Abstract

We study the differences between real and expected corneal shapes, using an aspherical ablation algorithm with a known equation and avoiding the limitation imposed by most studies of refractive surgery in which the ablation equations are not known. We have calculated the theoretical corneal shape predicted by this algorithm, comparing this shape with the real corneal topography. The results indicate that the deviations that appear in the corneal shape are significant for visual performance and for the correction of eye aberrations. If we include in this analysis the effect of reflection losses and nonnormal incidence on the cornea, we can reduce corneal differences, but they will remain significant. These results confirm that it is essential to minimize corneal differences to achieve effective correction in refractive surgery.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, L. Jiménez del Barco, J. Bermúdez, E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 762–768 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser refractive surgery, including reflection losses and nonnormal incidence upon the anterior cornea,” Opt. Lett. 28, 417–419 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. D. Cano, S. Barbero, S. Marcos, “Comparison of real and computer-simulated outcomes of LASIK refractive surgery,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 926–936 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Huang, M. Tang, R. Shekhar, “Mathematical model of corneal surface smoothing after laser refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 267–278 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Equation for corneal asphericity after corneal refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, 65–69 (2003).
    [PubMed]
  6. J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Predicting changes in corneal asphericity after hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1468 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, J. A. Díaz, F. Pérez-Ocón, “Corneal asphericity after refractive surgery when the Munnerlyn formula is applied,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 98–103 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Effect on visual function of approximations of the corneal-ablation profile during refractive surgery,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1–6 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Crnic-Rein, E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1204–1210 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Effect on laser-ablation algorithms of reflection losses and nonnormal incidence on the anterior cornea,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1521–1523 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Influence of laser polarization on ocular refractive parameters after refractive surgery,” Opt. Lett. 29, 962–964 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. C. R. Munnerlyn, S. J. Koons, J. Marshall, “Photorefractive keratotomy: a technique for laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 14, 46–52 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. S. Marcos, “Aberrations and visual performance following standard laser vision correction,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, S596–S601 (2001).
    [PubMed]
  14. E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. Merayo-Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).
  15. J. Schwiegerling, R. W. Snyder, “Corneal ablation atterns to correct for spherical aberration in photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 26, 214–221 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. Manns, A. Ho, J. M. Parel, W. Culbertson, “Ablation profiles for wavefront-guided correction of myopia and primary spherical aberration,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 766–774 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. A. Díaz, R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Optimum corneal asphericity of myopic eyes for refractive surgery,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1903–1915 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Gatinel, J. Malet, T. Hoang-Xuan, D. T. Azar, “Analysis of customized corneal ablation: theoretical limitations of increasing negative asphericity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 941–948 (2002).
  19. D. A. Atchison, G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000), pp. 13–16.
  20. J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, R. Gutierrez, R. G. Anera, “Effect on visual performance of differences between actual and expected corneal shape after aspherical corneal ablation,” presented at the 9th Winter Refractive Surgery Meeting of the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons, Rome, Italy, 4–6 February 2005.
  21. R. Gutierrez, J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, J. A. Valverde, R. G. Anera, “Simple device for quantifying the influence of halos after LASIK surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 663–667 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

2003 (8)

J. A. Díaz, R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Optimum corneal asphericity of myopic eyes for refractive surgery,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1903–1915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. Gutierrez, J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, J. A. Valverde, R. G. Anera, “Simple device for quantifying the influence of halos after LASIK surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 663–667 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, L. Jiménez del Barco, J. Bermúdez, E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 762–768 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser refractive surgery, including reflection losses and nonnormal incidence upon the anterior cornea,” Opt. Lett. 28, 417–419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Huang, M. Tang, R. Shekhar, “Mathematical model of corneal surface smoothing after laser refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 267–278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Equation for corneal asphericity after corneal refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, 65–69 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Predicting changes in corneal asphericity after hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Crnic-Rein, E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (3)

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Effect on laser-ablation algorithms of reflection losses and nonnormal incidence on the anterior cornea,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1521–1523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Gatinel, J. Malet, T. Hoang-Xuan, D. T. Azar, “Analysis of customized corneal ablation: theoretical limitations of increasing negative asphericity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 941–948 (2002).

F. Manns, A. Ho, J. M. Parel, W. Culbertson, “Ablation profiles for wavefront-guided correction of myopia and primary spherical aberration,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 766–774 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

S. Marcos, “Aberrations and visual performance following standard laser vision correction,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, S596–S601 (2001).
[PubMed]

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. Merayo-Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Effect on visual function of approximations of the corneal-ablation profile during refractive surgery,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

J. Schwiegerling, R. W. Snyder, “Corneal ablation atterns to correct for spherical aberration in photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 26, 214–221 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

C. R. Munnerlyn, S. J. Koons, J. Marshall, “Photorefractive keratotomy: a technique for laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 14, 46–52 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anera, R. G.

