Abstract

A reference goniospectrophotometer has been developed at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) for providing high-accuracy traceable measurements of specular gloss at several standard geometries, including 75° for paper samples, haze and absence-of-bloom gloss, and color appearance of gonioapparent materials. This is to the authors’ knowledge the first reported reference instrument that has this level of versatility for rapidly characterizing the total visual appearance properties of a wide variety of materials and applications. This instrument also replaces the NRC glossmeter that has been providing primary level specular gloss measurements in accordance with International Organization for Standardization and American Society for Testing and Materials standards for measurements of paint and ceramic materials at geometries of 20°, 60°, and 85°. The new instrument has been fully characterized for sources of error and compared with the NRC glossmeter. Its measurement reproducibility of 0.02 gloss unit is a factor-of-5 improvement, and its overall estimated expanded (k = 2) uncertainty is 0.3 gloss unit at all three standard geometries.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. S. Hunter, The Measurement of Appearance (Wiley, 1975).
  2. W. Budde, “The calibration of gloss reference standards,” Metrologia 16, 89–93 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Budde, “A reference instrument for 20°, 60°, and 85° gloss measurements,” Metrologia 16, 1–5 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. C. Zwinkels, M. Noël, “Specular gloss measurement services at the National Research Council of Canada,” Surf. Coat. Int. 78, 512–516 (1995).
  5. A. R. Hanson, J. A. F. Taylor, M. A. Basu, D. C. Williams, J. C. Zwinkels, W. Czepluch, “Report on Project QR9816B1 Gloss Measurements at NPL,” (National Physical Laboratory, March2000).
  6. M. E. Nadal, E. A. Thompson, “NIST reference goniophotometer for specular gloss measurements,” J. Coatings Technol. 73, 73–80 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  7. M. E. Nadal, J. C. Zwinkels, M. Noël, “Specular gloss scales comparison between the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the National Research Council of Canada,” J. Coatings Technol. 75, 45–51 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Budde, “Polarization effects in gloss measurements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2252–2257 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM Standard D523-89: Standard Test Method for Specular Gloss (ASTM, 1989).
  10. International Organization for Standards, ISO Standard 2813-1994: Paints and Varnishes–Determination of Specular Gloss of Non-metallic Paint Films at 20 Degrees, 60 Degrees and 85 Degrees (ISO, 1994).
  11. H. Wright, C. L. Sanders, D. Gignac, “Design of glass filter combinations for photometers,” Appl. Opt. 8, 2449–2455 (1969).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. I. Powell, “D65 simulation with a xenon arc,” Appl. Opt. 35, 6708–6713 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. C. McClain, C. L. Bartlett, J. L. Pezzaniti, R. A. Chipman, “Depolarization measurements of an integrating sphere,” Appl. Opt. 34, 152–154 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, Characterizing Illuminance Meters and Luminance Meters, Publ. CIE 69 (CIE, 1987).
  15. M. Noël, J. Zwinkels, J. Liu are preparing the following paper for publication: “Optical characterization of a reference instrument for glass measurements in both a collimated and converging beam geometry,”.
  16. J. Zwinkels, J. Liu, M. Noël are preparing the following paper for publication: “Design and testing of a reference goniospectrophotometer for total visual appearance measurements”.

2003 (1)

M. E. Nadal, J. C. Zwinkels, M. Noël, “Specular gloss scales comparison between the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the National Research Council of Canada,” J. Coatings Technol. 75, 45–51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

M. E. Nadal, E. A. Thompson, “NIST reference goniophotometer for specular gloss measurements,” J. Coatings Technol. 73, 73–80 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

S. C. McClain, C. L. Bartlett, J. L. Pezzaniti, R. A. Chipman, “Depolarization measurements of an integrating sphere,” Appl. Opt. 34, 152–154 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Zwinkels, M. Noël, “Specular gloss measurement services at the National Research Council of Canada,” Surf. Coat. Int. 78, 512–516 (1995).

