Abstract

We have constructed an achromatic half-wave plate (AHWP) suitable for the millimeter wavelength band. The AHWP was made from a stack of three sapphire a-cut birefringent plates with the optical axes of the middle plate rotated by 50.5 deg with respect to the aligned axes of the other plates. The measured modulation efficiency of the AHWP at 110 GHz was 96 ± 1.5%. In contrast, the modulation efficiency of a single sapphire plate of the same thickness was 43 ± 4%. Both results are in close agreement with theoretical predictions. The modulation efficiency of the AHWP was constant as a function of incidence angles between 0 and 15 deg. We discuss design parameters of an AHWP in the context of astrophysical broadband polarimetry at the millimeter wavelength band.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  6. E. M. Leitch, J. M. Kovac, C. Pryke, J. E. Carlstrom, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, B. Reddall, E. S. Sandberg, “Measurement of polarization with the degree angular scale interferometer,” Nature 420, 763–771 (2002).
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    [CrossRef]
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  12. S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (1)

S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

E. M. Leitch, J. M. Kovac, C. Pryke, J. E. Carlstrom, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, B. Reddall, E. S. Sandberg, “Measurement of polarization with the degree angular scale interferometer,” Nature 420, 763–771 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. W. Lamb, “Miscellaneous data on materials for millimetre and submillimetre optics,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 17, 1997–2034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1955 (1)

S. Pancharatnam, “Achromatic combinations of birefringent plates,” Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 41, 137–144 (1955).

Ade, P.

S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Oxley, P. Ade, C. Baccigalupi, P. deBernardis, H.-M. Cho, M. J. Devlin, S. Hanany, B. R. Johnson, T. Jones, A. T. Lee, T. Matsumura, A. D. Miller, M. Milligan, T. Renbarger, H. G. Spieler, R. Stompoer, G. S. Tucker, M. Zaldarriaga, “The EBEX Experiment,” in Earth Observing Systems IX: Infrared Spacebourne Remote Sensing, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5543, 320–331 (2004).

Ade, P. A. R.

A. G. Murray, R. Nartallo, C. V. Haynes, F. Gannaway, P. A. R. Ade, “An imaging polarimeter for SCUBA,” in ESA SP-401: The Far Infrared and Submillimetre Universe (European Space Agency, 1997), p. 405.

Baccigalupi, C.

P. Oxley, P. Ade, C. Baccigalupi, P. deBernardis, H.-M. Cho, M. J. Devlin, S. Hanany, B. R. Johnson, T. Jones, A. T. Lee, T. Matsumura, A. D. Miller, M. Milligan, T. Renbarger, H. G. Spieler, R. Stompoer, G. S. Tucker, M. Zaldarriaga, “The EBEX Experiment,” in Earth Observing Systems IX: Infrared Spacebourne Remote Sensing, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5543, 320–331 (2004).

Bock, J.

S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, M.

S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carlstrom, J.

S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Carlstrom, J. E.

E. M. Leitch, J. M. Kovac, C. Pryke, J. E. Carlstrom, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, B. Reddall, E. S. Sandberg, “Measurement of polarization with the degree angular scale interferometer,” Nature 420, 763–771 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, H.-M.

P. Oxley, P. Ade, C. Baccigalupi, P. deBernardis, H.-M. Cho, M. J. Devlin, S. Hanany, B. R. Johnson, T. Jones, A. T. Lee, T. Matsumura, A. D. Miller, M. Milligan, T. Renbarger, H. G. Spieler, R. Stompoer, G. S. Tucker, M. Zaldarriaga, “The EBEX Experiment,” in Earth Observing Systems IX: Infrared Spacebourne Remote Sensing, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5543, 320–331 (2004).

Church, S.

S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

deBernardis, P.

P. Oxley, P. Ade, C. Baccigalupi, P. deBernardis, H.-M. Cho, M. J. Devlin, S. Hanany, B. R. Johnson, T. Jones, A. T. Lee, T. Matsumura, A. D. Miller, M. Milligan, T. Renbarger, H. G. Spieler, R. Stompoer, G. S. Tucker, M. Zaldarriaga, “The EBEX Experiment,” in Earth Observing Systems IX: Infrared Spacebourne Remote Sensing, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5543, 320–331 (2004).

