Abstract

We believe that we have developed the narrowest optical-fiber Raman probe ever reported, 600 μm in total diameter, that can be inserted into coronary arteries. The selection of suitable optical fibers, filters, and a processing method is discussed. Custom-made filters attached to the front end of a probe eliminate the background Raman signals of the optical fiber itself. The experimental evaluation of various optical fibers is carried out for the selection of suitable fibers. Measurement of the Raman spectra of an atherosclerotic lesion of a rabbit artery in vitro demonstrates the excellent performance of the micro-Raman probe.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, T. J. Brady, “Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” Circulation 109, 14–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43, 542–554 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sato, S. Wada, Y. Ozaki, H. Tashiro, “Qualitative analysis of trace Raman bands of nonresonant species in near-infrared excited preresonance Raman spectra of hemoglobin by partial least-square regression-Raman excitation profile method,” Vib. Spectrosc. 34, 149–156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

M. Takano, K. Mizuno, S. Yokoyama, K. Seimiya, F. Ishibashi, K. Okamatsu, R. Uemura, “Changes in coronary plaque color and morphology by lipid-lowering therapy with atorvastatin: serial evaluation by coronary angioscopy,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 42, 680–686 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

2001

H. Sato, H. Chiba, H. Tashiro, Y. Ozaki, “Excitation wavelength-dependent changes in Raman spectra of whole blood and hemoglobin: comparison of the spectra with 514.5-, 720-, and 1064-nm excitation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 366–370 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Utzinger, D. L. Heintzelman, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancers,” Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 955–959 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Ikeda, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, Y. Ozaki, “Biomedical applications of a new portable Raman imaging probe,” J. Mol. Struct. 598, 93–96 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

H. Sato, S. Wada, M. Ling, H. Tashiro, “Noninvasive measurement of near-infrared transmission spectra of a whole human hand with an electronically tuned Ti:sapphire laser operated by dual radio frequency driving method,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 1163–1167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Romer, J. F. Brennan, G. J. Puppels, A. H. Zwinderman, S. G. van Duinen, A. van der Laarse, A. F. W. van der Steen, N. A. Bom, A. V. G. Bruschke, “Intravascular ultrasound combined with Raman spectroscopy to localize and quantify cholesterol and calcium salts in atherosclerotic coronary arteries,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 478–483 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, G. J. Puppels, “In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72, 3771–3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. de Lima, S. Sathaiah, L. Silveira, R. A. Zângaro, M. T. T. Pacheco, “Development of catheters with low fiber background signals for Raman spectroscopic diagnosis applications,” Artif. Organs 24, 231–234 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Buschman, E. T. Marple, M. L. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, G. J. Puppels, “In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72, 3771–3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Shim, L.-M. W. K. Song, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, “In vivo near-infrared Raman spectroscopy: demonstration of feasibility during clinical gastrointestinal endoscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 146–150 (2000).
[PubMed]

1999

1998

A. Mahadevan-Jansen, M. F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujam, A. Malpica, S. Thomsen, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, “Development of a fiber optic probe to measure NIR Raman spectra of cervical tissue in vivo ,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 427–431 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997

J. Hayashi, T. Saito, K. Aizawa, “Change in chemical composition of lipids accumulated in atheromas of rabbits following photodynamic therapy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 287–293 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Shim, B. C. Wilson, “Development of an in vivo Raman spectroscopic system for diagnostic applications,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 131–142 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1992

R. Manoharan, J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, R. P. Rava, “Quantitative histochemical analysis of human artery using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16, 211–233 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Manoharan, J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, R. P. Rava, “Quantitative histochemical analysis of human artery using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16, 211–233 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

K. P. J. Williams, “Remote sampling using a fiber-optic probe in Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman. Spectrosc. 21, 147–151 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1973

H. A. Crispin, A. F. Van Baarle, “Intravascular observation and surgery using the flexible fiberscope,” Lancet 1, 750–751 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Achenbach, S.

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, T. J. Brady, “Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” Circulation 109, 14–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Aizawa, K.

J. Hayashi, T. Saito, K. Aizawa, “Change in chemical composition of lipids accumulated in atheromas of rabbits following photodynamic therapy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 287–293 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anders, K.

