Abstract

The inversion method for simultaneous gas (O3, NO2, HNO3, N2O, CH4, H2O, CFC-11, CFC-12, N2O5, and ClONO2) and aerosol retrievals from broadband continuous IR spectra of occultation measurements is described. Both gas and aerosol physical modeling with consideration of the multicomponent character of aerosol and polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are used to minimize the difference between measured and modeled transmittance spectra under smoothness constraints imposed on particle-size distributions for each PSC component and positive constraints on all gas and aerosol parameters. The method is tested by numerical simulations in which synthetic occultation measurements inherent to the improved limb atmospheric spectrometer are used. The study reveals that the method has significant advantages over other approaches based on offset or gas–window–channel aerosol correction for accurate gas retrievals and provides additional information on the particle-size composition, volume density, and chemical component character of PSCs.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

Sergey Oshchepkov, Yasuhiro Sasano, Tatsuya Yokota, Nobuyuki Uemura, Hisashi Matsuda, Yasuhiro Itou, and Hideaki Nakajima, "Simultaneous stratospheric gas and aerosol retrievals from broadband infrared occultation measurements: erratum," Appl. Opt. 44, 6031-6031 (2005)
https://www.osapublishing.org/ao/abstract.cfm?uri=ao-44-28-6031

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Solomon, “Stratospheric ozone depletion: a review of concepts and history,” Rev. Geophys. 37, 275–316 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241–252 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, F. P. Mills, H. M. Steele, “Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. I. Methodology,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3082–3091 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Yu. Zasetsky, J. J. Sloan, R. Escribano, D. Fernandez, “A new method for the quantitative identification of the composition, size, and density of stratospheric aerosols from high-resolution IR satellite measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett.29, doi: (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. D. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Sasano, M. Suzuki, T. Yokota, H. Kanzawa, “Improved limb atmospheric spectrometer (ILAS) for stratospheric ozone layer measurements by solar occultation technique,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 197–200 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  9. T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, T. Sugita, H. Tsubaki, Y. Itou, M. Kaji, M. Suzuki, H. Kanzawa, J. H. Park, Y. Sasano, “Improved limb atmospheric spectrometer (ILAS) data retrieval algorithm for Version 5.20 gas profile products,” J. Geophys. Res.107(D24), 8216, doi: (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, T. Sugita, H. Kanzawa, “ILAS-II instrument and data processing system for stratospheric ozone layer monitoring,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds II, Y. Sasano, J. Wang, T. Hayasaka, eds., Proc. SPIE4150, 106–114 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. Oshchepkov, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, “New method for simultaneous gas and aerosol retrievals from space limb-scanning spectral observation of the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4234–4244 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. L. S. Rothman, C. P. Pinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database an HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–670 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, T. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid-infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 783–793 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. F. Niedziela, M. L. Norman, C. L. DeForest, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “A temperature- and composition-dependent study of H2SO4 aerosol optical constants using Fourier transform and tunable diode laser infrared spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 103, 8030–8040 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. L. Norman, J. Qian, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Infrared complex refractive indices of supercooled liquid HNO3/H2O aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30,571–30,584 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. J. Richwine, M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Complex refractive indices in the infrared of nitric acid trihydrate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2625–2628 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. R. F. Niedziela, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Temperature- and frequency-dependent optical constants for nitric acid dihydrate from aerosol spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 102, 6477–6484 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Frequency-dependent optical constants of water ice obtained directly from aerosol extinction spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 6317–6326 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  19. O. B. Toon, M. A. Tolbert, B. J. Koehler, A. M. Middlebrook, J. Jordan, “Infrared optical constants of H2O ice, amorphous nitric acid solution, and nitric acid hydrates,” J. Geophys. Res. 99(D12), 25631–25654 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. S. Carslaw, B. Luo, T. Peter, “An analytic expression for the composition of aqueous HNO3-H2SO4 stratospheric aerosols including gas phase removal of HNO3,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1877–1880 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. Kinne, O. B. Toon, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, E. V. Browell, M. P. McCormick, “Measurements of size and composition of particles in polar stratospheric clouds from infrared solar absorption spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,481–16,491 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  22. R. T. Tisdale, A. J. Prenni, L. T. Iraci, M. A. Tolbert, “Variation of the infrared spectra of nitric acid hydrates with formation conditions: impact on PSC identification,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 707–710 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. Spang, J. J. Remedios, “Observations of a distinctive infrared spectral feature in the atmospheric spectra of polar stratospheric clouds measured by the CRISTA instrument,” Geophys. Res. Lett.22, doi: (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K.-M. Lee, J. H. Park, Y. Kim, W. Choi, H.-K. Cho, S. T. Massie, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, “Properties of polar stratospheric clouds observed by ILAS in early 1997,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D7), doi: (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. D. J. Hofmann, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric cloud observations during formation of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1989,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 2897–2912 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Adriani, T. Deshler, G. P. Gobbi, B. J. Johnson, G. Di Donfrancesco, “Polar stratospheric clouds over McMurdo, Antarctica, during the 1991 spring: lidar and particle counter measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1755–1758 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  27. T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Changes in the character of polar stratospheric clouds over Antarctica in 1992 due to Pinatubo volcanic aerosol,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 273–276 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  28. T. Deshler, “In situ measurements of Pinatubo aerosol over Kiruna on four days between 18 January and 13 February 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1323–1326 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  29. T. Deshler, T. Peter, R. Müller, P. Crutzen, “The lifetime of leewave-induced ice particles in the Arctic stratosphere: 1. Balloonborne observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1327–1330 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  30. T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 °N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  31. C. Voigt, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, B. Luo, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, A. Dörnbrack, B. Knudsen, J. Rosen, “In situ mountain-wave polar stratospheric cloud measurements: implications for nitric acid trihydrate formation,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D5), doi: (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  32. R. Penndorf, “Scattering coefficients for absorbing and nonabsorbing aerosols,” (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, 1960).
  33. S. Oshchepkov, H. Isaka, “Inverse scattering problem for mixed-phase and ice clouds. 1. Numerical simulation of particle sizing from phase-function measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8765–8774 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  34. S. Twomey, Introduction to the Mathematics of Inversion in Remote Sensing and Indirect Measurements (Elsevier, 1977).
  35. D. L. Phillips, “A technique for the numerical solution of certain integral equations of first kind,” J. Assoc. Comput. Math. 9, 84–97 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  36. J. J. Moré, “The Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm, implementation, and theory,” in Numerical Analysis, G. A. Watson, ed., Vol. 630 of Lecture Notes in Mathematics (Springer-Verlag, 1977).
  37. W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran (Cambridge University, 1992).
  38. C. R. Rao, Linear Statistical Inference and its Applications, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1973).
    [CrossRef]
  39. Y. Bard, Nonlinear Parameter Estimation (Academic, 1974).
  40. S. Oshchepkov, O. V. Dubovik, “Optimized iterative method for numerical solution of Fredholm integral equation of the first kind for positive definite values,” Atmos. Ocean Phys. 30, 153–160 (1994).
  41. S. Oshchepkov, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, “A novel approach for stratospheric aerosol and cloud characterization using visible and infrared gas window channels: first application to ILAS satellite observations,” submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett.