Devlin, M. J.

P. Oxley, P. Ade, C. Baccigalupi, P. deBernardis, H.-M. Cho, M. J. Devlin, S. Hanany, B. R. Johnson, T. Jones, A. T. Lee, T. Matsumura, A. D. Miller, M. Milligan, T. Renbarger, H. G. Spieler, R. Stompoer, G. S. Tucker, M. Zaldarriaga, “The EBEX Experiment,” in Earth Observing Systems IX: Infrared Spacebourne Remote Sensing, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5543, 320–331 (2004).

Ganga, K.

S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gannaway, F.

A. G. Murray, R. Nartallo, C. V. Haynes, F. Gannaway, P. A. R. Ade, “An imaging polarimeter for SCUBA,” in ESA SP-401: The Far Infrared and Submillimetre Universe (European Space Agency, 1997), p. 405.

Gear, W.

S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Halverson, N. W.

E. M. Leitch, J. M. Kovac, C. Pryke, J. E. Carlstrom, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, B. Reddall, E. S. Sandberg, “Measurement of polarization with the degree angular scale interferometer,” Nature 420, 763–771 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanany, S.

P. Oxley, P. Ade, C. Baccigalupi, P. deBernardis, H.-M. Cho, M. J. Devlin, S. Hanany, B. R. Johnson, T. Jones, A. T. Lee, T. Matsumura, A. D. Miller, M. Milligan, T. Renbarger, H. G. Spieler, R. Stompoer, G. S. Tucker, M. Zaldarriaga, “The EBEX Experiment,” in Earth Observing Systems IX: Infrared Spacebourne Remote Sensing, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5543, 320–331 (2004).

Haynes, C. V.

A. G. Murray, R. Nartallo, C. V. Haynes, F. Gannaway, P. A. R. Ade, “An imaging polarimeter for SCUBA,” in ESA SP-401: The Far Infrared and Submillimetre Universe (European Space Agency, 1997), p. 405.

Hinderks, J.

S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Holzapfel, W. L.

E. M. Leitch, J. M. Kovac, C. Pryke, J. E. Carlstrom, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, B. Reddall, E. S. Sandberg, “Measurement of polarization with the degree angular scale interferometer,” Nature 420, 763–771 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, W.

S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B. R.

P. Oxley, P. Ade, C. Baccigalupi, P. deBernardis, H.-M. Cho, M. J. Devlin, S. Hanany, B. R. Johnson, T. Jones, A. T. Lee, T. Matsumura, A. D. Miller, M. Milligan, T. Renbarger, H. G. Spieler, R. Stompoer, G. S. Tucker, M. Zaldarriaga, “The EBEX Experiment,” in Earth Observing Systems IX: Infrared Spacebourne Remote Sensing, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5543, 320–331 (2004).

B. R. Johnson, “MAXIPOL: a bolometric, balloon-borne experiment for measuring the polarization anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation,” PhD dissertation (University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minneapolis, 2004).

Jones, T.

P. Oxley, P. Ade, C. Baccigalupi, P. deBernardis, H.-M. Cho, M. J. Devlin, S. Hanany, B. R. Johnson, T. Jones, A. T. Lee, T. Matsumura, A. D. Miller, M. Milligan, T. Renbarger, H. G. Spieler, R. Stompoer, G. S. Tucker, M. Zaldarriaga, “The EBEX Experiment,” in Earth Observing Systems IX: Infrared Spacebourne Remote Sensing, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5543, 320–331 (2004).

Keating, B.

S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kovac, J.

S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kovac, J. M.

E. M. Leitch, J. M. Kovac, C. Pryke, J. E. Carlstrom, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, B. Reddall, E. S. Sandberg, “Measurement of polarization with the degree angular scale interferometer,” Nature 420, 763–771 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lamb, J. W.

J. W. Lamb, “Miscellaneous data on materials for millimetre and submillimetre optics,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 17, 1997–2034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lange, A.