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, T. J. Brady, “Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” Circulation 109, 14–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Angel, S. M.

Aretz, H. T.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakker Schut, T. C.

M. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, G. J. Puppels, “In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72, 3771–3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Buschman, E. T. Marple, M. L. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, G. J. Puppels, “In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72, 3771–3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baraga, J. J.

R. Manoharan, J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, R. P. Rava, “Quantitative histochemical analysis of human artery using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16, 211–233 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Manoharan, J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, R. P. Rava, “Quantitative histochemical analysis of human artery using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16, 211–233 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baum, U.

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, T. J. Brady, “Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” Circulation 109, 14–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bello, J.

Bennett, B.

M. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, G. J. Puppels, “In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72, 3771–3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Buschman, E. T. Marple, M. L. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, G. J. Puppels, “In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72, 3771–3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bom, N. A.

T. J. Romer, J. F. Brennan, G. J. Puppels, A. H. Zwinderman, S. G. van Duinen, A. van der Laarse, A. F. W. van der Steen, N. A. Bom, A. V. G. Bruschke, “Intravascular ultrasound combined with Raman spectroscopy to localize and quantify cholesterol and calcium salts in atherosclerotic coronary arteries,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 478–483 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouma, B. E.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brady, T. J.

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, T. J. Brady, “Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” Circulation 109, 14–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Brennan, J. F.

T. J. Romer, J. F. Brennan, G. J. Puppels, A. H. Zwinderman, S. G. van Duinen, A. van der Laarse, A. F. W. van der Steen, N. A. Bom, A. V. G. Bruschke, “Intravascular ultrasound combined with Raman spectroscopy to localize and quantify cholesterol and calcium salts in atherosclerotic coronary arteries,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 478–483 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, S.

S. Brown, F. P. Milanovich, K. Kyle, “Design of a conepenetrometer-compatible probe and housing: the LLNL Raman probe,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3735–3743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bruining, H. A.

M. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, G. J. Puppels, “In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72, 3771–3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Buschman, E. T. Marple, M. L. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, G. J. Puppels, “In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72, 3771–3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruschke, A. V.

H. P. Buschman, E. T. Marple, M. L. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, G. J. Puppels, “In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72, 3771–3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, G. J. Puppels, “In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72, 3771–3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bruschke, A. V. G.

T. J. Romer, J. F. Brennan, G. J. Puppels, A. H. Zwinderman, S. G. van Duinen, A. van der Laarse, A. F. W. van der Steen, N. A. Bom, A. V. G. Bruschke, “Intravascular ultrasound combined with Raman spectroscopy to localize and quantify cholesterol and calcium salts in atherosclerotic coronary arteries,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 478–483 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buschman, H. P.

H. P. Buschman, E. T. Marple, M. L. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, G. J. Puppels, “In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72, 3771–3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carrabba, M.

Chiba, H.

H. Sato, H. Chiba, H. Tashiro, Y. Ozaki, “Excitation wavelength-dependent changes in Raman spectra of whole blood and hemoglobin: comparison of the spectra with 514.5-, 720-, and 1064-nm excitation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 366–370 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Christensen, S.

Cooney, T. F.

Crispin, H. A.

H. A. Crispin, A. F. Van Baarle, “Intravascular observation and surgery using the flexible fiberscope,” Lancet 1, 750–751 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daniel, W. G.

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, T. J. Brady, “Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” Circulation 109, 14–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Dasari, R. R.

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43, 542–554 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Lima, C. J.

C. J. de Lima, S. Sathaiah, L. Silveira, R. A. Zângaro, M. T. T. Pacheco, “Development of catheters with low fiber background signals for Raman spectroscopic diagnosis applications,” Artif. Organs 24, 231–234 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43, 542–554 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Manoharan, J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, R. P. Rava, “Quantitative histochemical analysis of human artery using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16, 211–233 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Manoharan, J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, R. P. Rava, “Quantitative histochemical analysis of human artery using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16, 211–233 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferencik, M.

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, T. J. Brady, “Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” Circulation 109, 14–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fitzmaurice, M.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Follen, M.