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Influence of laser polarization on ocular refractive parameters after refractive surgery,” Opt. Lett. 29, 962–964 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, J. A. Díaz, F. Pérez-Ocón, “Corneal asphericity after refractive surgery when the Munnerlyn formula is applied,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 98–103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Equation for corneal asphericity after corneal refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, 65–69 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Predicting changes in corneal asphericity after hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Díaz, R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Optimum corneal asphericity of myopic eyes for refractive surgery,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1903–1915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, L. Jiménez del Barco, J. Bermúdez, E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 762–768 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser refractive surgery, including reflection losses and nonnormal incidence upon the anterior cornea,” Opt. Lett. 28, 417–419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Gutierrez, J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, J. A. Valverde, R. G. Anera, “Simple device for quantifying the influence of halos after LASIK surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 663–667 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Effect on laser-ablation algorithms of reflection losses and nonnormal incidence on the anterior cornea,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1521–1523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Effect on visual function of approximations of the corneal-ablation profile during refractive surgery,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, R. Gutierrez, R. G. Anera, “Effect on visual performance of differences between actual and expected corneal shape after aspherical corneal ablation,” presented at the 9th Winter Refractive Surgery Meeting of the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons, Rome, Italy, 4–6 February 2005.

Atchison, D. A.

D. A. Atchison, G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000), pp. 13–16.

Azar, D. T.

D. Gatinel, J. Malet, T. Hoang-Xuan, D. T. Azar, “Analysis of customized corneal ablation: theoretical limitations of increasing negative asphericity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 941–948 (2002).

Barbero, S.

D. Cano, S. Barbero, S. Marcos, “Comparison of real and computer-simulated outcomes of LASIK refractive surgery,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 926–936 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. Merayo-Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

Bermúdez, J.

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, L. Jiménez del Barco, J. Bermúdez, E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 762–768 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Calvano, C. J.

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Crnic-Rein, E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cano, D.

Chang, A. W.

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Crnic-Rein, E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Contreras, J. E.

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Crnic-Rein, E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crnic-Rein, T. C.

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Crnic-Rein, E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Culbertson, W.

F. Manns, A. Ho, J. M. Parel, W. Culbertson, “Ablation profiles for wavefront-guided correction of myopia and primary spherical aberration,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 766–774 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Díaz, J. A.

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, J. A. Díaz, F. Pérez-Ocón, “Corneal asphericity after refractive surgery when the Munnerlyn formula is applied,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 98–103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Díaz, R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Optimum corneal asphericity of myopic eyes for refractive surgery,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1903–1915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gatinel, D.

D. Gatinel, J. Malet, T. Hoang-Xuan, D. T. Azar, “Analysis of customized corneal ablation: theoretical limitations of increasing negative asphericity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 941–948 (2002).

Gutierrez, R.

R. Gutierrez, J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, J. A. Valverde, R. G. Anera, “Simple device for quantifying the influence of halos after LASIK surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 663–667 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, R. Gutierrez, R. G. Anera, “Effect on visual performance of differences between actual and expected corneal shape after aspherical corneal ablation,” presented at the 9th Winter Refractive Surgery Meeting of the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons, Rome, Italy, 4–6 February 2005.

Hita, E.

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Influence of laser polarization on ocular refractive parameters after refractive surgery,” Opt. Lett. 29, 962–964 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, L. Jiménez del Barco, J. Bermúdez, E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 762–768 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser refractive surgery, including reflection losses and nonnormal incidence upon the anterior cornea,” Opt. Lett. 28, 417–419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Predicting changes in corneal asphericity after hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Effect on laser-ablation algorithms of reflection losses and nonnormal incidence on the anterior cornea,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1521–1523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ho, A.

F. Manns, A. Ho, J. M. Parel, W. Culbertson, “Ablation profiles for wavefront-guided correction of myopia and primary spherical aberration,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 766–774 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hoang-Xuan, T.

D. Gatinel, J. Malet, T. Hoang-Xuan, D. T. Azar, “Analysis of customized corneal ablation: theoretical limitations of increasing negative asphericity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 941–948 (2002).

Huang, D.

D. Huang, M. Tang, R. Shekhar, “Mathematical model of corneal surface smoothing after laser refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 267–278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huynh, P. D.

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Crnic-Rein, E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiménez, J. R.