1980 (2)

W. Budde, “The calibration of gloss reference standards,” Metrologia 16, 89–93 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. Budde, “A reference instrument for 20°, 60°, and 85° gloss measurements,” Metrologia 16, 1–5 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

1969 (1)

Bartlett, C. L.

Basu, M. A.

A. R. Hanson, J. A. F. Taylor, M. A. Basu, D. C. Williams, J. C. Zwinkels, W. Czepluch, “Report on Project QR9816B1 Gloss Measurements at NPL,” (National Physical Laboratory, March2000).

Budde, W.

W. Budde, “The calibration of gloss reference standards,” Metrologia 16, 89–93 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. Budde, “A reference instrument for 20°, 60°, and 85° gloss measurements,” Metrologia 16, 1–5 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. Budde, “Polarization effects in gloss measurements,” Appl. Opt. 18, 2252–2257 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chipman, R. A.

Czepluch, W.

A. R. Hanson, J. A. F. Taylor, M. A. Basu, D. C. Williams, J. C. Zwinkels, W. Czepluch, “Report on Project QR9816B1 Gloss Measurements at NPL,” (National Physical Laboratory, March2000).

Gignac, D.

Hanson, A. R.

A. R. Hanson, J. A. F. Taylor, M. A. Basu, D. C. Williams, J. C. Zwinkels, W. Czepluch, “Report on Project QR9816B1 Gloss Measurements at NPL,” (National Physical Laboratory, March2000).

Hunter, R. S.

R. S. Hunter, The Measurement of Appearance (Wiley, 1975).

Liu, J.

M. Noël, J. Zwinkels, J. Liu are preparing the following paper for publication: “Optical characterization of a reference instrument for glass measurements in both a collimated and converging beam geometry,”.

J. Zwinkels, J. Liu, M. Noël are preparing the following paper for publication: “Design and testing of a reference goniospectrophotometer for total visual appearance measurements”.

McClain, S. C.

Nadal, M. E.

M. E. Nadal, J. C. Zwinkels, M. Noël, “Specular gloss scales comparison between the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the National Research Council of Canada,” J. Coatings Technol. 75, 45–51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Nadal, E. A. Thompson, “NIST reference goniophotometer for specular gloss measurements,” J. Coatings Technol. 73, 73–80 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Noël, M.

M. E. Nadal, J. C. Zwinkels, M. Noël, “Specular gloss scales comparison between the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the National Research Council of Canada,” J. Coatings Technol. 75, 45–51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Zwinkels, M. Noël, “Specular gloss measurement services at the National Research Council of Canada,” Surf. Coat. Int. 78, 512–516 (1995).

M. Noël, J. Zwinkels, J. Liu are preparing the following paper for publication: “Optical characterization of a reference instrument for glass measurements in both a collimated and converging beam geometry,”.

J. Zwinkels, J. Liu, M. Noël are preparing the following paper for publication: “Design and testing of a reference goniospectrophotometer for total visual appearance measurements”.

Pezzaniti, J. L.

Powell, I.

Sanders, C. L.

Taylor, J. A. F.

A. R. Hanson, J. A. F. Taylor, M. A. Basu, D. C. Williams, J. C. Zwinkels, W. Czepluch, “Report on Project QR9816B1 Gloss Measurements at NPL,” (National Physical Laboratory, March2000).

Thompson, E. A.

M. E. Nadal, E. A. Thompson, “NIST reference goniophotometer for specular gloss measurements,” J. Coatings Technol. 73, 73–80 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. C.

A. R. Hanson, J. A. F. Taylor, M. A. Basu, D. C. Williams, J. C. Zwinkels, W. Czepluch, “Report on Project QR9816B1 Gloss Measurements at NPL,” (National Physical Laboratory, March2000).

Wright, H.

Zwinkels, J.

M. Noël, J. Zwinkels, J. Liu are preparing the following paper for publication: “Optical characterization of a reference instrument for glass measurements in both a collimated and converging beam geometry,”.