Galindo, L. H.

Gardecki, J. A.

Griffiths, P. R.

Halpern, E. F.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanlon, E. B.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hayashi, J.

J. Hayashi, T. Saito, K. Aizawa, “Change in chemical composition of lipids accumulated in atheromas of rabbits following photodynamic therapy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 287–293 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heintzelman, D. L.

Hoffmannm, U.

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, T. J. Brady, “Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” Circulation 109, 14–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Houser, S. L.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunter, M.

Ikeda, T.

H. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Ikeda, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, Y. Ozaki, “Biomedical applications of a new portable Raman imaging probe,” J. Mol. Struct. 598, 93–96 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ishibashi, F.

M. Takano, K. Mizuno, S. Yokoyama, K. Seimiya, F. Ishibashi, K. Okamatsu, R. Uemura, “Changes in coronary plaque color and morphology by lipid-lowering therapy with atorvastatin: serial evaluation by coronary angioscopy,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 42, 680–686 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, I.-K.

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, T. J. Brady, “Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” Circulation 109, 14–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kauffman, C. R.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koo, T-W.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kramer, J. R.

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43, 542–554 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kyle, K.

S. Brown, F. P. Milanovich, K. Kyle, “Design of a conepenetrometer-compatible probe and housing: the LLNL Raman probe,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3735–3743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, I. R.

Li, Y.-S.

Ling, M.

Ma, J.

MacIver, B.

MacNeill, B.

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, T. J. Brady, “Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” Circulation 109, 14–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Mahadevan-Jansen, A.

U. Utzinger, D. L. Heintzelman, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancers,” Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 955–959 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahadevan-Jansen, M. F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujam, A. Malpica, S. Thomsen, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, “Development of a fiber optic probe to measure NIR Raman spectra of cervical tissue in vivo ,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 427–431 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malpica, A.

U. Utzinger, D. L. Heintzelman, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancers,” Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 955–959 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahadevan-Jansen, M. F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujam, A. Malpica, S. Thomsen, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, “Development of a fiber optic probe to measure NIR Raman spectra of cervical tissue in vivo ,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 427–431 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Manoharan, R.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Manoharan, J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, R. P. Rava, “Quantitative histochemical analysis of human artery using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16, 211–233 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Manoharan, J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, R. P. Rava, “Quantitative histochemical analysis of human artery using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16, 211–233 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcon, N. E.

M. G. Shim, L.-M. W. K. Song, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, “In vivo near-infrared Raman spectroscopy: demonstration of feasibility during clinical gastrointestinal endoscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 146–150 (2000).
[PubMed]

Marple, E.

Marple, E. T.

H. P. Buschman, E. T. Marple, M. L. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, G. J. Puppels, “In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72, 3771–3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCreery, R. L.

R. L. McCreery, Raman Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (Wiley, 2000), pp. 333–371.

Milanovich, F. P.

S. Brown, F. P. Milanovich, K. Kyle, “Design of a conepenetrometer-compatible probe and housing: the LLNL Raman probe,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3735–3743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, M. F.

A. Mahadevan-Jansen, M. F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujam, A. Malpica, S. Thomsen, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, “Development of a fiber optic probe to measure NIR Raman spectra of cervical tissue in vivo ,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 427–431 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mizuno, K.

M. Takano, K. Mizuno, S. Yokoyama, K. Seimiya, F. Ishibashi, K. Okamatsu, R. Uemura, “Changes in coronary plaque color and morphology by lipid-lowering therapy with atorvastatin: serial evaluation by coronary angioscopy,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 42, 680–686 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moselewski, F.

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, T. J. Brady, “Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” Circulation 109, 14–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Motz, J. T.

J. T. Motz, M. Hunter, L. H. Galindo, J. A. Gardecki, J. R. Kramer, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Optical fiber probe for biomedical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 43, 542–554 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Okamatsu, K.

M. Takano, K. Mizuno, S. Yokoyama, K. Seimiya, F. Ishibashi, K. Okamatsu, R. Uemura, “Changes in coronary plaque color and morphology by lipid-lowering therapy with atorvastatin: serial evaluation by coronary angioscopy,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 42, 680–686 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozaki, Y.