2002 (1)

2001 (1)

2000 (2)

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, T. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid-infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 783–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 °N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (5)

S. Solomon, “Stratospheric ozone depletion: a review of concepts and history,” Rev. Geophys. 37, 275–316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Tisdale, A. J. Prenni, L. T. Iraci, M. A. Tolbert, “Variation of the infrared spectra of nitric acid hydrates with formation conditions: impact on PSC identification,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 707–710 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Niedziela, M. L. Norman, C. L. DeForest, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “A temperature- and composition-dependent study of H2SO4 aerosol optical constants using Fourier transform and tunable diode laser infrared spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 103, 8030–8040 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Norman, J. Qian, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Infrared complex refractive indices of supercooled liquid HNO3/H2O aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30,571–30,584 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, M. Suzuki, T. Yokota, H. Kanzawa, “Improved limb atmospheric spectrometer (ILAS) for stratospheric ozone layer measurements by solar occultation technique,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 197–200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Niedziela, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Temperature- and frequency-dependent optical constants for nitric acid dihydrate from aerosol spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 102, 6477–6484 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Pinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database an HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–670 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Frequency-dependent optical constants of water ice obtained directly from aerosol extinction spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 6317–6326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Carslaw, B. Luo, T. Peter, “An analytic expression for the composition of aqueous HNO3-H2SO4 stratospheric aerosols including gas phase removal of HNO3,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1877–1880 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Richwine, M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Complex refractive indices in the infrared of nitric acid trihydrate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2625–2628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (6)

O. B. Toon, M. A. Tolbert, B. J. Koehler, A. M. Middlebrook, J. Jordan, “Infrared optical constants of H2O ice, amorphous nitric acid solution, and nitric acid hydrates,” J. Geophys. Res. 99(D12), 25631–25654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Oshchepkov, O. V. Dubovik, “Optimized iterative method for numerical solution of Fredholm integral equation of the first kind for positive definite values,” Atmos. Ocean Phys. 30, 153–160 (1994).

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Changes in the character of polar stratospheric clouds over Antarctica in 1992 due to Pinatubo volcanic aerosol,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 273–276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, “In situ measurements of Pinatubo aerosol over Kiruna on four days between 18 January and 13 February 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1323–1326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, T. Peter, R. Müller, P. Crutzen, “The lifetime of leewave-induced ice particles in the Arctic stratosphere: 1. Balloonborne observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1327–1330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. D. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

A. Adriani, T. Deshler, G. P. Gobbi, B. J. Johnson, G. Di Donfrancesco, “Polar stratospheric clouds over McMurdo, Antarctica, during the 1991 spring: lidar and particle counter measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1755–1758 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. J. Hofmann, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric cloud observations during formation of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1989,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 2897–2912 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

S. Kinne, O. B. Toon, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, E. V. Browell, M. P. McCormick, “Measurements of size and composition of particles in polar stratospheric clouds from infrared solar absorption spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,481–16,491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

D. L. Phillips, “A technique for the numerical solution of certain integral equations of first kind,” J. Assoc. Comput. Math. 9, 84–97 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Abbas, M. M.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Abrams, M. C.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Adriani, A.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 °N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Adriani, T. Deshler, G. P. Gobbi, B. J. Johnson, G. Di Donfrancesco, “Polar stratospheric clouds over McMurdo, Antarctica, during the 1991 spring: lidar and particle counter measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1755–1758 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Voigt, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, B. Luo, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, A. Dörnbrack, B. Knudsen, J. Rosen, “In situ mountain-wave polar stratospheric cloud measurements: implications for nitric acid trihydrate formation,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D5), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Allen, M.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bard, Y.

Y. Bard, Nonlinear Parameter Estimation (Academic, 1974).

Biermann, U. M.

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, T. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid-infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 783–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

S. Kinne, O. B. Toon, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, E. V. Browell, M. P. McCormick, “Measurements of size and composition of particles in polar stratospheric clouds from infrared solar absorption spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,481–16,491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Pinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database an HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–670 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brown, T. L.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cairo, F.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 °N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Voigt, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, B. Luo, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, A. Dörnbrack, B. Knudsen, J. Rosen, “In situ mountain-wave polar stratospheric cloud measurements: implications for nitric acid trihydrate formation,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D5), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Camy-Peyret, C.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Pinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database an HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–670 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carslaw, K. S.

K. S. Carslaw, B. Luo, T. Peter, “An analytic expression for the composition of aqueous HNO3-H2SO4 stratospheric aerosols including gas phase removal of HNO3,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1877–1880 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K. V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Pinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database an HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–670 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chang, A. Y.

A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, F. P. Mills, H. M. Steele, “Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. I. Methodology,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3082–3091 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cho, H.-K.

K.-M. Lee, J. H. Park, Y. Kim, W. Choi, H.-K. Cho, S. T. Massie, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, “Properties of polar stratospheric clouds observed by ILAS in early 1997,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D7), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W.

K.-M. Lee, J. H. Park, Y. Kim, W. Choi, H.-K. Cho, S. T. Massie, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, “Properties of polar stratospheric clouds observed by ILAS in early 1997,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D7), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cicerone, R. J.

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. D. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Clapp, M. L.

L. J. Richwine, M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Complex refractive indices in the infrared of nitric acid trihydrate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2625–2628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Frequency-dependent optical constants of water ice obtained directly from aerosol extinction spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 6317–6326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Crutzen, P.

