Abstract

We describe an inversion method for determining the composition, density, and size of stratospheric clouds and aerosols by satellite remote sensing. The method, which combines linear least-squares minimization and Monte Carlo techniques, is tested with pure synthetic IR spectra. The synthetic spectral data are constructed to mimic mid-IR spectra recorded by the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS-I and ILAS-II) instruments, which operate in the solar occultation mode and record numerous polar stratospheric cloud events. The advantages and limitations of the proposed technique are discussed. In brief we find that stratospheric aerosol in the size range from 0.5 to 4.0 μm can be retrieved to an accuracy of 30%. We also show that the chemical composition of common stratospheric aerosols can be determined, whereas identification of their phases from mid-IR satellite remote-sensing data alone appears to be questionable.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. S. Carslaw, T. Peter, S. L. Clegg, “Modeling the composition of liquid stratospheric aerosols,” Rev. Geophys. 35, 125–154 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Peter, “Microphysics and heterogeneous chemistry of polar stratospheric clouds,” Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 48, 785–822 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. L. L. Pan, W. J. Randel, H. Nakajima, S. T. Massie, H. Kanzawa, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, T. Sugita, S. Hayashida, S. Oshchepkov, “Satellite observation of dehydration in the Arctic Polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett.29, doi: (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. L. Santee, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, G. L. Manney, D. A. Flower, R. F. Jarnot, R. S. Harwood, G. E. Peckham, “Interhemispheric differences in polar stratospheric HNO3, H2O, CIO, and O3,” Science 267, 849–852 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Tabazadeh, E. J. Jensen, O. B. Toon, K. Drdla, M. R. Schoeberl, “Role of the stratospheric polar freezing belt in dentrification,” Science 291, 2591–2594 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. S. Solomon, “The mystery of the Antarctic ozone ”hole’,” Rev. Geophys. 26, 131–148 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. Sasano, M. Suzuki, T. Yokota, H. Kanzawa, “Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) for stratospheric ozone layer measurements by solar occultation technique,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 197–200 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Hayashida, N. Saitoh, A. Kagawa, T. Yokota, M. Suzuki, H. Nakajima, Y. Sasano, “Arctic polar stratospheric clouds observed with the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer during winter 1996/1997,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 105, 24715–24730 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. L. Oshchepkov, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, “New method for simultaneous gas and aerosol retrievals from space limb-scanning spectral observation of the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4234–4244 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge University, 1989).
  11. S. L. Oshchepkov, “Optimum wavelength selections for atmospheric remote sensing. 1999,” Eco-Frontier Fellowship (EFF) in 1998 (Research & Information Office, Global Environmental Department, Environment Agency of Japan, Tokyo, 1999).
  12. C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).
  13. U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, T. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid-infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 783–793 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. L. Norman, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Ternary H2SO4/HNO3/H2O optical constants: new measurements from aerosol spectroscopy under stratospheric conditions,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 6075–6083 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. F. Niedziela, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Temperature- and frequency-dependent optical constants for nitric acid dihydrate from aerosol spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 6477–6484 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. J. Richwine, M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Complex refractive indices in the infrared of nitric-acid trihydrate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2625–2628 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Frequency-dependent optical constants of water ice obtained directly from aerosol extinction spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 6317–6326 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. K. Bertram, D. B. Dickens, J. J. Sloan, “Supercooling of type 1 polar stratospheric clouds: the freezing of submicrometer nitric acid aerosols having HNO3 mol fractions of less than 0.5,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 105, 9283–9290 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. L. Lawson, R. J. Hanson, Solving Least-Squares Problems (Prentice-Hall, 1974).
  20. R. J. Le Roy, “Uncertainty, sensitivity, convergence, and rounding in performing and reporting least-squares fits,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 191, 223–231 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. C. Bingen, D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, “A global climatology of stratospheric aerosols using SAGE II data: toward a systematic characterization of the aerosol evolution,” Planet. Ionosph. Atmos. Incl. Cira 34, 1763–1767 (2004).
  22. T. Deshler, M. E. Hervig, D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, J. B. Liley, “Thirty years of in situ stratospheric aerosol size distribution measurements from Laramie, Wyoming (41 deg N), using balloonborne instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos.108, 4167-doi: (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (1)

C. Bingen, D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, “A global climatology of stratospheric aerosols using SAGE II data: toward a systematic characterization of the aerosol evolution,” Planet. Ionosph. Atmos. Incl. Cira 34, 1763–1767 (2004).