H. Sato, S. Wada, Y. Ozaki, H. Tashiro, “Qualitative analysis of trace Raman bands of nonresonant species in near-infrared excited preresonance Raman spectra of hemoglobin by partial least-square regression-Raman excitation profile method,” Vib. Spectrosc. 34, 149–156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Sato, H. Chiba, H. Tashiro, Y. Ozaki, “Excitation wavelength-dependent changes in Raman spectra of whole blood and hemoglobin: comparison of the spectra with 514.5-, 720-, and 1064-nm excitation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 366–370 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Ikeda, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, Y. Ozaki, “Biomedical applications of a new portable Raman imaging probe,” J. Mol. Struct. 598, 93–96 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pacheco, M. T. T.

C. J. de Lima, S. Sathaiah, L. Silveira, R. A. Zângaro, M. T. T. Pacheco, “Development of catheters with low fiber background signals for Raman spectroscopic diagnosis applications,” Artif. Organs 24, 231–234 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pohle, K.

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, T. J. Brady, “Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” Circulation 109, 14–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Procell, L.

Puppels, G. J.

M. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, G. J. Puppels, “In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72, 3771–3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Buschman, E. T. Marple, M. L. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, G. J. Puppels, “In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72, 3771–3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Romer, J. F. Brennan, G. J. Puppels, A. H. Zwinderman, S. G. van Duinen, A. van der Laarse, A. F. W. van der Steen, N. A. Bom, A. V. G. Bruschke, “Intravascular ultrasound combined with Raman spectroscopy to localize and quantify cholesterol and calcium salts in atherosclerotic coronary arteries,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 478–483 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramanujam, N.

A. Mahadevan-Jansen, M. F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujam, A. Malpica, S. Thomsen, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, “Development of a fiber optic probe to measure NIR Raman spectra of cervical tissue in vivo ,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 427–431 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rava, R. P.

R. Manoharan, J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, R. P. Rava, “Quantitative histochemical analysis of human artery using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16, 211–233 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Manoharan, J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, R. P. Rava, “Quantitative histochemical analysis of human artery using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16, 211–233 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richards-Kortum, R.

U. Utzinger, D. L. Heintzelman, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancers,” Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 955–959 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahadevan-Jansen, M. F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujam, A. Malpica, S. Thomsen, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, “Development of a fiber optic probe to measure NIR Raman spectra of cervical tissue in vivo ,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 427–431 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romer, T. J.

T. J. Romer, J. F. Brennan, G. J. Puppels, A. H. Zwinderman, S. G. van Duinen, A. van der Laarse, A. F. W. van der Steen, N. A. Bom, A. V. G. Bruschke, “Intravascular ultrasound combined with Raman spectroscopy to localize and quantify cholesterol and calcium salts in atherosclerotic coronary arteries,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 478–483 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ropers, D.

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, T. J. Brady, “Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” Circulation 109, 14–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Saito, T.

J. Hayashi, T. Saito, K. Aizawa, “Change in chemical composition of lipids accumulated in atheromas of rabbits following photodynamic therapy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 287–293 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sathaiah, S.

C. J. de Lima, S. Sathaiah, L. Silveira, R. A. Zângaro, M. T. T. Pacheco, “Development of catheters with low fiber background signals for Raman spectroscopic diagnosis applications,” Artif. Organs 24, 231–234 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sato, H.

H. Sato, S. Wada, Y. Ozaki, H. Tashiro, “Qualitative analysis of trace Raman bands of nonresonant species in near-infrared excited preresonance Raman spectra of hemoglobin by partial least-square regression-Raman excitation profile method,” Vib. Spectrosc. 34, 149–156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Sato, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, “Fluorescence background-free Ti:sapphire laser using acousto-optical tunable filter for Raman spectroscopic measurements,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 1303–1307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Sato, H. Chiba, H. Tashiro, Y. Ozaki, “Excitation wavelength-dependent changes in Raman spectra of whole blood and hemoglobin: comparison of the spectra with 514.5-, 720-, and 1064-nm excitation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 366–370 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Ikeda, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, Y. Ozaki, “Biomedical applications of a new portable Raman imaging probe,” J. Mol. Struct. 598, 93–96 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Sato, S. Wada, M. Ling, H. Tashiro, “Noninvasive measurement of near-infrared transmission spectra of a whole human hand with an electronically tuned Ti:sapphire laser operated by dual radio frequency driving method,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 1163–1167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Schlendorf, K. H.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seimiya, K.

