Abstract

Microscanning is an important technique in high-resolution electro-optical imaging. It can increase the resolution and improve the performance of imaging systems. For optimum design of a staring imaging system with microscanning modes it is necessary to choose the optimum microscanning mode according to the fill factor of the detector. Hence it is important to study the effect of the fill factor on the microscanning image quality. With some assumptions, we introduce the sampling-averaging modulation transfer function of a detector array at the spatial Nyquist frequency with which to study quantitatively the improvement in image quality of various microscanning modes for selected fill factors (1, 2/3, and 1/2). Analytical results show that the amount of improvement is closely associated with the fill factor. Finally, typical sampling imaging of focal plane arrays with these fill factors are simulated. Experimental results qualitatively describe the effect of the fill factor on the microscanning image and show good agreement with theoretical analysis.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. S. K. Park, Z. Rahman, “Fidelity analysis of sampled image systems,” Opt. Eng. 38, 786–800 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X.-F. Chi, Y.-H. Yu, C.-Y. Han, Z.-D. Yin, “Analysis of aliasing noise in a sampled-imaging system,” J. Jilin Univ. 20, 26–29 (2002; in Chinese).
  3. F. O. Huck, C. L. Fales, “Information-theoretical assessment of sampled imaging systems,” Opt. Eng. 38, 742–762 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. X.-R. Wang, J.-Q. Zhang, H.-H. Chang, X. Liu, “A new method to characterize IR imaging systems performance,” Infrared Technol. 25, 24–28 (2003; in Chinese).
  5. S. K. Park, R. Hazra, “Aliasing as noise: a quantitative and qualitative assessment,” in Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing IV,G. C. Holst, ed., Proc. SPIE1969, 54–65 (1993).
  6. K. Krapels, R. Dreiggers, R. Vollmerhausen, C. Halford, “A performance comparison of rectangular (4-point) and diagonal (2-point) dither,” in Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing XI,G. C. Holst, ed., Proc. SPIE4030, 151–169 (2000).
  7. K. M. Hock, “Effect of oversampling in pixel arrays,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1281–1288 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. deLuca, G. Cardone, “Modulation transfer function cascades model for a sampled IR imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 13, 1659–1664 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Fortin, P. Chevere, “Realization of a fast microscanning device for infrared focal plane arrays,” in Targets and Backgrounds: Characterization and Representation II,W. R. Watkins, D. Clement, eds., Proc. SPIE2742, 185–196 (1996).
  10. E. A. Watson, R. A. Muse, F. P. Blommel, “Aliasing and blurring in microscanning imagery,” in Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing III,G. C. Holst, ed., Proc. SPIE1689, 242–250 (1992).
  11. Y.-P. Zuo, J.-Q. Zhang, “Modeling and simulation of microscanning imaging systems in several patterns,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 22, 145–148 (2003; in Chinese).
  12. O. Hadar, G. D. Boreman, “Oversampling requirements for pixilated-imager systems,” Opt. Eng. 38, 782–785 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

2003 (2)

X.-R. Wang, J.-Q. Zhang, H.-H. Chang, X. Liu, “A new method to characterize IR imaging systems performance,” Infrared Technol. 25, 24–28 (2003; in Chinese).

Y.-P. Zuo, J.-Q. Zhang, “Modeling and simulation of microscanning imaging systems in several patterns,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 22, 145–148 (2003; in Chinese).

2002 (1)

X.-F. Chi, Y.-H. Yu, C.-Y. Han, Z.-D. Yin, “Analysis of aliasing noise in a sampled-imaging system,” J. Jilin Univ. 20, 26–29 (2002; in Chinese).

1999 (3)

F. O. Huck, C. L. Fales, “Information-theoretical assessment of sampled imaging systems,” Opt. Eng. 38, 742–762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

O. Hadar, G. D. Boreman, “Oversampling requirements for pixilated-imager systems,” Opt. Eng. 38, 782–785 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Park, Z. Rahman, “Fidelity analysis of sampled image systems,” Opt. Eng. 38, 786–800 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

K. M. Hock, “Effect of oversampling in pixel arrays,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1281–1288 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

L. deLuca, G. Cardone, “Modulation transfer function cascades model for a sampled IR imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 13, 1659–1664 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Blommel, F. P.

E. A. Watson, R. A. Muse, F. P. Blommel, “Aliasing and blurring in microscanning imagery,” in Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing III,G. C. Holst, ed., Proc. SPIE1689, 242–250 (1992).

Boreman, G. D.

O. Hadar, G. D. Boreman, “Oversampling requirements for pixilated-imager systems,” Opt. Eng. 38, 782–785 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cardone, G.

