Abstract

We report the delivery of high-energy nanosecond pulses (~65 ns pulse width) from a high-repetition-rate (up to 100 kHz) Q-switched Nd:YAG laser through the fundamental mode of a hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) at 1064 nm. The guided mode in the HC-PCF has a low overlap with the glass, allowing delivery of pulses with energies above those attainable with other fibers. Energies greater than 0.5 mJ were delivered in a single spatial mode through the hollow-core fiber, providing the pulse energy and high beam quality required for micromachining of metals. Practical micromachining of a metal sheet by fiber delivery has been demonstrated.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Kuhn, I. J. Blewett, D. P. Hand, P. French, M. Richmond, J. D. C. Jones, “Optical fibre beam delivery of high-energy laser pulses: beam quality preservation and fibre end-preparation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 34, 273–288 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Kuhn, P. French, D. P. Hand, I. J. Blewett, M. Richmond, J. D. C. Jones, “Preparation of fiber optics for the delivery of high-energy high-beam-quality Nd:YAG laser pulses,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6136–6143 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Su, A. A. B. Boechat, J. D. C. Jones, “Optimum beam launching conditions for graded-index optical fibers—theory and practice,” IEE Proc. J 140, 221–226 (1993).
  4. T. J. Stephens, “Fibre-optic delivery of high peak power laser pulses for flow measurement,” Ph.D. dissertation (Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK, 2003).
  5. J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St, J. Russell, B. J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 717–723 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. B. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St, J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.
  7. F. Rainer, L. J. Atherton, J. H. Campbell, F. D. DeMarco, M. R. Kozolowski, A. J. Morgan, M. C. Staggs, “Four-harmonic database of laser-damage testing,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials,H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1624, 116–127 (1991).
  8. G. Humbert, J. C. Knight, G. Bouwmans, P. St, J. Russell, D. P. Wiliiams, P. J. Roberts, B. J. Mangan, “Hollow core photonic crystal fibers for beam delivery,” Opt. Express 12, 1477–1484 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. F. Johnston, “Beam propagation (M-2) measurement made as easy as it gets: the four-cuts method,” Appl. Opt. 37, 4840–4850 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

2000 (2)

A. Kuhn, I. J. Blewett, D. P. Hand, P. French, M. Richmond, J. D. C. Jones, “Optical fibre beam delivery of high-energy laser pulses: beam quality preservation and fibre end-preparation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 34, 273–288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuhn, P. French, D. P. Hand, I. J. Blewett, M. Richmond, J. D. C. Jones, “Preparation of fiber optics for the delivery of high-energy high-beam-quality Nd:YAG laser pulses,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6136–6143 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1993 (1)

D. Su, A. A. B. Boechat, J. D. C. Jones, “Optimum beam launching conditions for graded-index optical fibers—theory and practice,” IEE Proc. J 140, 221–226 (1993).

Atherton, L. J.

F. Rainer, L. J. Atherton, J. H. Campbell, F. D. DeMarco, M. R. Kozolowski, A. J. Morgan, M. C. Staggs, “Four-harmonic database of laser-damage testing,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials,H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1624, 116–127 (1991).

Birks, T. A.

B. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St, J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Blewett, I. J.

A. Kuhn, P. French, D. P. Hand, I. J. Blewett, M. Richmond, J. D. C. Jones, “Preparation of fiber optics for the delivery of high-energy high-beam-quality Nd:YAG laser pulses,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6136–6143 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuhn, I. J. Blewett, D. P. Hand, P. French, M. Richmond, J. D. C. Jones, “Optical fibre beam delivery of high-energy laser pulses: beam quality preservation and fibre end-preparation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 34, 273–288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boechat, A. A. B.

D. Su, A. A. B. Boechat, J. D. C. Jones, “Optimum beam launching conditions for graded-index optical fibers—theory and practice,” IEE Proc. J 140, 221–226 (1993).

Bouwmans, G.

Campbell, J. H.

F. Rainer, L. J. Atherton, J. H. Campbell, F. D. DeMarco, M. R. Kozolowski, A. J. Morgan, M. C. Staggs, “Four-harmonic database of laser-damage testing,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials,H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1624, 116–127 (1991).

Couny, F.

B. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St, J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Coupland, S.

B. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St, J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

DeMarco, F. D.

F. Rainer, L. J. Atherton, J. H. Campbell, F. D. DeMarco, M. R. Kozolowski, A. J. Morgan, M. C. Staggs, “Four-harmonic database of laser-damage testing,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials,H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1624, 116–127 (1991).

Farr, L.

B. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St, J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Flea, R.

B. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St, J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

French, P.

A. Kuhn, P. French, D. P. Hand, I. J. Blewett, M. Richmond, J. D. C. Jones, “Preparation of fiber optics for the delivery of high-energy high-beam-quality Nd:YAG laser pulses,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6136–6143 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuhn, I. J. Blewett, D. P. Hand, P. French, M. Richmond, J. D. C. Jones, “Optical fibre beam delivery of high-energy laser pulses: beam quality preservation and fibre end-preparation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 34, 273–288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hand, D. P.

Humbert, G.

Johnston, T. F.

Jones, J. D. C.

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St, J. Russell, B. J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 717–723 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Kuhn, P. French, D. P. Hand, I. J. Blewett, M. Richmond, J. D. C. Jones, “Preparation of fiber optics for the delivery of high-energy high-beam-quality Nd:YAG laser pulses,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6136–6143 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuhn, I. J. Blewett, D. P. Hand, P. French, M. Richmond, J. D. C. Jones, “Optical fibre beam delivery of high-energy laser pulses: beam quality preservation and fibre end-preparation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 34, 273–288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Su, A. A. B. Boechat, J. D. C. Jones, “Optimum beam launching conditions for graded-index optical fibers—theory and practice,” IEE Proc. J 140, 221–226 (1993).