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, J. A. Díaz, F. Pérez-Ocón, “Corneal asphericity after refractive surgery when the Munnerlyn formula is applied,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 98–103 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Influence of laser polarization on ocular refractive parameters after refractive surgery,” Opt. Lett. 29, 962–964 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, L. Jiménez del Barco, J. Bermúdez, E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 762–768 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser refractive surgery, including reflection losses and nonnormal incidence upon the anterior cornea,” Opt. Lett. 28, 417–419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Gutierrez, J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, J. A. Valverde, R. G. Anera, “Simple device for quantifying the influence of halos after LASIK surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 663–667 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Equation for corneal asphericity after corneal refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, 65–69 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Predicting changes in corneal asphericity after hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Díaz, R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Optimum corneal asphericity of myopic eyes for refractive surgery,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1903–1915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Effect on laser-ablation algorithms of reflection losses and nonnormal incidence on the anterior cornea,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1521–1523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Effect on visual function of approximations of the corneal-ablation profile during refractive surgery,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, R. Gutierrez, R. G. Anera, “Effect on visual performance of differences between actual and expected corneal shape after aspherical corneal ablation,” presented at the 9th Winter Refractive Surgery Meeting of the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons, Rome, Italy, 4–6 February 2005.

Jiménez del Barco, L.

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Influence of laser polarization on ocular refractive parameters after refractive surgery,” Opt. Lett. 29, 962–964 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, L. Jiménez del Barco, J. Bermúdez, E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 762–768 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser refractive surgery, including reflection losses and nonnormal incidence upon the anterior cornea,” Opt. Lett. 28, 417–419 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Equation for corneal asphericity after corneal refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, 65–69 (2003).
[PubMed]

J. A. Díaz, R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Optimum corneal asphericity of myopic eyes for refractive surgery,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1903–1915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Predicting changes in corneal asphericity after hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Effect on laser-ablation algorithms of reflection losses and nonnormal incidence on the anterior cornea,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1521–1523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Effect on visual function of approximations of the corneal-ablation profile during refractive surgery,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Koons, S. J.

C. R. Munnerlyn, S. J. Koons, J. Marshall, “Photorefractive keratotomy: a technique for laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 14, 46–52 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Llorente, L.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. Merayo-Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

Malet, J.

D. Gatinel, J. Malet, T. Hoang-Xuan, D. T. Azar, “Analysis of customized corneal ablation: theoretical limitations of increasing negative asphericity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 941–948 (2002).

Manns, F.

F. Manns, A. Ho, J. M. Parel, W. Culbertson, “Ablation profiles for wavefront-guided correction of myopia and primary spherical aberration,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 766–774 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marcos, S.

D. Cano, S. Barbero, S. Marcos, “Comparison of real and computer-simulated outcomes of LASIK refractive surgery,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 926–936 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. Merayo-Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

S. Marcos, “Aberrations and visual performance following standard laser vision correction,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, S596–S601 (2001).
[PubMed]

Marshall, J.

C. R. Munnerlyn, S. J. Koons, J. Marshall, “Photorefractive keratotomy: a technique for laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 14, 46–52 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Merayo-Lloves, J.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. Merayo-Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

Moreno-Barriuso, E.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. Merayo-Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

Munnerlyn, C. R.

C. R. Munnerlyn, S. J. Koons, J. Marshall, “Photorefractive keratotomy: a technique for laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 14, 46–52 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Navarro, R.

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. Merayo-Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

Parel, J. M.

F. Manns, A. Ho, J. M. Parel, W. Culbertson, “Ablation profiles for wavefront-guided correction of myopia and primary spherical aberration,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 766–774 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pérez-Ocón, F.

Schwiegerling, J.

J. Schwiegerling, R. W. Snyder, “Corneal ablation atterns to correct for spherical aberration in photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 26, 214–221 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shekhar, R.

D. Huang, M. Tang, R. Shekhar, “Mathematical model of corneal surface smoothing after laser refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 267–278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, G.

D. A. Atchison, G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000), pp. 13–16.

Snyder, R. W.

J. Schwiegerling, R. W. Snyder, “Corneal ablation atterns to correct for spherical aberration in photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 26, 214–221 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tang, M.

D. Huang, M. Tang, R. Shekhar, “Mathematical model of corneal surface smoothing after laser refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 267–278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thall, E. H.

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Crnic-Rein, E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsang, A. C.

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Crnic-Rein, E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valverde, J. A.

R. Gutierrez, J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, J. A. Valverde, R. G. Anera, “Simple device for quantifying the influence of halos after LASIK surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 663–667 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villa, C.