2002 (2)

M. L. Norman, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Ternary H2SO4/HNO3/H2O optical constants: new measurements from aerosol spectroscopy under stratospheric conditions,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 6075–6083 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Oshchepkov, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, “New method for simultaneous gas and aerosol retrievals from space limb-scanning spectral observation of the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4234–4244 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

A. Tabazadeh, E. J. Jensen, O. B. Toon, K. Drdla, M. R. Schoeberl, “Role of the stratospheric polar freezing belt in dentrification,” Science 291, 2591–2594 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (3)

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, T. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid-infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 783–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Hayashida, N. Saitoh, A. Kagawa, T. Yokota, M. Suzuki, H. Nakajima, Y. Sasano, “Arctic polar stratospheric clouds observed with the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer during winter 1996/1997,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 105, 24715–24730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Bertram, D. B. Dickens, J. J. Sloan, “Supercooling of type 1 polar stratospheric clouds: the freezing of submicrometer nitric acid aerosols having HNO3 mol fractions of less than 0.5,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 105, 9283–9290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

Y. Sasano, M. Suzuki, T. Yokota, H. Kanzawa, “Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) for stratospheric ozone layer measurements by solar occultation technique,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 197–200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

R. J. Le Roy, “Uncertainty, sensitivity, convergence, and rounding in performing and reporting least-squares fits,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 191, 223–231 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Niedziela, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Temperature- and frequency-dependent optical constants for nitric acid dihydrate from aerosol spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 6477–6484 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

K. S. Carslaw, T. Peter, S. L. Clegg, “Modeling the composition of liquid stratospheric aerosols,” Rev. Geophys. 35, 125–154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Peter, “Microphysics and heterogeneous chemistry of polar stratospheric clouds,” Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 48, 785–822 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

M. L. Santee, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, G. L. Manney, D. A. Flower, R. F. Jarnot, R. S. Harwood, G. E. Peckham, “Interhemispheric differences in polar stratospheric HNO3, H2O, CIO, and O3,” Science 267, 849–852 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. J. Richwine, M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Complex refractive indices in the infrared of nitric-acid trihydrate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2625–2628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Frequency-dependent optical constants of water ice obtained directly from aerosol extinction spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 6317–6326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

S. Solomon, “The mystery of the Antarctic ozone ”hole’,” Rev. Geophys. 26, 131–148 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Bertram, A. K.

A. K. Bertram, D. B. Dickens, J. J. Sloan, “Supercooling of type 1 polar stratospheric clouds: the freezing of submicrometer nitric acid aerosols having HNO3 mol fractions of less than 0.5,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 105, 9283–9290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Biermann, U. M.

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, T. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid-infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 783–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bingen, C.

C. Bingen, D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, “A global climatology of stratospheric aerosols using SAGE II data: toward a systematic characterization of the aerosol evolution,” Planet. Ionosph. Atmos. Incl. Cira 34, 1763–1767 (2004).

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Carslaw, K. S.

K. S. Carslaw, T. Peter, S. L. Clegg, “Modeling the composition of liquid stratospheric aerosols,” Rev. Geophys. 35, 125–154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clapp, M. L.

L. J. Richwine, M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Complex refractive indices in the infrared of nitric-acid trihydrate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2625–2628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Frequency-dependent optical constants of water ice obtained directly from aerosol extinction spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 6317–6326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Clegg, S. L.

K. S. Carslaw, T. Peter, S. L. Clegg, “Modeling the composition of liquid stratospheric aerosols,” Rev. Geophys. 35, 125–154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Deshler, T.