T. Deshler, T. Peter, R. Müller, P. Crutzen, “The lifetime of leewave-induced ice particles in the Arctic stratosphere: 1. Balloonborne observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1327–1330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Crutzen, P. J.

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. D. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Pinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database an HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–670 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DeForest, C. L.

R. F. Niedziela, M. L. Norman, C. L. DeForest, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “A temperature- and composition-dependent study of H2SO4 aerosol optical constants using Fourier transform and tunable diode laser infrared spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 103, 8030–8040 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Deshler, T.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 °N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, “In situ measurements of Pinatubo aerosol over Kiruna on four days between 18 January and 13 February 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1323–1326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, T. Peter, R. Müller, P. Crutzen, “The lifetime of leewave-induced ice particles in the Arctic stratosphere: 1. Balloonborne observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1327–1330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Changes in the character of polar stratospheric clouds over Antarctica in 1992 due to Pinatubo volcanic aerosol,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 273–276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Adriani, T. Deshler, G. P. Gobbi, B. J. Johnson, G. Di Donfrancesco, “Polar stratospheric clouds over McMurdo, Antarctica, during the 1991 spring: lidar and particle counter measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1755–1758 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hofmann, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric cloud observations during formation of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1989,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 2897–2912 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Voigt, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, B. Luo, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, A. Dörnbrack, B. Knudsen, J. Rosen, “In situ mountain-wave polar stratospheric cloud measurements: implications for nitric acid trihydrate formation,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D5), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Di Donfrancesco, G.

A. Adriani, T. Deshler, G. P. Gobbi, B. J. Johnson, G. Di Donfrancesco, “Polar stratospheric clouds over McMurdo, Antarctica, during the 1991 spring: lidar and particle counter measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1755–1758 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Voigt, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, B. Luo, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, A. Dörnbrack, B. Knudsen, J. Rosen, “In situ mountain-wave polar stratospheric cloud measurements: implications for nitric acid trihydrate formation,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D5), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dörnbrack, A.

C. Voigt, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, B. Luo, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, A. Dörnbrack, B. Knudsen, J. Rosen, “In situ mountain-wave polar stratospheric cloud measurements: implications for nitric acid trihydrate formation,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D5), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Drayson, S. R.

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. D. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dubovik, O. V.

S. Oshchepkov, O. V. Dubovik, “Optimized iterative method for numerical solution of Fredholm integral equation of the first kind for positive definite values,” Atmos. Ocean Phys. 30, 153–160 (1994).

Edwards, D. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Pinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database an HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–670 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eldering, A.

Escribano, R.

A. Yu. Zasetsky, J. J. Sloan, R. Escribano, D. Fernandez, “A new method for the quantitative identification of the composition, size, and density of stratospheric aerosols from high-resolution IR satellite measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett.29, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Farmer, C. B.

S. Kinne, O. B. Toon, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, E. V. Browell, M. P. McCormick, “Measurements of size and composition of particles in polar stratospheric clouds from infrared solar absorption spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,481–16,491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, D.

A. Yu. Zasetsky, J. J. Sloan, R. Escribano, D. Fernandez, “A new method for the quantitative identification of the composition, size, and density of stratospheric aerosols from high-resolution IR satellite measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett.29, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fierli, F.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 °N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, B. P.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran (Cambridge University, 1992).

Flaud, J. M.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Pinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database an HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–670 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Frederick, J. E.

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. D. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Pinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database an HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–670 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gobbi, G. P.

A. Adriani, T. Deshler, G. P. Gobbi, B. J. Johnson, G. Di Donfrancesco, “Polar stratospheric clouds over McMurdo, Antarctica, during the 1991 spring: lidar and particle counter measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1755–1758 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Pinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database an HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–670 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gordley, L. L.

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. D. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gunson, M. R.

A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, F. P. Mills, H. M. Steele, “Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. I. Methodology,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3082–3091 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, G.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 °N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harries, J. E.

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. D. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hauchecorne, A.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 °N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hervig, M. E.

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hesketh, W. D.

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. D. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

D. J. Hofmann, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric cloud observations during formation of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1989,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 2897–2912 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Iraci, L. T.

R. T. Tisdale, A. J. Prenni, L. T. Iraci, M. A. Tolbert, “Variation of the infrared spectra of nitric acid hydrates with formation conditions: impact on PSC identification,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 707–710 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Irion, F. W.

A. Eldering, F. W. Irion, A. Y. Chang, M. R. Gunson, F. P. Mills, H. M. Steele, “Vertical profiles of aerosol volume from high-spectral-resolution infrared transmission measurements. I. Methodology,” Appl. Opt. 40, 3082–3091 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Isaka, H.

Itou, Y.

T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, T. Sugita, H. Tsubaki, Y. Itou, M. Kaji, M. Suzuki, H. Kanzawa, J. H. Park, Y. Sasano, “Improved limb atmospheric spectrometer (ILAS) data retrieval algorithm for Version 5.20 gas profile products,” J. Geophys. Res.107(D24), 8216, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B. J.

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Changes in the character of polar stratospheric clouds over Antarctica in 1992 due to Pinatubo volcanic aerosol,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 273–276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Adriani, T. Deshler, G. P. Gobbi, B. J. Johnson, G. Di Donfrancesco, “Polar stratospheric clouds over McMurdo, Antarctica, during the 1991 spring: lidar and particle counter measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1755–1758 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, J.

O. B. Toon, M. A. Tolbert, B. J. Koehler, A. M. Middlebrook, J. Jordan, “Infrared optical constants of H2O ice, amorphous nitric acid solution, and nitric acid hydrates,” J. Geophys. Res. 99(D12), 25631–25654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jucks, K. W.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Pinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database an HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–670 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kaji, M.

T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, T. Sugita, H. Tsubaki, Y. Itou, M. Kaji, M. Suzuki, H. Kanzawa, J. H. Park, Y. Sasano, “Improved limb atmospheric spectrometer (ILAS) data retrieval algorithm for Version 5.20 gas profile products,” J. Geophys. Res.107(D24), 8216, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kanzawa, H.