S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lee, A. T.

P. Oxley, P. Ade, C. Baccigalupi, P. deBernardis, H.-M. Cho, M. J. Devlin, S. Hanany, B. R. Johnson, T. Jones, A. T. Lee, T. Matsumura, A. D. Miller, M. Milligan, T. Renbarger, H. G. Spieler, R. Stompoer, G. S. Tucker, M. Zaldarriaga, “The EBEX Experiment,” in Earth Observing Systems IX: Infrared Spacebourne Remote Sensing, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5543, 320–331 (2004).

Leitch, E.

S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Leitch, E. M.

E. M. Leitch, J. M. Kovac, C. Pryke, J. E. Carlstrom, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, B. Reddall, E. S. Sandberg, “Measurement of polarization with the degree angular scale interferometer,” Nature 420, 763–771 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mallie, O.

S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Matsumura, T.

P. Oxley, P. Ade, C. Baccigalupi, P. deBernardis, H.-M. Cho, M. J. Devlin, S. Hanany, B. R. Johnson, T. Jones, A. T. Lee, T. Matsumura, A. D. Miller, M. Milligan, T. Renbarger, H. G. Spieler, R. Stompoer, G. S. Tucker, M. Zaldarriaga, “The EBEX Experiment,” in Earth Observing Systems IX: Infrared Spacebourne Remote Sensing, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5543, 320–331 (2004).

Melhuish, S.

S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Miller, A. D.

P. Oxley, P. Ade, C. Baccigalupi, P. deBernardis, H.-M. Cho, M. J. Devlin, S. Hanany, B. R. Johnson, T. Jones, A. T. Lee, T. Matsumura, A. D. Miller, M. Milligan, T. Renbarger, H. G. Spieler, R. Stompoer, G. S. Tucker, M. Zaldarriaga, “The EBEX Experiment,” in Earth Observing Systems IX: Infrared Spacebourne Remote Sensing, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5543, 320–331 (2004).

Milligan, M.

P. Oxley, P. Ade, C. Baccigalupi, P. deBernardis, H.-M. Cho, M. J. Devlin, S. Hanany, B. R. Johnson, T. Jones, A. T. Lee, T. Matsumura, A. D. Miller, M. Milligan, T. Renbarger, H. G. Spieler, R. Stompoer, G. S. Tucker, M. Zaldarriaga, “The EBEX Experiment,” in Earth Observing Systems IX: Infrared Spacebourne Remote Sensing, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5543, 320–331 (2004).

Murphy, A.

S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Murray, A. G.

A. G. Murray, R. Nartallo, C. V. Haynes, F. Gannaway, P. A. R. Ade, “An imaging polarimeter for SCUBA,” in ESA SP-401: The Far Infrared and Submillimetre Universe (European Space Agency, 1997), p. 405.

Nartallo, R.

A. G. Murray, R. Nartallo, C. V. Haynes, F. Gannaway, P. A. R. Ade, “An imaging polarimeter for SCUBA,” in ESA SP-401: The Far Infrared and Submillimetre Universe (European Space Agency, 1997), p. 405.

O’Sullivan, C.

S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Oxley, P.

P. Oxley, P. Ade, C. Baccigalupi, P. deBernardis, H.-M. Cho, M. J. Devlin, S. Hanany, B. R. Johnson, T. Jones, A. T. Lee, T. Matsumura, A. D. Miller, M. Milligan, T. Renbarger, H. G. Spieler, R. Stompoer, G. S. Tucker, M. Zaldarriaga, “The EBEX Experiment,” in Earth Observing Systems IX: Infrared Spacebourne Remote Sensing, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5543, 320–331 (2004).

Pancharatnam, S.

S. Pancharatnam, “Achromatic combinations of birefringent plates,” Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 41, 137–144 (1955).

Piccirillo, L.

S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pryke, C.

S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Leitch, J. M. Kovac, C. Pryke, J. E. Carlstrom, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, B. Reddall, E. S. Sandberg, “Measurement of polarization with the degree angular scale interferometer,” Nature 420, 763–771 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reddall, B.