T. Deshler, M. E. Hervig, D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, J. B. Liley, “Thirty years of in situ stratospheric aerosol size distribution measurements from Laramie, Wyoming (41 deg N), using balloonborne instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos.108, 4167-doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dickens, D. B.

A. K. Bertram, D. B. Dickens, J. J. Sloan, “Supercooling of type 1 polar stratospheric clouds: the freezing of submicrometer nitric acid aerosols having HNO3 mol fractions of less than 0.5,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 105, 9283–9290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Drdla, K.

A. Tabazadeh, E. J. Jensen, O. B. Toon, K. Drdla, M. R. Schoeberl, “Role of the stratospheric polar freezing belt in dentrification,” Science 291, 2591–2594 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge University, 1989).

Flower, D. A.

M. L. Santee, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, G. L. Manney, D. A. Flower, R. F. Jarnot, R. S. Harwood, G. E. Peckham, “Interhemispheric differences in polar stratospheric HNO3, H2O, CIO, and O3,” Science 267, 849–852 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Froidevaux, L.

M. L. Santee, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, G. L. Manney, D. A. Flower, R. F. Jarnot, R. S. Harwood, G. E. Peckham, “Interhemispheric differences in polar stratospheric HNO3, H2O, CIO, and O3,” Science 267, 849–852 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fussen, D.

C. Bingen, D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, “A global climatology of stratospheric aerosols using SAGE II data: toward a systematic characterization of the aerosol evolution,” Planet. Ionosph. Atmos. Incl. Cira 34, 1763–1767 (2004).

Hanson, R. J.

C. L. Lawson, R. J. Hanson, Solving Least-Squares Problems (Prentice-Hall, 1974).

Harwood, R. S.

M. L. Santee, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, G. L. Manney, D. A. Flower, R. F. Jarnot, R. S. Harwood, G. E. Peckham, “Interhemispheric differences in polar stratospheric HNO3, H2O, CIO, and O3,” Science 267, 849–852 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayashida, S.

S. Hayashida, N. Saitoh, A. Kagawa, T. Yokota, M. Suzuki, H. Nakajima, Y. Sasano, “Arctic polar stratospheric clouds observed with the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer during winter 1996/1997,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 105, 24715–24730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Pan, W. J. Randel, H. Nakajima, S. T. Massie, H. Kanzawa, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, T. Sugita, S. Hayashida, S. Oshchepkov, “Satellite observation of dehydration in the Arctic Polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett.29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hervig, M. E.

T. Deshler, M. E. Hervig, D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, J. B. Liley, “Thirty years of in situ stratospheric aerosol size distribution measurements from Laramie, Wyoming (41 deg N), using balloonborne instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos.108, 4167-doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

T. Deshler, M. E. Hervig, D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, J. B. Liley, “Thirty years of in situ stratospheric aerosol size distribution measurements from Laramie, Wyoming (41 deg N), using balloonborne instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos.108, 4167-doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Jarnot, R. F.

M. L. Santee, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, G. L. Manney, D. A. Flower, R. F. Jarnot, R. S. Harwood, G. E. Peckham, “Interhemispheric differences in polar stratospheric HNO3, H2O, CIO, and O3,” Science 267, 849–852 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jensen, E. J.

A. Tabazadeh, E. J. Jensen, O. B. Toon, K. Drdla, M. R. Schoeberl, “Role of the stratospheric polar freezing belt in dentrification,” Science 291, 2591–2594 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kagawa, A.

S. Hayashida, N. Saitoh, A. Kagawa, T. Yokota, M. Suzuki, H. Nakajima, Y. Sasano, “Arctic polar stratospheric clouds observed with the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer during winter 1996/1997,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 105, 24715–24730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kanzawa, H.

Y. Sasano, M. Suzuki, T. Yokota, H. Kanzawa, “Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) for stratospheric ozone layer measurements by solar occultation technique,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 197–200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Pan, W. J. Randel, H. Nakajima, S. T. Massie, H. Kanzawa, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, T. Sugita, S. Hayashida, S. Oshchepkov, “Satellite observation of dehydration in the Arctic Polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett.29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, C. L.