Y. Sasano, M. Suzuki, T. Yokota, H. Kanzawa, “Improved limb atmospheric spectrometer (ILAS) for stratospheric ozone layer measurements by solar occultation technique,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 197–200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, T. Sugita, H. Kanzawa, “ILAS-II instrument and data processing system for stratospheric ozone layer monitoring,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds II, Y. Sasano, J. Wang, T. Hayasaka, eds., Proc. SPIE4150, 106–114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, T. Sugita, H. Tsubaki, Y. Itou, M. Kaji, M. Suzuki, H. Kanzawa, J. H. Park, Y. Sasano, “Improved limb atmospheric spectrometer (ILAS) data retrieval algorithm for Version 5.20 gas profile products,” J. Geophys. Res.107(D24), 8216, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.

K.-M. Lee, J. H. Park, Y. Kim, W. Choi, H.-K. Cho, S. T. Massie, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, “Properties of polar stratospheric clouds observed by ILAS in early 1997,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D7), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kinne, S.

S. Kinne, O. B. Toon, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, E. V. Browell, M. P. McCormick, “Measurements of size and composition of particles in polar stratospheric clouds from infrared solar absorption spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,481–16,491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Knudsen, B.

C. Voigt, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, B. Luo, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, A. Dörnbrack, B. Knudsen, J. Rosen, “In situ mountain-wave polar stratospheric cloud measurements: implications for nitric acid trihydrate formation,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D5), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Koehler, B. J.

O. B. Toon, M. A. Tolbert, B. J. Koehler, A. M. Middlebrook, J. Jordan, “Infrared optical constants of H2O ice, amorphous nitric acid solution, and nitric acid hydrates,” J. Geophys. Res. 99(D12), 25631–25654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kröger, C.

C. Voigt, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, B. Luo, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, A. Dörnbrack, B. Knudsen, J. Rosen, “In situ mountain-wave polar stratospheric cloud measurements: implications for nitric acid trihydrate formation,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D5), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Larsen, N.

C. Voigt, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, B. Luo, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, A. Dörnbrack, B. Knudsen, J. Rosen, “In situ mountain-wave polar stratospheric cloud measurements: implications for nitric acid trihydrate formation,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D5), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, K.-M.

K.-M. Lee, J. H. Park, Y. Kim, W. Choi, H.-K. Cho, S. T. Massie, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, “Properties of polar stratospheric clouds observed by ILAS in early 1997,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D7), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lowes, L. L.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Luo, B.

K. S. Carslaw, B. Luo, T. Peter, “An analytic expression for the composition of aqueous HNO3-H2SO4 stratospheric aerosols including gas phase removal of HNO3,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1877–1880 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Voigt, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, B. Luo, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, A. Dörnbrack, B. Knudsen, J. Rosen, “In situ mountain-wave polar stratospheric cloud measurements: implications for nitric acid trihydrate formation,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D5), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Luo, B. P.

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, T. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid-infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 783–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mahieu, E.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mandin, J.-Y.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Pinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database an HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–670 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Manney, G. L.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Pinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database an HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–670 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K.-M. Lee, J. H. Park, Y. Kim, W. Choi, H.-K. Cho, S. T. Massie, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, “Properties of polar stratospheric clouds observed by ILAS in early 1997,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D7), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mauersberger, K.

C. Voigt, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, B. Luo, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, A. Dörnbrack, B. Knudsen, J. Rosen, “In situ mountain-wave polar stratospheric cloud measurements: implications for nitric acid trihydrate formation,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D5), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mccann, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Pinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database an HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–670 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McCormick, M. P.

S. Kinne, O. B. Toon, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, E. V. Browell, M. P. McCormick, “Measurements of size and composition of particles in polar stratospheric clouds from infrared solar absorption spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,481–16,491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Michelsen, H. A.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Middlebrook, A. M.

O. B. Toon, M. A. Tolbert, B. J. Koehler, A. M. Middlebrook, J. Jordan, “Infrared optical constants of H2O ice, amorphous nitric acid solution, and nitric acid hydrates,” J. Geophys. Res. 99(D12), 25631–25654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. E.

M. L. Norman, J. Qian, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Infrared complex refractive indices of supercooled liquid HNO3/H2O aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30,571–30,584 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Niedziela, M. L. Norman, C. L. DeForest, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “A temperature- and composition-dependent study of H2SO4 aerosol optical constants using Fourier transform and tunable diode laser infrared spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 103, 8030–8040 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Niedziela, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Temperature- and frequency-dependent optical constants for nitric acid dihydrate from aerosol spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 102, 6477–6484 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Frequency-dependent optical constants of water ice obtained directly from aerosol extinction spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 6317–6326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Richwine, M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Complex refractive indices in the infrared of nitric acid trihydrate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2625–2628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mills, F. P.

Moré, J. J.

J. J. Moré, “The Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm, implementation, and theory,” in Numerical Analysis, G. A. Watson, ed., Vol. 630 of Lecture Notes in Mathematics (Springer-Verlag, 1977).

Müller, R.

T. Deshler, T. Peter, R. Müller, P. Crutzen, “The lifetime of leewave-induced ice particles in the Arctic stratosphere: 1. Balloonborne observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1327–1330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nakajima, H.

Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, T. Sugita, H. Kanzawa, “ILAS-II instrument and data processing system for stratospheric ozone layer monitoring,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds II, Y. Sasano, J. Wang, T. Hayasaka, eds., Proc. SPIE4150, 106–114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, T. Sugita, H. Tsubaki, Y. Itou, M. Kaji, M. Suzuki, H. Kanzawa, J. H. Park, Y. Sasano, “Improved limb atmospheric spectrometer (ILAS) data retrieval algorithm for Version 5.20 gas profile products,” J. Geophys. Res.107(D24), 8216, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Oshchepkov, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, “A novel approach for stratospheric aerosol and cloud characterization using visible and infrared gas window channels: first application to ILAS satellite observations,” submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett.

Nardi, B.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 °N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nemtchinov, V.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Pinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database an HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–670 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Newchurch, M. J.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Niedziela, R. F.

R. F. Niedziela, M. L. Norman, C. L. DeForest, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “A temperature- and composition-dependent study of H2SO4 aerosol optical constants using Fourier transform and tunable diode laser infrared spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 103, 8030–8040 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Niedziela, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Temperature- and frequency-dependent optical constants for nitric acid dihydrate from aerosol spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 102, 6477–6484 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Norman, M. L.