Knight, J. C.

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St, J. Russell, B. J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 717–723 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Humbert, J. C. Knight, G. Bouwmans, P. St, J. Russell, D. P. Wiliiams, P. J. Roberts, B. J. Mangan, “Hollow core photonic crystal fibers for beam delivery,” Opt. Express 12, 1477–1484 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St, J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Kozolowski, M. R.

F. Rainer, L. J. Atherton, J. H. Campbell, F. D. DeMarco, M. R. Kozolowski, A. J. Morgan, M. C. Staggs, “Four-harmonic database of laser-damage testing,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials,H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1624, 116–127 (1991).

Kuhn, A.

A. Kuhn, P. French, D. P. Hand, I. J. Blewett, M. Richmond, J. D. C. Jones, “Preparation of fiber optics for the delivery of high-energy high-beam-quality Nd:YAG laser pulses,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6136–6143 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuhn, I. J. Blewett, D. P. Hand, P. French, M. Richmond, J. D. C. Jones, “Optical fibre beam delivery of high-energy laser pulses: beam quality preservation and fibre end-preparation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 34, 273–288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Langford, A.

B. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St, J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Lawman, M.

B. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St, J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Mangan, B.

B. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St, J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Mangan, B. J.

Mason, M.

B. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St, J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Morgan, A. J.

F. Rainer, L. J. Atherton, J. H. Campbell, F. D. DeMarco, M. R. Kozolowski, A. J. Morgan, M. C. Staggs, “Four-harmonic database of laser-damage testing,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials,H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1624, 116–127 (1991).

Rainer, F.

F. Rainer, L. J. Atherton, J. H. Campbell, F. D. DeMarco, M. R. Kozolowski, A. J. Morgan, M. C. Staggs, “Four-harmonic database of laser-damage testing,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials,H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1624, 116–127 (1991).

Richmond, M.

A. Kuhn, P. French, D. P. Hand, I. J. Blewett, M. Richmond, J. D. C. Jones, “Preparation of fiber optics for the delivery of high-energy high-beam-quality Nd:YAG laser pulses,” Appl. Opt. 39, 6136–6143 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Kuhn, I. J. Blewett, D. P. Hand, P. French, M. Richmond, J. D. C. Jones, “Optical fibre beam delivery of high-energy laser pulses: beam quality preservation and fibre end-preparation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 34, 273–288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, P. J.

G. Humbert, J. C. Knight, G. Bouwmans, P. St, J. Russell, D. P. Wiliiams, P. J. Roberts, B. J. Mangan, “Hollow core photonic crystal fibers for beam delivery,” Opt. Express 12, 1477–1484 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St, J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Russell, J.

G. Humbert, J. C. Knight, G. Bouwmans, P. St, J. Russell, D. P. Wiliiams, P. J. Roberts, B. J. Mangan, “Hollow core photonic crystal fibers for beam delivery,” Opt. Express 12, 1477–1484 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St, J. Russell, B. J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 717–723 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St, J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Sabert, H.

B. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St, J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Shephard, J. D.

St, P.

J. D. Shephard, J. D. C. Jones, D. P. Hand, G. Bouwmans, J. C. Knight, P. St, J. Russell, B. J. Mangan, “High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers,” Opt. Express 12, 717–723 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Humbert, J. C. Knight, G. Bouwmans, P. St, J. Russell, D. P. Wiliiams, P. J. Roberts, B. J. Mangan, “Hollow core photonic crystal fibers for beam delivery,” Opt. Express 12, 1477–1484 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St, J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Staggs, M. C.

F. Rainer, L. J. Atherton, J. H. Campbell, F. D. DeMarco, M. R. Kozolowski, A. J. Morgan, M. C. Staggs, “Four-harmonic database of laser-damage testing,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials,H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1624, 116–127 (1991).

Stephens, T. J.

T. J. Stephens, “Fibre-optic delivery of high peak power laser pulses for flow measurement,” Ph.D. dissertation (Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK, 2003).

Su, D.

D. Su, A. A. B. Boechat, J. D. C. Jones, “Optimum beam launching conditions for graded-index optical fibers—theory and practice,” IEE Proc. J 140, 221–226 (1993).

Wiliiams, D. P.

Williams, D. P.

B. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St, J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

Appl. Opt. (2)

IEE Proc. J (1)

D. Su, A. A. B. Boechat, J. D. C. Jones, “Optimum beam launching conditions for graded-index optical fibers—theory and practice,” IEE Proc. J 140, 221–226 (1993).

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lasers Eng. (1)

A. Kuhn, I. J. Blewett, D. P. Hand, P. French, M. Richmond, J. D. C. Jones, “Optical fibre beam delivery of high-energy laser pulses: beam quality preservation and fibre end-preparation,” Opt. Lasers Eng. 34, 273–288 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

T. J. Stephens, “Fibre-optic delivery of high peak power laser pulses for flow measurement,” Ph.D. dissertation (Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK, 2003).

B. Mangan, L. Farr, A. Langford, P. J. Roberts, D. P. Williams, F. Couny, M. Lawman, M. Mason, S. Coupland, R. Flea, H. Sabert, T. A. Birks, J. C. Knight, P. St, J. Russell, “Low loss (1.7 dB/km) hollow core photonic bandgap fiber,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 95 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, 2004), paper PDP24.

F. Rainer, L. J. Atherton, J. H. Campbell, F. D. DeMarco, M. R. Kozolowski, A. J. Morgan, M. C. Staggs, “Four-harmonic database of laser-damage testing,” in Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials,H. E. Bennett, L. L. Chase, A. H. Guenther, B. E. Newnam, M. J. Soileau, eds., Proc. SPIE1624, 116–127 (1991).

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