C. L. Lawson, R. J. Hanson, Solving Least-Squares Problems (Prentice-Hall, 1974).

Le Roy, R. J.

R. J. Le Roy, “Uncertainty, sensitivity, convergence, and rounding in performing and reporting least-squares fits,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 191, 223–231 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liley, J. B.

T. Deshler, M. E. Hervig, D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, J. B. Liley, “Thirty years of in situ stratospheric aerosol size distribution measurements from Laramie, Wyoming (41 deg N), using balloonborne instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos.108, 4167-doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luo, B. P.

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, T. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid-infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 783–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Manney, G. L.

M. L. Santee, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, G. L. Manney, D. A. Flower, R. F. Jarnot, R. S. Harwood, G. E. Peckham, “Interhemispheric differences in polar stratospheric HNO3, H2O, CIO, and O3,” Science 267, 849–852 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massie, S. T.

L. L. Pan, W. J. Randel, H. Nakajima, S. T. Massie, H. Kanzawa, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, T. Sugita, S. Hayashida, S. Oshchepkov, “Satellite observation of dehydration in the Arctic Polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett.29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. E.

M. L. Norman, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Ternary H2SO4/HNO3/H2O optical constants: new measurements from aerosol spectroscopy under stratospheric conditions,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 6075–6083 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Niedziela, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Temperature- and frequency-dependent optical constants for nitric acid dihydrate from aerosol spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 6477–6484 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Frequency-dependent optical constants of water ice obtained directly from aerosol extinction spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 6317–6326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Richwine, M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Complex refractive indices in the infrared of nitric-acid trihydrate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2625–2628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, H.

S. Hayashida, N. Saitoh, A. Kagawa, T. Yokota, M. Suzuki, H. Nakajima, Y. Sasano, “Arctic polar stratospheric clouds observed with the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer during winter 1996/1997,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 105, 24715–24730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Pan, W. J. Randel, H. Nakajima, S. T. Massie, H. Kanzawa, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, T. Sugita, S. Hayashida, S. Oshchepkov, “Satellite observation of dehydration in the Arctic Polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett.29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Niedziela, R. F.

R. F. Niedziela, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Temperature- and frequency-dependent optical constants for nitric acid dihydrate from aerosol spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 6477–6484 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Norman, M. L.

M. L. Norman, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Ternary H2SO4/HNO3/H2O optical constants: new measurements from aerosol spectroscopy under stratospheric conditions,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 6075–6083 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oshchepkov, S.

L. L. Pan, W. J. Randel, H. Nakajima, S. T. Massie, H. Kanzawa, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, T. Sugita, S. Hayashida, S. Oshchepkov, “Satellite observation of dehydration in the Arctic Polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett.29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Oshchepkov, S. L.

S. L. Oshchepkov, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, “New method for simultaneous gas and aerosol retrievals from space limb-scanning spectral observation of the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4234–4244 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Oshchepkov, “Optimum wavelength selections for atmospheric remote sensing. 1999,” Eco-Frontier Fellowship (EFF) in 1998 (Research & Information Office, Global Environmental Department, Environment Agency of Japan, Tokyo, 1999).

Pan, L. L.

L. L. Pan, W. J. Randel, H. Nakajima, S. T. Massie, H. Kanzawa, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, T. Sugita, S. Hayashida, S. Oshchepkov, “Satellite observation of dehydration in the Arctic Polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett.29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Peckham, G. E.

M. L. Santee, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, G. L. Manney, D. A. Flower, R. F. Jarnot, R. S. Harwood, G. E. Peckham, “Interhemispheric differences in polar stratospheric HNO3, H2O, CIO, and O3,” Science 267, 849–852 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peter, T.