R. Gutierrez, J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, J. A. Valverde, R. G. Anera, “Simple device for quantifying the influence of halos after LASIK surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 663–667 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, R. Gutierrez, R. G. Anera, “Effect on visual performance of differences between actual and expected corneal shape after aspherical corneal ablation,” presented at the 9th Winter Refractive Surgery Meeting of the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons, Rome, Italy, 4–6 February 2005.

Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1)

D. Huang, M. Tang, R. Shekhar, “Mathematical model of corneal surface smoothing after laser refractive surgery,” Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135, 267–278 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Effect on visual function of approximations of the corneal-ablation profile during refractive surgery,” Appl. Opt. 40, 1–6 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Effect on laser-ablation algorithms of reflection losses and nonnormal incidence on the anterior cornea,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 1521–1523 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (2)

D. Gatinel, J. Malet, T. Hoang-Xuan, D. T. Azar, “Analysis of customized corneal ablation: theoretical limitations of increasing negative asphericity,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 43, 941–948 (2002).

E. Moreno-Barriuso, J. Merayo-Lloves, S. Marcos, R. Navarro, L. Llorente, S. Barbero, “Ocular aberrations before and after myopic corneal refractive surgery: LASIK-induced changes measured with laser ray tracing,” Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 42, 1396–1403 (2001).

J. Biomed. Opt. (1)

R. Gutierrez, J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, J. A. Valverde, R. G. Anera, “Simple device for quantifying the influence of halos after LASIK surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 663–667 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cataract Refract. Surg. (6)

R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, L. Jiménez del Barco, J. Bermúdez, E. Hita, “Changes in corneal asphericity after laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 762–768 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Munnerlyn, S. J. Koons, J. Marshall, “Photorefractive keratotomy: a technique for laser refractive surgery,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 14, 46–52 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Schwiegerling, R. W. Snyder, “Corneal ablation atterns to correct for spherical aberration in photorefractive keratectomy,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 26, 214–221 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Manns, A. Ho, J. M. Parel, W. Culbertson, “Ablation profiles for wavefront-guided correction of myopia and primary spherical aberration,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 28, 766–774 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Chang, A. C. Tsang, J. E. Contreras, P. D. Huynh, C. J. Calvano, T. C. Crnic-Rein, E. H. Thall, “Corneal tissue depth and the Munnerlyn formula,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1204–1210 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, E. Hita, “Predicting changes in corneal asphericity after hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis,” J. Cataract Refract. Surg. 29, 1468 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

J. A. Díaz, R. G. Anera, J. R. Jiménez, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Optimum corneal asphericity of myopic eyes for refractive surgery,” J. Mod. Opt. 50, 1903–1915 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Refract. Surg. (2)

S. Marcos, “Aberrations and visual performance following standard laser vision correction,” J. Refract. Surg. 17, S596–S601 (2001).
[PubMed]

J. R. Jiménez, R. G. Anera, L. Jiménez del Barco, “Equation for corneal asphericity after corneal refractive surgery,” J. Refract. Surg. 19, 65–69 (2003).
[PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (2)

D. A. Atchison, G. Smith, Optics of the Human Eye (Butterworth-Heinemann, 2000), pp. 13–16.

J. R. Jiménez, C. Villa, R. Gutierrez, R. G. Anera, “Effect on visual performance of differences between actual and expected corneal shape after aspherical corneal ablation,” presented at the 9th Winter Refractive Surgery Meeting of the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons, Rome, Italy, 4–6 February 2005.

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Average corneal differences (in millimeters) as a function of initial myopia (diopters). The differences between predicted and real corneas increase as the initial myopia increases.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Average corneal differences (in millimeters) as a function of initial myopia (diopters), including the adjustment factor for losses by reflection and nonnormal incidence. In this case the corneal differences are augmented with the degree of initial myopia but less markedly than without consideration of the adjustment factor.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Average Corneal Differences for Four Corneal Zonesa

Equations (5)

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z ( y ) = R Q + 1 - [ R 2 - ( Q + 1 ) y 2 ] 1 / 2 Q + 1 ,
S = i = 1 i = N z i - z ( y i ) N ,
ρ ( a , y , R , Q ) ( 1 - 0.0435 a ) - a y 2 2 R 2 + a [ 0.232 - 0.5 ( Q + 1 ) ] y 4 R 4 ,
z ( y i ) = z ( y i ) ρ ( a , y i , R , Q ) .
ρ ( a , y , R , p , g ) 1 - 0.0435 a - a y 2 R 2 ( 0.50 - 0.059 g ) + a y 4 [ 0.232 - 0.5 p + g ( - 0.017 + 0.059 p ) ] R 4 .

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