J. C. Anderson, J. A. Leather, “Transducers for pressure, temperature and oil film thickness measurement in bearings,” Sens. Actuators 3, 119–128 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Shin, Y.-B.

J.-M. Jung, Y.-B. Shin, M.-G. Kim, H.-S. Ro, H.-T. Jung, B. H. Chung, “A fusion protein expression analysis using surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Anal. Biochem. 330, 251–256 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swalen, J. D.

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gordon, M. R. Philpott, “Surface plasmon spectroscopy of organic monolayer assemblies,” Surf. Science 74, 237–244 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Wedeven, L. D.

C. A. Foord, L. D. Wedeven, F. J. Westlake, A. Cameron, “Optical elastohydrodynamics,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 184, 487–505 (1969–70).
[CrossRef]

Westlake, F. J.

C. A. Foord, L. D. Wedeven, F. J. Westlake, A. Cameron, “Optical elastohydrodynamics,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 184, 487–505 (1969–70).
[CrossRef]

Wong, P. L.

P. L. Wong, F. Guo, C. Feng, “The measurement of the refractive index of a liquid lubricant at high pressure within an EHL impact dimple using a single optical interferogram,” Tribology Int. 36, 497–504 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Wong, S. Lingard, A. Cameron, “The high pressure impact microviscometer,” Tribol. Trans. 35, 500–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Wong, S. Lingard, A. Cameron, “A simplified impact microviscometer,” Tribol. Int. 25, 363–366 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Cahill, K. S. Jahnston, S. S. Yee, “A surface plasmon resonance sensor probe based on retro-reflection,” Sens. Actuators B 45, 161–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Biochem.

J.-M. Jung, Y.-B. Shin, M.-G. Kim, H.-S. Ro, H.-T. Jung, B. H. Chung, “A fusion protein expression analysis using surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Anal. Biochem. 330, 251–256 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

H. J. Lee, T. T. Goodrich, R. M. Corn, “SPR imaging measurement of 1-D and 2-D DNA microarrays created from microfluidic channels on gold thin films,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5525–5531 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nature

R. Gohar, A. Cameron, “Optical measurement of oil film thickness under elastohydrodynamic lubrication,” Nature 200, 458–459 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng.

C. A. Foord, L. D. Wedeven, F. J. Westlake, A. Cameron, “Optical elastohydrodynamics,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. 184, 487–505 (1969–70).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A

G. R. Paul, A. Cameron, “An absolute high-pressure microviscometer based on refractive index,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 331, 171–184 (1972).
[CrossRef]

A. Cameron, R. Gohar, “Theoretical and experimental studies of the oil film in lubricated point contact,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 291, 520–536 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators

C. Nylander, B. Liedberg, T. Lind, “Gas detection by means of surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators 3, 79–88 (1982).
[CrossRef]

B. Liedberg, C. Nylander, I. Lundström, “Surface plasmon resonance for gas detection and biosensing,” Sens. Actuators 4, 299–304 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. M. A. Safa, J. C. Anderson, J. A. Leather, “Transducers for pressure, temperature and oil film thickness measurement in bearings,” Sens. Actuators 3, 119–128 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators B

M. Niggemann, A. Katerkamp, M. Pellmann, P. Boismann, J. Reinbold, K. Cammann, “Remote sensing of tetrachloroethene with a micro-fibre optical gas sensor based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy,” Sens. Actuators B 34, 328–333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Cahill, K. S. Jahnston, S. S. Yee, “A surface plasmon resonance sensor probe based on retro-reflection,” Sens. Actuators B 45, 161–166 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Homola, S. S. Yee, G. Gauglitz, “Surface plasmon resonance sensors: review,” Sens. Actuators B 54, 3–15 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Science

I. Pockrand, J. D. Swalen, J. G. Gordon, M. R. Philpott, “Surface plasmon spectroscopy of organic monolayer assemblies,” Surf. Science 74, 237–244 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Tribol. Int.

P. L. Wong, S. Lingard, A. Cameron, “A simplified impact microviscometer,” Tribol. Int. 25, 363–366 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tribol. Trans.

M. Hartl, I. Krupka, M. Liska, “Elastohydrodynamic film thickness mapping by computer differential colorimetry,” Tribol. Trans. 42, 361–368 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. L. Wong, S. Lingard, A. Cameron, “The high pressure impact microviscometer,” Tribol. Trans. 35, 500–508 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tribology Int.

P. L. Wong, F. Guo, C. Feng, “The measurement of the refractive index of a liquid lubricant at high pressure within an EHL impact dimple using a single optical interferogram,” Tribology Int. 36, 497–504 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Z. Naturforsch. Teil A

E. Kretschmann, H. Raether, “Radiative decay of non-radiative surface plasmons excited by light,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 23, 2135–2136 (1968).

Z. Phys.

A. Otto, “Excitation of surface plasma waves in silver by the method of frustrated total reflection,” Z. Phys. 216, 398–410 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Other

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic, 1985), pp. 275–358.

Department of Applied and Computer Optics of the St. Petersburg State Institute of Fine Mechanics and Glass, “Glass bank” http://glassbank.ifmo.ru .

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Figures (14)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Formation of a highly pressurized EHL Dimple.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup: CMOS, complementary metal-oxide semiconductor.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SPR reflection image: (a) PB 2400 lubricant dimple, (b) s-polarization image of the same dimple, (c) control SPR image obtained before formation of the dimple, and (d) optical interferogram.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

SPR spectra across the radial direction of the dimple: (a) lower half of the dimple, (b) upper half of the dimple.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SPR dip wavelength and refractive-index profile of the PB 2400 EHL dimple.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Regression coefficient for data points across the PB 2400 EHL dimple.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of results obtained from conventional optical interference and SPR sensing for the PB 2400 lubricant EHL dimple.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated absolute lubricant film thickness h across the PB 2400 dimple.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Pressure–refractive-index relation of the PB 2400 lubricant.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) SPR reflection image of the H1900 lubricant dimple, (b) control SPR reflection image, (c) optical interferogram.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

SPR dip wavelength and refractive-index profile of the H 1900 EHL dimple.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Regression coefficient for data points across the H 1900 EHL dimple.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Comparison of results from conventional optical interference and SPR sensing for the H 1900 lubricant EHL dimple.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Pressure–refractive-index relation of the H 1900 lubricant.

Equations (4)

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k x = 2 π λ n p sin θ ,
k s p = 2 π λ ( n m 2 n s 2 n m 2 + n s 2 ) 1 / 2 ,
n s = [ ɛ m ( λ ) n p ( λ ) 2 sin 2 θ ɛ m ( λ ) - n p ( λ ) 2 sin 2 ϑ ] 1 / 2 ,
N λ = 2 n h cos θ ,

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