M. Takano, K. Mizuno, S. Yokoyama, K. Seimiya, F. Ishibashi, K. Okamatsu, R. Uemura, “Changes in coronary plaque color and morphology by lipid-lowering therapy with atorvastatin: serial evaluation by coronary angioscopy,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 42, 680–686 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shafer, K. E.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shim, M. G.

M. G. Shim, L.-M. W. K. Song, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, “In vivo near-infrared Raman spectroscopy: demonstration of feasibility during clinical gastrointestinal endoscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 146–150 (2000).
[PubMed]

M. G. Shim, B. C. Wilson, E. Marple, M. Wach, “Study of fiber-optic probes for in vivo medical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 53, 619–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Shim, B. C. Wilson, “Development of an in vivo Raman spectroscopic system for diagnostic applications,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 131–142 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shishkov, M.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silveira, L.

C. J. de Lima, S. Sathaiah, L. Silveira, R. A. Zângaro, M. T. T. Pacheco, “Development of catheters with low fiber background signals for Raman spectroscopic diagnosis applications,” Artif. Organs 24, 231–234 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Skinner, H. T.

Song, L.-M. W. K.

M. G. Shim, L.-M. W. K. Song, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, “In vivo near-infrared Raman spectroscopy: demonstration of feasibility during clinical gastrointestinal endoscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 146–150 (2000).
[PubMed]

Sorrick, D.

Takano, M.

M. Takano, K. Mizuno, S. Yokoyama, K. Seimiya, F. Ishibashi, K. Okamatsu, R. Uemura, “Changes in coronary plaque color and morphology by lipid-lowering therapy with atorvastatin: serial evaluation by coronary angioscopy,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 42, 680–686 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

H. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Ikeda, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, Y. Ozaki, “Biomedical applications of a new portable Raman imaging probe,” J. Mol. Struct. 598, 93–96 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tashiro, H.

H. Sato, S. Wada, Y. Ozaki, H. Tashiro, “Qualitative analysis of trace Raman bands of nonresonant species in near-infrared excited preresonance Raman spectra of hemoglobin by partial least-square regression-Raman excitation profile method,” Vib. Spectrosc. 34, 149–156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Sato, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, “Fluorescence background-free Ti:sapphire laser using acousto-optical tunable filter for Raman spectroscopic measurements,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 1303–1307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Sato, H. Chiba, H. Tashiro, Y. Ozaki, “Excitation wavelength-dependent changes in Raman spectra of whole blood and hemoglobin: comparison of the spectra with 514.5-, 720-, and 1064-nm excitation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 366–370 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Ikeda, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, Y. Ozaki, “Biomedical applications of a new portable Raman imaging probe,” J. Mol. Struct. 598, 93–96 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Sato, S. Wada, M. Ling, H. Tashiro, “Noninvasive measurement of near-infrared transmission spectra of a whole human hand with an electronically tuned Ti:sapphire laser operated by dual radio frequency driving method,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 1163–1167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tearney, G. J.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomsen, S.

A. Mahadevan-Jansen, M. F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujam, A. Malpica, S. Thomsen, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, “Development of a fiber optic probe to measure NIR Raman spectra of cervical tissue in vivo ,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 427–431 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uemura, R.

M. Takano, K. Mizuno, S. Yokoyama, K. Seimiya, F. Ishibashi, K. Okamatsu, R. Uemura, “Changes in coronary plaque color and morphology by lipid-lowering therapy with atorvastatin: serial evaluation by coronary angioscopy,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 42, 680–686 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Utzinger, U.