M. L. Norman, J. Qian, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Infrared complex refractive indices of supercooled liquid HNO3/H2O aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30,571–30,584 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Niedziela, M. L. Norman, C. L. DeForest, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “A temperature- and composition-dependent study of H2SO4 aerosol optical constants using Fourier transform and tunable diode laser infrared spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 103, 8030–8040 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Oshchepkov, S.

S. Oshchepkov, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, “New method for simultaneous gas and aerosol retrievals from space limb-scanning spectral observation of the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4234–4244 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Oshchepkov, H. Isaka, “Inverse scattering problem for mixed-phase and ice clouds. 1. Numerical simulation of particle sizing from phase-function measurements,” Appl. Opt. 36, 8765–8774 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Oshchepkov, O. V. Dubovik, “Optimized iterative method for numerical solution of Fredholm integral equation of the first kind for positive definite values,” Atmos. Ocean Phys. 30, 153–160 (1994).

S. Oshchepkov, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, “A novel approach for stratospheric aerosol and cloud characterization using visible and infrared gas window channels: first application to ILAS satellite observations,” submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett.

Ovarlez, H.

C. Voigt, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, B. Luo, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, A. Dörnbrack, B. Knudsen, J. Rosen, “In situ mountain-wave polar stratospheric cloud measurements: implications for nitric acid trihydrate formation,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D5), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ovarlez, J.

C. Voigt, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, B. Luo, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, A. Dörnbrack, B. Knudsen, J. Rosen, “In situ mountain-wave polar stratospheric cloud measurements: implications for nitric acid trihydrate formation,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D5), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Park, J. H.

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. D. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K.-M. Lee, J. H. Park, Y. Kim, W. Choi, H.-K. Cho, S. T. Massie, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, “Properties of polar stratospheric clouds observed by ILAS in early 1997,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D7), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, T. Sugita, H. Tsubaki, Y. Itou, M. Kaji, M. Suzuki, H. Kanzawa, J. H. Park, Y. Sasano, “Improved limb atmospheric spectrometer (ILAS) data retrieval algorithm for Version 5.20 gas profile products,” J. Geophys. Res.107(D24), 8216, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Penndorf, R.

R. Penndorf, “Scattering coefficients for absorbing and nonabsorbing aerosols,” (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, 1960).

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Pinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database an HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–670 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peter, T.

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, T. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid-infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 783–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Carslaw, B. Luo, T. Peter, “An analytic expression for the composition of aqueous HNO3-H2SO4 stratospheric aerosols including gas phase removal of HNO3,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1877–1880 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, T. Peter, R. Müller, P. Crutzen, “The lifetime of leewave-induced ice particles in the Arctic stratosphere: 1. Balloonborne observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1327–1330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, D. L.

D. L. Phillips, “A technique for the numerical solution of certain integral equations of first kind,” J. Assoc. Comput. Math. 9, 84–97 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Pinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Pinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database an HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–670 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prenni, A. J.

R. T. Tisdale, A. J. Prenni, L. T. Iraci, M. A. Tolbert, “Variation of the infrared spectra of nitric acid hydrates with formation conditions: impact on PSC identification,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 707–710 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Press, W. H.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran (Cambridge University, 1992).

Pulvirenti, L.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 °N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Qian, J.

M. L. Norman, J. Qian, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Infrared complex refractive indices of supercooled liquid HNO3/H2O aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30,571–30,584 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rao, C. R.

C. R. Rao, Linear Statistical Inference and its Applications, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1973).
[CrossRef]

Remedios, J. J.

R. Spang, J. J. Remedios, “Observations of a distinctive infrared spectral feature in the atmospheric spectra of polar stratospheric clouds measured by the CRISTA instrument,” Geophys. Res. Lett.22, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Richwine, L. J.

L. J. Richwine, M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Complex refractive indices in the infrared of nitric acid trihydrate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2625–2628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rinsland, C. P.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, J.

C. Voigt, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, B. Luo, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, A. Dörnbrack, B. Knudsen, J. Rosen, “In situ mountain-wave polar stratospheric cloud measurements: implications for nitric acid trihydrate formation,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D5), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Pinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database an HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–670 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rozier, W. R.

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Changes in the character of polar stratospheric clouds over Antarctica in 1992 due to Pinatubo volcanic aerosol,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 273–276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Russell, J. M.

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. D. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Salawitch, R. J.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sasano, Y.

S. Oshchepkov, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, “New method for simultaneous gas and aerosol retrievals from space limb-scanning spectral observation of the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4234–4244 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sasano, M. Suzuki, T. Yokota, H. Kanzawa, “Improved limb atmospheric spectrometer (ILAS) for stratospheric ozone layer measurements by solar occultation technique,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 197–200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, T. Sugita, H. Kanzawa, “ILAS-II instrument and data processing system for stratospheric ozone layer monitoring,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds II, Y. Sasano, J. Wang, T. Hayasaka, eds., Proc. SPIE4150, 106–114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, T. Sugita, H. Tsubaki, Y. Itou, M. Kaji, M. Suzuki, H. Kanzawa, J. H. Park, Y. Sasano, “Improved limb atmospheric spectrometer (ILAS) data retrieval algorithm for Version 5.20 gas profile products,” J. Geophys. Res.107(D24), 8216, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Oshchepkov, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, “A novel approach for stratospheric aerosol and cloud characterization using visible and infrared gas window channels: first application to ILAS satellite observations,” submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett.

K.-M. Lee, J. H. Park, Y. Kim, W. Choi, H.-K. Cho, S. T. Massie, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, “Properties of polar stratospheric clouds observed by ILAS in early 1997,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D7), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schreiner, J.

C. Voigt, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, B. Luo, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, A. Dörnbrack, B. Knudsen, J. Rosen, “In situ mountain-wave polar stratospheric cloud measurements: implications for nitric acid trihydrate formation,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D5), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Schroeder, J.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Pinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database an HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–670 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sloan, J. J.

A. Yu. Zasetsky, J. J. Sloan, R. Escribano, D. Fernandez, “A new method for the quantitative identification of the composition, size, and density of stratospheric aerosols from high-resolution IR satellite measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett.29, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Solomon, S.

S. Solomon, “Stratospheric ozone depletion: a review of concepts and history,” Rev. Geophys. 37, 275–316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Spang, R.

R. Spang, J. J. Remedios, “Observations of a distinctive infrared spectral feature in the atmospheric spectra of polar stratospheric clouds measured by the CRISTA instrument,” Geophys. Res. Lett.22, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Steele, H. M.