J. Zwinkels, J. Liu, M. Noël are preparing the following paper for publication: “Design and testing of a reference goniospectrophotometer for total visual appearance measurements”.

Zwinkels, J. C.

M. E. Nadal, J. C. Zwinkels, M. Noël, “Specular gloss scales comparison between the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the National Research Council of Canada,” J. Coatings Technol. 75, 45–51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Zwinkels, M. Noël, “Specular gloss measurement services at the National Research Council of Canada,” Surf. Coat. Int. 78, 512–516 (1995).

A. R. Hanson, J. A. F. Taylor, M. A. Basu, D. C. Williams, J. C. Zwinkels, W. Czepluch, “Report on Project QR9816B1 Gloss Measurements at NPL,” (National Physical Laboratory, March2000).

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Coatings Technol. (2)

M. E. Nadal, E. A. Thompson, “NIST reference goniophotometer for specular gloss measurements,” J. Coatings Technol. 73, 73–80 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Nadal, J. C. Zwinkels, M. Noël, “Specular gloss scales comparison between the National Institute of Standards and Technology and the National Research Council of Canada,” J. Coatings Technol. 75, 45–51 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (2)

W. Budde, “The calibration of gloss reference standards,” Metrologia 16, 89–93 (1980).
[CrossRef]

W. Budde, “A reference instrument for 20°, 60°, and 85° gloss measurements,” Metrologia 16, 1–5 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Coat. Int. (1)

J. C. Zwinkels, M. Noël, “Specular gloss measurement services at the National Research Council of Canada,” Surf. Coat. Int. 78, 512–516 (1995).

Other (7)

A. R. Hanson, J. A. F. Taylor, M. A. Basu, D. C. Williams, J. C. Zwinkels, W. Czepluch, “Report on Project QR9816B1 Gloss Measurements at NPL,” (National Physical Laboratory, March2000).

American Society for Testing and Materials, ASTM Standard D523-89: Standard Test Method for Specular Gloss (ASTM, 1989).

International Organization for Standards, ISO Standard 2813-1994: Paints and Varnishes–Determination of Specular Gloss of Non-metallic Paint Films at 20 Degrees, 60 Degrees and 85 Degrees (ISO, 1994).

Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, Characterizing Illuminance Meters and Luminance Meters, Publ. CIE 69 (CIE, 1987).

M. Noël, J. Zwinkels, J. Liu are preparing the following paper for publication: “Optical characterization of a reference instrument for glass measurements in both a collimated and converging beam geometry,”.

J. Zwinkels, J. Liu, M. Noël are preparing the following paper for publication: “Design and testing of a reference goniospectrophotometer for total visual appearance measurements”.

R. S. Hunter, The Measurement of Appearance (Wiley, 1975).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of NRC reference goniospectrophotometer setup for 60° specular gloss measurements.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spatial uniformity of the light source image at the source aperture position. The dimensions of the rectangular source aperture are 2xo long by 2yo high.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Instrument polarization sensitivity measured at sample position. Error bars indicate the standard deviations of repeat determinations.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Relative spectral distribution of CIE illuminant C, V(λ) luminous efficiency function, and xenon source. (b) Comparison of target spectral distribution and actual instrument source distribution at a sample position weighted by the V(λ) function. The instrument source comprises a xenon lamp, an integrating sphere, and a color-correction filter.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of measured relative spectral responsivity of photometer and target V(λ) function.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured spatial uniformity of the photometer detector at 550 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Intercomparison of gloss measurements performed on an NRC old glossmeter and a new reference goniospectrophotometer. The nominal gloss values of the gloss standards are given in parentheses, and the error bars give combined expanded (k = 2) uncertainty: (a) 20° geometry, (b) 60° geometry, (c) 85° geometry. GU, gloss units.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Aperture Angles and Tolerances on NRC Reference Goniospectrophotometer Compared with ASTM D523 Specifications

Equations (2)

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Q = λ [ S m ( λ ) - S t ( λ ) ] 2 d λ .
D p = P max - P min P max + P min .

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