U. Utzinger, D. L. Heintzelman, A. Mahadevan-Jansen, A. Malpica, M. Follen, R. Richards-Kortum, “Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for in vivo detection of cervical precancers,” Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 955–959 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Mahadevan-Jansen, M. F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujam, A. Malpica, S. Thomsen, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, “Development of a fiber optic probe to measure NIR Raman spectra of cervical tissue in vivo ,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 427–431 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Baarle, A. F.

H. A. Crispin, A. F. Van Baarle, “Intravascular observation and surgery using the flexible fiberscope,” Lancet 1, 750–751 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Laarse, A.

T. J. Romer, J. F. Brennan, G. J. Puppels, A. H. Zwinderman, S. G. van Duinen, A. van der Laarse, A. F. W. van der Steen, N. A. Bom, A. V. G. Bruschke, “Intravascular ultrasound combined with Raman spectroscopy to localize and quantify cholesterol and calcium salts in atherosclerotic coronary arteries,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 478–483 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Buschman, E. T. Marple, M. L. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, G. J. Puppels, “In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72, 3771–3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, G. J. Puppels, “In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72, 3771–3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Steen, A. F. W.

T. J. Romer, J. F. Brennan, G. J. Puppels, A. H. Zwinderman, S. G. van Duinen, A. van der Laarse, A. F. W. van der Steen, N. A. Bom, A. V. G. Bruschke, “Intravascular ultrasound combined with Raman spectroscopy to localize and quantify cholesterol and calcium salts in atherosclerotic coronary arteries,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 478–483 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Duinen, S. G.

T. J. Romer, J. F. Brennan, G. J. Puppels, A. H. Zwinderman, S. G. van Duinen, A. van der Laarse, A. F. W. van der Steen, N. A. Bom, A. V. G. Bruschke, “Intravascular ultrasound combined with Raman spectroscopy to localize and quantify cholesterol and calcium salts in atherosclerotic coronary arteries,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 478–483 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wach, M.

M. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, G. J. Puppels, “In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72, 3771–3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Shim, B. C. Wilson, E. Marple, M. Wach, “Study of fiber-optic probes for in vivo medical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 53, 619–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wach, M. L.

H. P. Buschman, E. T. Marple, M. L. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, G. J. Puppels, “In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72, 3771–3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wada, S.

H. Sato, S. Wada, Y. Ozaki, H. Tashiro, “Qualitative analysis of trace Raman bands of nonresonant species in near-infrared excited preresonance Raman spectra of hemoglobin by partial least-square regression-Raman excitation profile method,” Vib. Spectrosc. 34, 149–156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

H. Sato, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, “Fluorescence background-free Ti:sapphire laser using acousto-optical tunable filter for Raman spectroscopic measurements,” Appl. Spectrosc. 56, 1303–1307 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Ikeda, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, Y. Ozaki, “Biomedical applications of a new portable Raman imaging probe,” J. Mol. Struct. 598, 93–96 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Sato, S. Wada, M. Ling, H. Tashiro, “Noninvasive measurement of near-infrared transmission spectra of a whole human hand with an electronically tuned Ti:sapphire laser operated by dual radio frequency driving method,” Appl. Spectrosc. 54, 1163–1167 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Williams, K. P. J.

K. P. J. Williams, “Remote sampling using a fiber-optic probe in Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman. Spectrosc. 21, 147–151 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, B. C.

M. G. Shim, L.-M. W. K. Song, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, “In vivo near-infrared Raman spectroscopy: demonstration of feasibility during clinical gastrointestinal endoscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 146–150 (2000).
[PubMed]

M. G. Shim, B. C. Wilson, E. Marple, M. Wach, “Study of fiber-optic probes for in vivo medical Raman spectroscopy,” Appl. Spectrosc. 53, 619–627 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Shim, B. C. Wilson, “Development of an in vivo Raman spectroscopic system for diagnostic applications,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 131–142 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yabushita, H.

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokoyama, S.

M. Takano, K. Mizuno, S. Yokoyama, K. Seimiya, F. Ishibashi, K. Okamatsu, R. Uemura, “Changes in coronary plaque color and morphology by lipid-lowering therapy with atorvastatin: serial evaluation by coronary angioscopy,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 42, 680–686 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zângaro, R. A.