Stiller, G. P.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sugita, T.

T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, T. Sugita, H. Tsubaki, Y. Itou, M. Kaji, M. Suzuki, H. Kanzawa, J. H. Park, Y. Sasano, “Improved limb atmospheric spectrometer (ILAS) data retrieval algorithm for Version 5.20 gas profile products,” J. Geophys. Res.107(D24), 8216, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, T. Sugita, H. Kanzawa, “ILAS-II instrument and data processing system for stratospheric ozone layer monitoring,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds II, Y. Sasano, J. Wang, T. Hayasaka, eds., Proc. SPIE4150, 106–114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

Y. Sasano, M. Suzuki, T. Yokota, H. Kanzawa, “Improved limb atmospheric spectrometer (ILAS) for stratospheric ozone layer measurements by solar occultation technique,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 197–200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, T. Sugita, H. Tsubaki, Y. Itou, M. Kaji, M. Suzuki, H. Kanzawa, J. H. Park, Y. Sasano, “Improved limb atmospheric spectrometer (ILAS) data retrieval algorithm for Version 5.20 gas profile products,” J. Geophys. Res.107(D24), 8216, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Teukolsky, S. A.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran (Cambridge University, 1992).

Tisdale, R. T.

R. T. Tisdale, A. J. Prenni, L. T. Iraci, M. A. Tolbert, “Variation of the infrared spectra of nitric acid hydrates with formation conditions: impact on PSC identification,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 707–710 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tolbert, M. A.

R. T. Tisdale, A. J. Prenni, L. T. Iraci, M. A. Tolbert, “Variation of the infrared spectra of nitric acid hydrates with formation conditions: impact on PSC identification,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 707–710 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, M. A. Tolbert, B. J. Koehler, A. M. Middlebrook, J. Jordan, “Infrared optical constants of H2O ice, amorphous nitric acid solution, and nitric acid hydrates,” J. Geophys. Res. 99(D12), 25631–25654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Toon, G. C.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Kinne, O. B. Toon, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, E. V. Browell, M. P. McCormick, “Measurements of size and composition of particles in polar stratospheric clouds from infrared solar absorption spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,481–16,491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. B.

O. B. Toon, M. A. Tolbert, B. J. Koehler, A. M. Middlebrook, J. Jordan, “Infrared optical constants of H2O ice, amorphous nitric acid solution, and nitric acid hydrates,” J. Geophys. Res. 99(D12), 25631–25654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Kinne, O. B. Toon, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, E. V. Browell, M. P. McCormick, “Measurements of size and composition of particles in polar stratospheric clouds from infrared solar absorption spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,481–16,491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tsubaki, H.

T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, T. Sugita, H. Tsubaki, Y. Itou, M. Kaji, M. Suzuki, H. Kanzawa, J. H. Park, Y. Sasano, “Improved limb atmospheric spectrometer (ILAS) data retrieval algorithm for Version 5.20 gas profile products,” J. Geophys. Res.107(D24), 8216, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tuck, A. F.

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. D. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Twomey, S.

S. Twomey, Introduction to the Mathematics of Inversion in Remote Sensing and Indirect Measurements (Elsevier, 1977).

Varanasi, P.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Pinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database an HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–670 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vetterling, W. T.

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran (Cambridge University, 1992).

Voigt, C.

C. Voigt, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, B. Luo, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, A. Dörnbrack, B. Knudsen, J. Rosen, “In situ mountain-wave polar stratospheric cloud measurements: implications for nitric acid trihydrate formation,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D5), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wattson, R. B.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Pinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database an HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–670 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Worsnop, D. R.

R. F. Niedziela, M. L. Norman, C. L. DeForest, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “A temperature- and composition-dependent study of H2SO4 aerosol optical constants using Fourier transform and tunable diode laser infrared spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 103, 8030–8040 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Norman, J. Qian, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Infrared complex refractive indices of supercooled liquid HNO3/H2O aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30,571–30,584 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Niedziela, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Temperature- and frequency-dependent optical constants for nitric acid dihydrate from aerosol spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 102, 6477–6484 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Frequency-dependent optical constants of water ice obtained directly from aerosol extinction spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 6317–6326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Richwine, M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Complex refractive indices in the infrared of nitric acid trihydrate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2625–2628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yokota, T.

S. Oshchepkov, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, “New method for simultaneous gas and aerosol retrievals from space limb-scanning spectral observation of the atmosphere,” Appl. Opt. 41, 4234–4244 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Sasano, M. Suzuki, T. Yokota, H. Kanzawa, “Improved limb atmospheric spectrometer (ILAS) for stratospheric ozone layer measurements by solar occultation technique,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 197–200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, T. Sugita, H. Kanzawa, “ILAS-II instrument and data processing system for stratospheric ozone layer monitoring,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds II, Y. Sasano, J. Wang, T. Hayasaka, eds., Proc. SPIE4150, 106–114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Oshchepkov, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, “A novel approach for stratospheric aerosol and cloud characterization using visible and infrared gas window channels: first application to ILAS satellite observations,” submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett.

T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, T. Sugita, H. Tsubaki, Y. Itou, M. Kaji, M. Suzuki, H. Kanzawa, J. H. Park, Y. Sasano, “Improved limb atmospheric spectrometer (ILAS) data retrieval algorithm for Version 5.20 gas profile products,” J. Geophys. Res.107(D24), 8216, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

K.-M. Lee, J. H. Park, Y. Kim, W. Choi, H.-K. Cho, S. T. Massie, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, “Properties of polar stratospheric clouds observed by ILAS in early 1997,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D7), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Pinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database an HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–670 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yue, G. K.

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yung, Y. L.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zander, R.

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zasetsky, A. Yu.

A. Yu. Zasetsky, J. J. Sloan, R. Escribano, D. Fernandez, “A new method for the quantitative identification of the composition, size, and density of stratospheric aerosols from high-resolution IR satellite measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett.29, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Atmos. Ocean Phys. (1)

S. Oshchepkov, O. V. Dubovik, “Optimized iterative method for numerical solution of Fredholm integral equation of the first kind for positive definite values,” Atmos. Ocean Phys. 30, 153–160 (1994).