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, T. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid-infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 783–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Peter, “Microphysics and heterogeneous chemistry of polar stratospheric clouds,” Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 48, 785–822 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Carslaw, T. Peter, S. L. Clegg, “Modeling the composition of liquid stratospheric aerosols,” Rev. Geophys. 35, 125–154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge University, 1989).

Randel, W. J.

L. L. Pan, W. J. Randel, H. Nakajima, S. T. Massie, H. Kanzawa, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, T. Sugita, S. Hayashida, S. Oshchepkov, “Satellite observation of dehydration in the Arctic Polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett.29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Read, W. G.

M. L. Santee, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, G. L. Manney, D. A. Flower, R. F. Jarnot, R. S. Harwood, G. E. Peckham, “Interhemispheric differences in polar stratospheric HNO3, H2O, CIO, and O3,” Science 267, 849–852 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richwine, L. J.

L. J. Richwine, M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Complex refractive indices in the infrared of nitric-acid trihydrate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2625–2628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, J. M.

T. Deshler, M. E. Hervig, D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, J. B. Liley, “Thirty years of in situ stratospheric aerosol size distribution measurements from Laramie, Wyoming (41 deg N), using balloonborne instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos.108, 4167-doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Saitoh, N.

S. Hayashida, N. Saitoh, A. Kagawa, T. Yokota, M. Suzuki, H. Nakajima, Y. Sasano, “Arctic polar stratospheric clouds observed with the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer during winter 1996/1997,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 105, 24715–24730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Santee, M. L.

M. L. Santee, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, G. L. Manney, D. A. Flower, R. F. Jarnot, R. S. Harwood, G. E. Peckham, “Interhemispheric differences in polar stratospheric HNO3, H2O, CIO, and O3,” Science 267, 849–852 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sasano, Y.

S. L. Oshchepkov, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, “New method for simultaneous gas and aerosol retrievals from space limb-scanning spectral observation of the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4234–4244 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hayashida, N. Saitoh, A. Kagawa, T. Yokota, M. Suzuki, H. Nakajima, Y. Sasano, “Arctic polar stratospheric clouds observed with the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer during winter 1996/1997,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 105, 24715–24730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, M. Suzuki, T. Yokota, H. Kanzawa, “Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) for stratospheric ozone layer measurements by solar occultation technique,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 197–200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Pan, W. J. Randel, H. Nakajima, S. T. Massie, H. Kanzawa, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, T. Sugita, S. Hayashida, S. Oshchepkov, “Satellite observation of dehydration in the Arctic Polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett.29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schoeberl, M. R.

A. Tabazadeh, E. J. Jensen, O. B. Toon, K. Drdla, M. R. Schoeberl, “Role of the stratospheric polar freezing belt in dentrification,” Science 291, 2591–2594 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sloan, J. J.

A. K. Bertram, D. B. Dickens, J. J. Sloan, “Supercooling of type 1 polar stratospheric clouds: the freezing of submicrometer nitric acid aerosols having HNO3 mol fractions of less than 0.5,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 105, 9283–9290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S.

S. Solomon, “The mystery of the Antarctic ozone ”hole’,” Rev. Geophys. 26, 131–148 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sugita, T.

L. L. Pan, W. J. Randel, H. Nakajima, S. T. Massie, H. Kanzawa, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, T. Sugita, S. Hayashida, S. Oshchepkov, “Satellite observation of dehydration in the Arctic Polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett.29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

S. Hayashida, N. Saitoh, A. Kagawa, T. Yokota, M. Suzuki, H. Nakajima, Y. Sasano, “Arctic polar stratospheric clouds observed with the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer during winter 1996/1997,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 105, 24715–24730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, M. Suzuki, T. Yokota, H. Kanzawa, “Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) for stratospheric ozone layer measurements by solar occultation technique,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 197–200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tabazadeh, A.

A. Tabazadeh, E. J. Jensen, O. B. Toon, K. Drdla, M. R. Schoeberl, “Role of the stratospheric polar freezing belt in dentrification,” Science 291, 2591–2594 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge University, 1989).

Toon, O. B.