C. J. de Lima, S. Sathaiah, L. Silveira, R. A. Zângaro, M. T. T. Pacheco, “Development of catheters with low fiber background signals for Raman spectroscopic diagnosis applications,” Artif. Organs 24, 231–234 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zwinderman, A. H.

T. J. Romer, J. F. Brennan, G. J. Puppels, A. H. Zwinderman, S. G. van Duinen, A. van der Laarse, A. F. W. van der Steen, N. A. Bom, A. V. G. Bruschke, “Intravascular ultrasound combined with Raman spectroscopy to localize and quantify cholesterol and calcium salts in atherosclerotic coronary arteries,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 478–483 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anal. Chem.

M. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, G. J. Puppels, “In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72, 3771–3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. P. Buschman, E. T. Marple, M. L. Wach, B. Bennett, T. C. Bakker Schut, H. A. Bruining, A. V. Bruschke, A. van der Laarse, G. J. Puppels, “In vivo determination of the molecular composition of artery wall by intravascular Raman spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 72, 3771–3775 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Spectrosc.

Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.

T. J. Romer, J. F. Brennan, G. J. Puppels, A. H. Zwinderman, S. G. van Duinen, A. van der Laarse, A. F. W. van der Steen, N. A. Bom, A. V. G. Bruschke, “Intravascular ultrasound combined with Raman spectroscopy to localize and quantify cholesterol and calcium salts in atherosclerotic coronary arteries,” Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 20, 478–483 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Artif. Organs

C. J. de Lima, S. Sathaiah, L. Silveira, R. A. Zângaro, M. T. T. Pacheco, “Development of catheters with low fiber background signals for Raman spectroscopic diagnosis applications,” Artif. Organs 24, 231–234 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Circulation

G. J. Tearney, H. Yabushita, S. L. Houser, H. T. Aretz, I.-K. Jang, K. H. Schlendorf, C. R. Kauffman, M. Shishkov, E. F. Halpern, B. E. Bouma, “Quantification of macrophage content in atherosclerotic plaques by optical coherence tomography,” Circulation 107, 113–119 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Achenbach, F. Moselewski, D. Ropers, M. Ferencik, U. Hoffmannm, B. MacNeill, K. Pohle, U. Baum, K. Anders, I.-K. Jang, W. G. Daniel, T. J. Brady, “Detection of calcified and noncalcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque by contrast-enhanced submillimeter multidetector spiral computed tomography a segment-based comparison with intravascular ultrasound,” Circulation 109, 14–17 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.

M. Takano, K. Mizuno, S. Yokoyama, K. Seimiya, F. Ishibashi, K. Okamatsu, R. Uemura, “Changes in coronary plaque color and morphology by lipid-lowering therapy with atorvastatin: serial evaluation by coronary angioscopy,” J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. 42, 680–686 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

H. Sato, H. Chiba, H. Tashiro, Y. Ozaki, “Excitation wavelength-dependent changes in Raman spectra of whole blood and hemoglobin: comparison of the spectra with 514.5-, 720-, and 1064-nm excitation,” J. Biomed. Opt. 6, 366–370 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Mol. Struct.

H. Sato, T. Tanaka, T. Ikeda, S. Wada, H. Tashiro, Y. Ozaki, “Biomedical applications of a new portable Raman imaging probe,” J. Mol. Struct. 598, 93–96 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Photochem. Photobiol. B

R. Manoharan, J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, R. P. Rava, “Quantitative histochemical analysis of human artery using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16, 211–233 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Manoharan, J. J. Baraga, M. S. Feld, R. P. Rava, “Quantitative histochemical analysis of human artery using Raman spectroscopy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B 16, 211–233 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Raman Spectrosc.

M. G. Shim, B. C. Wilson, “Development of an in vivo Raman spectroscopic system for diagnostic applications,” J. Raman Spectrosc. 28, 131–142 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman. Spectrosc.

K. P. J. Williams, “Remote sampling using a fiber-optic probe in Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy,” J. Raman. Spectrosc. 21, 147–151 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lancet

H. A. Crispin, A. F. Van Baarle, “Intravascular observation and surgery using the flexible fiberscope,” Lancet 1, 750–751 (1973).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lasers Surg. Med.