Geophys. Res. Lett. (9)

K. S. Carslaw, B. Luo, T. Peter, “An analytic expression for the composition of aqueous HNO3-H2SO4 stratospheric aerosols including gas phase removal of HNO3,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 1877–1880 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Tisdale, A. J. Prenni, L. T. Iraci, M. A. Tolbert, “Variation of the infrared spectra of nitric acid hydrates with formation conditions: impact on PSC identification,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 6, 707–710 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Adriani, T. Deshler, G. P. Gobbi, B. J. Johnson, G. Di Donfrancesco, “Polar stratospheric clouds over McMurdo, Antarctica, during the 1991 spring: lidar and particle counter measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 1755–1758 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, “Changes in the character of polar stratospheric clouds over Antarctica in 1992 due to Pinatubo volcanic aerosol,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 273–276 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, “In situ measurements of Pinatubo aerosol over Kiruna on four days between 18 January and 13 February 1992,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1323–1326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, T. Peter, R. Müller, P. Crutzen, “The lifetime of leewave-induced ice particles in the Arctic stratosphere: 1. Balloonborne observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1327–1330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Richwine, M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Complex refractive indices in the infrared of nitric acid trihydrate aerosols,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 22, 2625–2628 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Gunson, M. M. Abbas, M. C. Abrams, M. Allen, L. R. Brown, T. L. Brown, A. Y. Chang, A. Goldman, F. W. Irion, L. L. Lowes, E. Mahieu, G. L. Manney, H. A. Michelsen, M. J. Newchurch, C. P. Rinsland, R. J. Salawitch, G. P. Stiller, G. C. Toon, Y. L. Yung, R. Zander, “The atmospheric trace molecule spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment: deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle missions,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 2333–2336 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, M. Suzuki, T. Yokota, H. Kanzawa, “Improved limb atmospheric spectrometer (ILAS) for stratospheric ozone layer measurements by solar occultation technique,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 26, 197–200 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Assoc. Comput. Math. (1)

D. L. Phillips, “A technique for the numerical solution of certain integral equations of first kind,” J. Assoc. Comput. Math. 9, 84–97 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (7)

O. B. Toon, M. A. Tolbert, B. J. Koehler, A. M. Middlebrook, J. Jordan, “Infrared optical constants of H2O ice, amorphous nitric acid solution, and nitric acid hydrates,” J. Geophys. Res. 99(D12), 25631–25654 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hofmann, T. Deshler, “Stratospheric cloud observations during formation of the Antarctic ozone hole in 1989,” J. Geophys. Res. 96, 2897–2912 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 °N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 3943–3953 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Kinne, O. B. Toon, G. C. Toon, C. B. Farmer, E. V. Browell, M. P. McCormick, “Measurements of size and composition of particles in polar stratospheric clouds from infrared solar absorption spectra,” J. Geophys. Res. 94, 16,481–16,491 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Russell, L. L. Gordley, J. H. Park, S. R. Drayson, W. D. Hesketh, R. J. Cicerone, A. F. Tuck, J. E. Frederick, J. E. Harries, P. J. Crutzen, “The halogen occultation experiment,” J. Geophys. Res. 98, 10,777–10,797 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Hervig, T. Deshler, J. M. Russell, “Aerosol size distributions obtained from HALOE spectral extinction measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1573–1583 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Norman, J. Qian, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Infrared complex refractive indices of supercooled liquid HNO3/H2O aerosols,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30,571–30,584 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (3)

R. F. Niedziela, M. L. Norman, C. L. DeForest, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “A temperature- and composition-dependent study of H2SO4 aerosol optical constants using Fourier transform and tunable diode laser infrared spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 103, 8030–8040 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Niedziela, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Temperature- and frequency-dependent optical constants for nitric acid dihydrate from aerosol spectroscopy,” J. Phys. Chem. 102, 6477–6484 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Clapp, R. E. Miller, D. R. Worsnop, “Frequency-dependent optical constants of water ice obtained directly from aerosol extinction spectra,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 6317–6326 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

U. M. Biermann, B. P. Luo, T. Peter, “Absorption spectra and optical constants of binary and ternary solutions of H2SO4, HNO3, and H2O in the mid-infrared at atmospheric temperatures,” J. Phys. Chem. A 104, 783–793 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

L. S. Rothman, C. P. Pinsland, A. Goldman, S. T. Massie, D. P. Edwards, J. M. Flaud, A. Perrin, C. Camy-Peyret, V. Dana, J.-Y. Mandin, J. Schroeder, A. Mccann, R. R. Gamache, R. B. Wattson, K. Yoshino, K. V. Chance, K. W. Jucks, L. R. Brown, V. Nemtchinov, P. Varanasi, “The HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database an HAWKS (HITRAN atmospheric workstation): 1996 edition,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 665–670 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. P. Rinsland, G. K. Yue, M. R. Gunson, R. Zander, M. C. Abrams, “Mid-infrared extinction by sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 52, 241–252 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Geophys. (1)

S. Solomon, “Stratospheric ozone depletion: a review of concepts and history,” Rev. Geophys. 37, 275–316 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (13)

A. Yu. Zasetsky, J. J. Sloan, R. Escribano, D. Fernandez, “A new method for the quantitative identification of the composition, size, and density of stratospheric aerosols from high-resolution IR satellite measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett.29, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, T. Sugita, H. Tsubaki, Y. Itou, M. Kaji, M. Suzuki, H. Kanzawa, J. H. Park, Y. Sasano, “Improved limb atmospheric spectrometer (ILAS) data retrieval algorithm for Version 5.20 gas profile products,” J. Geophys. Res.107(D24), 8216, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, T. Sugita, H. Kanzawa, “ILAS-II instrument and data processing system for stratospheric ozone layer monitoring,” in Optical Remote Sensing of the Atmosphere and Clouds II, Y. Sasano, J. Wang, T. Hayasaka, eds., Proc. SPIE4150, 106–114 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Spang, J. J. Remedios, “Observations of a distinctive infrared spectral feature in the atmospheric spectra of polar stratospheric clouds measured by the CRISTA instrument,” Geophys. Res. Lett.22, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

K.-M. Lee, J. H. Park, Y. Kim, W. Choi, H.-K. Cho, S. T. Massie, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, “Properties of polar stratospheric clouds observed by ILAS in early 1997,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D7), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Voigt, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, B. Luo, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, A. Dörnbrack, B. Knudsen, J. Rosen, “In situ mountain-wave polar stratospheric cloud measurements: implications for nitric acid trihydrate formation,” J. Geophys. Res.108(D5), doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Penndorf, “Scattering coefficients for absorbing and nonabsorbing aerosols,” (Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratory, 1960).