A. Tabazadeh, E. J. Jensen, O. B. Toon, K. Drdla, M. R. Schoeberl, “Role of the stratospheric polar freezing belt in dentrification,” Science 291, 2591–2594 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanhellemont, F.

C. Bingen, D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, “A global climatology of stratospheric aerosols using SAGE II data: toward a systematic characterization of the aerosol evolution,” Planet. Ionosph. Atmos. Incl. Cira 34, 1763–1767 (2004).

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge University, 1989).

Waters, J. W.

M. L. Santee, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, G. L. Manney, D. A. Flower, R. F. Jarnot, R. S. Harwood, G. E. Peckham, “Interhemispheric differences in polar stratospheric HNO3, H2O, CIO, and O3,” Science 267, 849–852 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Worsnop, D. R.

M. L. Norman, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Ternary H2SO4/HNO3/H2O optical constants: new measurements from aerosol spectroscopy under stratospheric conditions,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 6075–6083 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Niedziela, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Temperature- and frequency-dependent optical constants for nitric acid dihydrate from aerosol spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 6477–6484 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Richwine, M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Complex refractive indices in the infrared of nitric-acid trihydrate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2625–2628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Frequency-dependent optical constants of water ice obtained directly from aerosol extinction spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 6317–6326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yokota, T.

S. L. Oshchepkov, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, “New method for simultaneous gas and aerosol retrievals from space limb-scanning spectral observation of the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4234–4244 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Hayashida, N. Saitoh, A. Kagawa, T. Yokota, M. Suzuki, H. Nakajima, Y. Sasano, “Arctic polar stratospheric clouds observed with the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer during winter 1996/1997,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 105, 24715–24730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, M. Suzuki, T. Yokota, H. Kanzawa, “Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) for stratospheric ozone layer measurements by solar occultation technique,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 197–200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Pan, W. J. Randel, H. Nakajima, S. T. Massie, H. Kanzawa, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, T. Sugita, S. Hayashida, S. Oshchepkov, “Satellite observation of dehydration in the Arctic Polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett.29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

T. Peter, “Microphysics and heterogeneous chemistry of polar stratospheric clouds,” Ann. Rev. Phys. Chem. 48, 785–822 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Geophys. Res. Lett. (2)

L. J. Richwine, M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Complex refractive indices in the infrared of nitric-acid trihydrate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2625–2628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, M. Suzuki, T. Yokota, H. Kanzawa, “Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer (ILAS) for stratospheric ozone layer measurements by solar occultation technique,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 197–200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. (2)

S. Hayashida, N. Saitoh, A. Kagawa, T. Yokota, M. Suzuki, H. Nakajima, Y. Sasano, “Arctic polar stratospheric clouds observed with the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer during winter 1996/1997,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 105, 24715–24730 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Bertram, D. B. Dickens, J. J. Sloan, “Supercooling of type 1 polar stratospheric clouds: the freezing of submicrometer nitric acid aerosols having HNO3 mol fractions of less than 0.5,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 105, 9283–9290 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Mol. Spectrosc. (1)

R. J. Le Roy, “Uncertainty, sensitivity, convergence, and rounding in performing and reporting least-squares fits,” J. Mol. Spectrosc. 191, 223–231 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Frequency-dependent optical constants of water ice obtained directly from aerosol extinction spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 6317–6326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A (3)

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, T. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid-infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 783–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Norman, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Ternary H2SO4/HNO3/H2O optical constants: new measurements from aerosol spectroscopy under stratospheric conditions,” J. Phys. Chem. A 106, 6075–6083 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Niedziela, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Temperature- and frequency-dependent optical constants for nitric acid dihydrate from aerosol spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. A 102, 6477–6484 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Planet. Ionosph. Atmos. Incl. Cira (1)

C. Bingen, D. Fussen, F. Vanhellemont, “A global climatology of stratospheric aerosols using SAGE II data: toward a systematic characterization of the aerosol evolution,” Planet. Ionosph. Atmos. Incl. Cira 34, 1763–1767 (2004).