J. Hayashi, T. Saito, K. Aizawa, “Change in chemical composition of lipids accumulated in atheromas of rabbits following photodynamic therapy,” Lasers Surg. Med. 21, 287–293 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Photochem. Photobiol.

M. G. Shim, L.-M. W. K. Song, N. E. Marcon, B. C. Wilson, “In vivo near-infrared Raman spectroscopy: demonstration of feasibility during clinical gastrointestinal endoscopy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 72, 146–150 (2000).
[PubMed]

A. Mahadevan-Jansen, M. F. Mitchell, N. Ramanujam, A. Malpica, S. Thomsen, U. Utzinger, R. Richards-Kortum, “Development of a fiber optic probe to measure NIR Raman spectra of cervical tissue in vivo ,” Photochem. Photobiol. 68, 427–431 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Med. Biol.

E. B. Hanlon, R. Manoharan, T-W. Koo, K. E. Shafer, J. T. Motz, M. Fitzmaurice, J. R. Kramer, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, M. S. Feld, “Prospects for in vivo Raman spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 45, R1–R59 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

S. Brown, F. P. Milanovich, K. Kyle, “Design of a conepenetrometer-compatible probe and housing: the LLNL Raman probe,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3735–3743 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vib. Spectrosc.

H. Sato, S. Wada, Y. Ozaki, H. Tashiro, “Qualitative analysis of trace Raman bands of nonresonant species in near-infrared excited preresonance Raman spectra of hemoglobin by partial least-square regression-Raman excitation profile method,” Vib. Spectrosc. 34, 149–156 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. L. McCreery, Raman Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (Wiley, 2000), pp. 333–371.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of the distal end of a MRP.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Manufacturing process for the BP filter: (a) Fix a piece of BP filter on the lathe. (b) Trim the edge of the filter into a column shape 150 μm in diameter with a rotating blade. (c) Insert the filter into a stainless-steel tube and glue them to the side of the filter. Insert an optical fiber into the tube and glue them to the side of the fiber. (d) Insert an optical fiber into the tube and glue. Take the BP filter from the base and polish the tip.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Manufacturing process for the LP filter: (a) Drill holes 200 μm in diameter on a glass substrate. (b) Deposit the LP filter on the glass substrate with holes. (c) Reduce the thickness of the substrate by polishing. (d) Cut the substrate into pieces 2.0 mm square. (e) Trim the filter into a circle 500 μm in diameter with a rotating blade.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic representation of the optical collection stage attached to a triple Raman spectrometer for measurement of the FRB and standard samples. (a) The back end of an optical fiber is held at the focal point to measure FRB intensity. Laser power and the FRB are measured with and without five ND filters. (b) Optical configurations for investigating the spatial resolution of the MRP. The MRP is scanned across the edge of a polystyrene substrate 400 μm above its surface.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Raman spectra of the FRB of (a) GeO2-doped fused-silica, (b) pure-fused-silica, and (c) low-OH fused-silica optical fibers measured for 720-nm excitation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Optical properties of (a) BP and (b) LP filters: A, mounted on optical fibers and B, of whole windows.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Raman spectra of CaCO3 measured with optical fiber probes (a) without and (b) with BP and LP filters attached at the distal end of the probe.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Raman spectra of cholesteryl oleate measured with (a) the MRP and (b) an open-air collection system.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Change in intensity of the Raman band of polystyrene and the first derivative of its approximate curve plotted as a function of scanning distance. The center of the MRP is located just above the edge of the substrate at 0 μm in moving distance.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Raman spectra of (a) the atherosclerotic lesion of a blood vessel from a rabbit measured with the MRP in vitro. Raw spectra of (b) the lesion and (c) a normal part of the lesion are shown for comparison.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

ATR-FT-IR spectra of (a) the atherosclerotic blood vessel of a rabbit and (b) pure cholesteryl oleate.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Efficiency of the FRB Generation Rb and Specification of Optical Fibers

Equations (1)

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R b = I f I p - 1 × 10 7.97 ,

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