S. Twomey, Introduction to the Mathematics of Inversion in Remote Sensing and Indirect Measurements (Elsevier, 1977).

J. J. Moré, “The Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm, implementation, and theory,” in Numerical Analysis, G. A. Watson, ed., Vol. 630 of Lecture Notes in Mathematics (Springer-Verlag, 1977).

W. H. Press, S. A. Teukolsky, W. T. Vetterling, B. P. Flannery, Numerical Recipes in Fortran (Cambridge University, 1992).

C. R. Rao, Linear Statistical Inference and its Applications, 2nd ed. (Wiley, 1973).
[CrossRef]

Y. Bard, Nonlinear Parameter Estimation (Academic, 1974).

S. Oshchepkov, Y. Sasano, T. Yokota, H. Nakajima, “A novel approach for stratospheric aerosol and cloud characterization using visible and infrared gas window channels: first application to ILAS satellite observations,” submitted to Geophys. Res. Lett.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scatterplots of the theoretical specific aerosol extinction coefficient for a set of 190 experimentally measured bimodal PSDs versus the effective radius at wavelengths corresponding to the gas window channels: dark yellow, mode of small particles used for background aerosol with 75 wt. % of sulfuric acid; mode of large particles corresponds to red, LTS with 40 wt. % of nitric acid; blue, NAT; magenta, NAD; green, water ice; dashed straight lines, asymptotes given by Eqs. (5) and (7).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spectral dependences of the specific extinction coefficient for LTS, NAT, NAD, and water-ice components for a set of log-normal PSDs. 1, Rm = 0.075 μm, σg = 1.8; 2, Rm = 0.5 μm, σg = 1.5; 3, Rm = 1.0 μm, σg = 1.5; 4, Rm = 2.0 μm, σg = 1.5; 5, Rm = 5.0 μm, σg = 1.5; 6, Rm = 10.0 μm, σg = 1.5. thus the specific AEC does not have any size dependence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Results of the numerical simulations of the retrieval of vertical profiles of the gas-mixing ratio when different techniques are used: heavy gray curves, original profiles; dotted curves, retrievals without aerosol corrections; dashed curves, retrievals with an offset aerosol correction; thick black curves, retrievals according to the linear interpolation technique; thin black curves, retrievals according to the smoothness constraints on the AEC spectra; open circles, according to simultaneous gas and aerosol retrievals.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of numerical simulations of the retrieval of PSDs for sulfuric acid, nitric acid, and NAT: thick solid curves, original PSD; lines with symbols, retrieved PSDs. NAD and water-ice retrievals are shown in terms of volume density in Fig. 5. Simultaneous gas retrievals are presented in Fig. 3.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated aerosol volume density profiles when retrieved PSDs (Fig. 4) are used for each particulate component: thick solid curves, original profiles; curves with symbols, retrievals.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectra of the aerosol extinction coefficient obtained by different techniques: heavy gray curves, original spectra; dotted lines, derived AEC as an offset; thick broken curves, retrievals according to the linear interpolation technique; thin black curves, retrievals according to the smoothness constraints on the AEC spectra; open circles, calculations according to simultaneous gas and aerosol (PSD) retrievals.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Vertical profiles of the UK Meteorological Office temperature and the aerosol extinction coefficient at 0.789 μm and four other IR gas window channels of 7.12, 8.27, 10.6, and 11.8 μm obtained on the basis of ILAS observations on 21 January 1997 (66.00 °N, 36.24 °E).

Equations (23)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

T j = j = 1 J C r j , j Δ λ j Ψ j ( λ ) B ( λ ) exp { - [ 0.1 P P 0 k = 1 K g k S k ( λ , T , P ) + σ ( λ ) ] L } d λ j = 1 J C r j , j Δ λ j Ψ j ( λ ) B ( λ ) d λ ,
σ ( λ ) = a = 1 A - + π R 2 Q { k R , m a ( λ ) } f a ( R ) d ln R ,
σ ( λ ) = - + π R 2 Q { k R , m a ( λ ) } f a ( R ) d ln R 4 3 - + π R 3 f a ( R ) d ln R .
R e a = - + R 3 f a ( R ) d ln R - + R 2 f a ( R ) d ln R ,
σ = 3 2 R e a .
Q { k R , m i ( λ ) } = 24 π λ n χ ( n 2 + χ 2 ) + 4 ( n 2 - χ 2 ) + 4 R ;
σ = 18 π λ n χ ( n 2 + χ 2 ) + 4 ( n 2 - χ 2 ) + 4 .
f ( R ) = 1 2 π ln σ g exp [ - ( ln R - ln R m ) 2 2 ln 2 σ g ]
v a ( R ) = 4 3 π R 3 d N a d ln R
R e = R v exp ( - 1 / 2 ln 2 σ g ) .
T * = T ( g , v ) ,
σ ( λ ) = a = 1 A K a v a .
K j i a = 3 4 R i - 1 a R i a a i a ( R ) Q { k R , m j } R d ln R + 3 4 R i a R i + 1 a b i a ( R ) Q { k R , m j } R d ln R ,
a i a ( R ) = ln R - ln R i - 1 a ln R i - ln R i - 1 a , b i a ( R ) = ln R i + 1 a - ln R ln R i + 1 a - ln R i a ( a 1 a = b E a a = 0 ) .
B 1 v 1 = 0 , B 2 v 2 = 0 , , B A v A = 0 ,
Is = P ,
P n ( s n ) = Θ ( s n ) s n
χ p 2 = χ 2 + n = 1 N μ n 2 { P n ( s n ) - s n } 2 .
χ 2 = [ T * - T ( g , v ) ] T C T - 1 [ T * - T ( g , v ) ] + a = 1 A γ a 2 ( B a v a ) T ( B a v a )
Δ 2 T ( s ^ ) = [ T * - T ( s ^ ) ] T W T * [ T * - T ( s ^ ) ] ;
Δ 2 s ^ n = { C s ^ } n m Δ 2 T ( s ^ ) J - N ,
Δ 2 β ^ j = G j C s ^ G j T Δ 2 T ( s ^ ) J - N ,
J = J + a ( E a - 2 ) + N .

Metrics