Rev. Geophys. (2)

K. S. Carslaw, T. Peter, S. L. Clegg, “Modeling the composition of liquid stratospheric aerosols,” Rev. Geophys. 35, 125–154 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Solomon, “The mystery of the Antarctic ozone ”hole’,” Rev. Geophys. 26, 131–148 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

M. L. Santee, W. G. Read, J. W. Waters, L. Froidevaux, G. L. Manney, D. A. Flower, R. F. Jarnot, R. S. Harwood, G. E. Peckham, “Interhemispheric differences in polar stratospheric HNO3, H2O, CIO, and O3,” Science 267, 849–852 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Tabazadeh, E. J. Jensen, O. B. Toon, K. Drdla, M. R. Schoeberl, “Role of the stratospheric polar freezing belt in dentrification,” Science 291, 2591–2594 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (6)

L. L. Pan, W. J. Randel, H. Nakajima, S. T. Massie, H. Kanzawa, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, T. Sugita, S. Hayashida, S. Oshchepkov, “Satellite observation of dehydration in the Arctic Polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett.29, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes (Cambridge University, 1989).

S. L. Oshchepkov, “Optimum wavelength selections for atmospheric remote sensing. 1999,” Eco-Frontier Fellowship (EFF) in 1998 (Research & Information Office, Global Environmental Department, Environment Agency of Japan, Tokyo, 1999).

C. F. Bohren, D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

T. Deshler, M. E. Hervig, D. J. Hofmann, J. M. Rosen, J. B. Liley, “Thirty years of in situ stratospheric aerosol size distribution measurements from Laramie, Wyoming (41 deg N), using balloonborne instruments,” J. Geophys. Res. Atmos.108, 4167-doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Lawson, R. J. Hanson, Solving Least-Squares Problems (Prentice-Hall, 1974).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Synthetic spectra versus tangent altitude: namely, (a) the sum of NAT and Ice aerosol contributions and (b) the total absorption (the sum of 13 gases and aerosols).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Simulation results for the STS aerosol. Solid curves, true vertical profiles; points, retrieval result; triangles, STS1 (7 wt.% of H2SO4/39 wt.% of HNO3); diamonds, STS2 (3 wt.% of H2SO4/42 wt.% of HNO3); solid squares, the NAT contribution. The result for sulfate aerosol is given in the bottom left panel. The bottom right panel shows the best fit at the tangent altitude of 20 km.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of true and calculated PDFs: solid curves, true distribution functions; bars, calculation results for STS1 (r = 1.0 μm/σ = 0.3) and STS2 STS2 (r = 1.5 μm/σ = 0.4).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulation results for crystalline aerosols: solid curves, true vertical profiles of sulfate, Ice, and NAT aerosols; points, retrieval result; triangles, Ice and diamonds for NAT; solid squares, STS contribution. The result for sulfate aerosol is given in the bottom left panel. The bottom right panel shows the best fit at a tangent altitude of 22 km.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of the synthetic and calculated PDFs: solid curves, synthetic distribution functions; bars, calculation results for sulfate (r = 0.3 μm/σ = 0.3), Ice (r = 3.0 μm/σ = 0.5), and NAT (r = 1.5 μm/σ = 0.4) aerosol from top to bottom.

Equations (6)

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τ tot = i a i τ gas i ( T , P , ) + j K ext j [ r , n * ( C , T , ) ] · p j .
p j ( r ) = b j 2 π σ r exp [ - ln ( r / r 0 ) 2 2 σ 2 ]
χ ( a , b , r 0 , σ ) = [ min τ tot - ( τ gas · a + K s · b ) 2 ] 1 / 2
r 0 k = random ( r 0 min , r 0 max ) , σ k = random ( σ min , σ max ) , k = 1 , M ,
χ ( , r 0 k , σ k ) < χ ( , r 0 k - 1 , σ k - 1 ) , random ( 0 , 1 ) < exp [ - χ ( , r 0 k , σ k ) / α Δ ] ,
P ( r ) = k δ ( r - r k ) / N k ,

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