E. M. Leitch, J. M. Kovac, C. Pryke, J. E. Carlstrom, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, B. Reddall, E. S. Sandberg, “Measurement of polarization with the degree angular scale interferometer,” Nature 420, 763–771 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Renbarger, T.

P. Oxley, P. Ade, C. Baccigalupi, P. deBernardis, H.-M. Cho, M. J. Devlin, S. Hanany, B. R. Johnson, T. Jones, A. T. Lee, T. Matsumura, A. D. Miller, M. Milligan, T. Renbarger, H. G. Spieler, R. Stompoer, G. S. Tucker, M. Zaldarriaga, “The EBEX Experiment,” in Earth Observing Systems IX: Infrared Spacebourne Remote Sensing, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5543, 320–331 (2004).

Rosenberg, W. J.

A. M. Title, W. J. Rosenberg, “Achromatic retardation plates,” in Polarizers and Applications, G. B. Trapani, ed., Proc. SPIE307, 120–125 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rusholme, B.

S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Sandberg, E. S.

E. M. Leitch, J. M. Kovac, C. Pryke, J. E. Carlstrom, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, B. Reddall, E. S. Sandberg, “Measurement of polarization with the degree angular scale interferometer,” Nature 420, 763–771 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spieler, H. G.

P. Oxley, P. Ade, C. Baccigalupi, P. deBernardis, H.-M. Cho, M. J. Devlin, S. Hanany, B. R. Johnson, T. Jones, A. T. Lee, T. Matsumura, A. D. Miller, M. Milligan, T. Renbarger, H. G. Spieler, R. Stompoer, G. S. Tucker, M. Zaldarriaga, “The EBEX Experiment,” in Earth Observing Systems IX: Infrared Spacebourne Remote Sensing, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5543, 320–331 (2004).

Stompoer, R.

P. Oxley, P. Ade, C. Baccigalupi, P. deBernardis, H.-M. Cho, M. J. Devlin, S. Hanany, B. R. Johnson, T. Jones, A. T. Lee, T. Matsumura, A. D. Miller, M. Milligan, T. Renbarger, H. G. Spieler, R. Stompoer, G. S. Tucker, M. Zaldarriaga, “The EBEX Experiment,” in Earth Observing Systems IX: Infrared Spacebourne Remote Sensing, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5543, 320–331 (2004).

Taylor, A.

S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, K.

S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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J. Tinbergen, Astronomical Polarimetry (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1996).
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A. M. Title, “Improvement of birefringent filters,” Appl. Opt. 14, 229–237 (1975).
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A. M. Title, W. J. Rosenberg, “Achromatic retardation plates,” in Polarizers and Applications, G. B. Trapani, ed., Proc. SPIE307, 120–125 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tucker, G. S.

P. Oxley, P. Ade, C. Baccigalupi, P. deBernardis, H.-M. Cho, M. J. Devlin, S. Hanany, B. R. Johnson, T. Jones, A. T. Lee, T. Matsumura, A. D. Miller, M. Milligan, T. Renbarger, H. G. Spieler, R. Stompoer, G. S. Tucker, M. Zaldarriaga, “The EBEX Experiment,” in Earth Observing Systems IX: Infrared Spacebourne Remote Sensing, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5543, 320–331 (2004).

Zaldarriaga, M.

P. Oxley, P. Ade, C. Baccigalupi, P. deBernardis, H.-M. Cho, M. J. Devlin, S. Hanany, B. R. Johnson, T. Jones, A. T. Lee, T. Matsumura, A. D. Miller, M. Milligan, T. Renbarger, H. G. Spieler, R. Stompoer, G. S. Tucker, M. Zaldarriaga, “The EBEX Experiment,” in Earth Observing Systems IX: Infrared Spacebourne Remote Sensing, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5543, 320–331 (2004).

Appl. Opt. (1)

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J. W. Lamb, “Miscellaneous data on materials for millimetre and submillimetre optics,” Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 17, 1997–2034 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

E. M. Leitch, J. M. Kovac, C. Pryke, J. E. Carlstrom, N. W. Halverson, W. L. Holzapfel, B. Reddall, E. S. Sandberg, “Measurement of polarization with the degree angular scale interferometer,” Nature 420, 763–771 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New Astron. Rev. (1)

S. Church, P. Ade, J. Bock, M. Bowden, J. Carlstrom, K. Ganga, W. Gear, J. Hinderks, W. Hu, B. Keating, J. Kovac, A. Lange, E. Leitch, O. Mallie, S. Melhuish, A. Murphy, B. Rusholme, C. O’Sullivan, L. Piccirillo, C. Pryke, A. Taylor, K. Thompson, “QUEST on DASI: a South Pole CMB polarization experiment,” New Astron. Rev. 47, 1083–1089 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. (1)

S. Pancharatnam, “Achromatic combinations of birefringent plates,” Proc. Ind. Acad. Sci. 41, 137–144 (1955).

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A. M. Title, W. J. Rosenberg, “Achromatic retardation plates,” in Polarizers and Applications, G. B. Trapani, ed., Proc. SPIE307, 120–125 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gunn Oscillator Model GW-110-10, Spacek Labs Millimeter Wave Technology, 212 East Gutierrez Street, Santa Barbara, Calif. 93101.

Gunn Diode Model DW-3, Spacek Labs Millimeter Wave Technology, 212 East Gutierrez Street, Santa Barbara, Calif. 93101.

B. R. Johnson, “MAXIPOL: a bolometric, balloon-borne experiment for measuring the polarization anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation,” PhD dissertation (University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minneapolis, 2004).

P. Oxley, P. Ade, C. Baccigalupi, P. deBernardis, H.-M. Cho, M. J. Devlin, S. Hanany, B. R. Johnson, T. Jones, A. T. Lee, T. Matsumura, A. D. Miller, M. Milligan, T. Renbarger, H. G. Spieler, R. Stompoer, G. S. Tucker, M. Zaldarriaga, “The EBEX Experiment,” in Earth Observing Systems IX: Infrared Spacebourne Remote Sensing, W. L. Barnes, J. J. Butler, eds., Proc. SPIE5543, 320–331 (2004).

J. Tinbergen, Astronomical Polarimetry (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1996).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Murray, R. Nartallo, C. V. Haynes, F. Gannaway, P. A. R. Ade, “An imaging polarimeter for SCUBA,” in ESA SP-401: The Far Infrared and Submillimetre Universe (European Space Agency, 1997), p. 405.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top view sketch of the experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(Color online) Measurements (points) and theoretical predictions (dashes) of the signal detected as a function of rotation angle of the plates for the chromatic plate (diamonds) and for the AHWP (triangles). Error bars are the standard deviations of five repeated measurements. The theoretical predictions have no free parameters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(Color online) Predicted modulation efficiency as a function of frequency of the AHWP (solid curve) and of a single plate (dashed curve) and the measured efficiency of both plates.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(Color online) Predicted modulation efficiency of an AHWP as a function of frequency near 150 GHz for rotation angles of 47 (dash-dotted curve), 53 (solid curve) and 58 (dashed curve) deg of the second plate. Each sapphire plate in the stack is a HWP for a frequency of 50 GHz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(Color online) Average modulation efficiency (color scale and contours) as a function of the orientation of the second plate and the spectral width of a top-hat band centered on 150 GHz (for example, a width of 60 GHz means 150 ± 30 GHz).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(Color online) The modulation efficiency of an AHWP made of a stack of five plates compared to the modulation efficiency of an AHWP made of a three stack. The five stack has orientation angles of 28.8, 94.5, 28.8, and 2 deg for the plates after the first. For the three stack the second plate is at 57.5 deg. Each of the plates is sapphire and is optimized for 50 GHz.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(Color online) The average modulation efficiency (color scale and contours) for an AHWP made of a five stack. The efficiency is given as a function of the orientation of the second and fourth plates (relative to the first) and the spectral width of a top-hat band centered on 150 GHz. The relative angles of the third and fifth plates are 94.5 and 2 degrees, respectively.

Equations (2)

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D = i = 0 8 A i cos ( i α + ϕ i ) .
ɛ = A 4 A 0 .

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