L. deLuca, G. Cardone, “Modulation transfer function cascades model for a sampled IR imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 13, 1659–1664 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chang, H.-H.

X.-R. Wang, J.-Q. Zhang, H.-H. Chang, X. Liu, “A new method to characterize IR imaging systems performance,” Infrared Technol. 25, 24–28 (2003; in Chinese).

Chevere, P.

J. Fortin, P. Chevere, “Realization of a fast microscanning device for infrared focal plane arrays,” in Targets and Backgrounds: Characterization and Representation II,W. R. Watkins, D. Clement, eds., Proc. SPIE2742, 185–196 (1996).

Chi, X.-F.

X.-F. Chi, Y.-H. Yu, C.-Y. Han, Z.-D. Yin, “Analysis of aliasing noise in a sampled-imaging system,” J. Jilin Univ. 20, 26–29 (2002; in Chinese).

deLuca, L.

L. deLuca, G. Cardone, “Modulation transfer function cascades model for a sampled IR imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 13, 1659–1664 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dreiggers, R.

K. Krapels, R. Dreiggers, R. Vollmerhausen, C. Halford, “A performance comparison of rectangular (4-point) and diagonal (2-point) dither,” in Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing XI,G. C. Holst, ed., Proc. SPIE4030, 151–169 (2000).

Fales, C. L.

F. O. Huck, C. L. Fales, “Information-theoretical assessment of sampled imaging systems,” Opt. Eng. 38, 742–762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fortin, J.

J. Fortin, P. Chevere, “Realization of a fast microscanning device for infrared focal plane arrays,” in Targets and Backgrounds: Characterization and Representation II,W. R. Watkins, D. Clement, eds., Proc. SPIE2742, 185–196 (1996).

Hadar, O.

O. Hadar, G. D. Boreman, “Oversampling requirements for pixilated-imager systems,” Opt. Eng. 38, 782–785 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Halford, C.

K. Krapels, R. Dreiggers, R. Vollmerhausen, C. Halford, “A performance comparison of rectangular (4-point) and diagonal (2-point) dither,” in Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing XI,G. C. Holst, ed., Proc. SPIE4030, 151–169 (2000).

Han, C.-Y.

X.-F. Chi, Y.-H. Yu, C.-Y. Han, Z.-D. Yin, “Analysis of aliasing noise in a sampled-imaging system,” J. Jilin Univ. 20, 26–29 (2002; in Chinese).

Hazra, R.

S. K. Park, R. Hazra, “Aliasing as noise: a quantitative and qualitative assessment,” in Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing IV,G. C. Holst, ed., Proc. SPIE1969, 54–65 (1993).

Hock, K. M.

K. M. Hock, “Effect of oversampling in pixel arrays,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1281–1288 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Huck, F. O.

F. O. Huck, C. L. Fales, “Information-theoretical assessment of sampled imaging systems,” Opt. Eng. 38, 742–762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Krapels, K.

K. Krapels, R. Dreiggers, R. Vollmerhausen, C. Halford, “A performance comparison of rectangular (4-point) and diagonal (2-point) dither,” in Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing XI,G. C. Holst, ed., Proc. SPIE4030, 151–169 (2000).

Liu, X.

X.-R. Wang, J.-Q. Zhang, H.-H. Chang, X. Liu, “A new method to characterize IR imaging systems performance,” Infrared Technol. 25, 24–28 (2003; in Chinese).

Muse, R. A.

E. A. Watson, R. A. Muse, F. P. Blommel, “Aliasing and blurring in microscanning imagery,” in Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing III,G. C. Holst, ed., Proc. SPIE1689, 242–250 (1992).

Park, S. K.

S. K. Park, Z. Rahman, “Fidelity analysis of sampled image systems,” Opt. Eng. 38, 786–800 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Park, R. Hazra, “Aliasing as noise: a quantitative and qualitative assessment,” in Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing IV,G. C. Holst, ed., Proc. SPIE1969, 54–65 (1993).

Rahman, Z.

S. K. Park, Z. Rahman, “Fidelity analysis of sampled image systems,” Opt. Eng. 38, 786–800 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vollmerhausen, R.

K. Krapels, R. Dreiggers, R. Vollmerhausen, C. Halford, “A performance comparison of rectangular (4-point) and diagonal (2-point) dither,” in Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing XI,G. C. Holst, ed., Proc. SPIE4030, 151–169 (2000).

Wang, X.-R.

X.-R. Wang, J.-Q. Zhang, H.-H. Chang, X. Liu, “A new method to characterize IR imaging systems performance,” Infrared Technol. 25, 24–28 (2003; in Chinese).

Watson, E. A.

E. A. Watson, R. A. Muse, F. P. Blommel, “Aliasing and blurring in microscanning imagery,” in Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing III,G. C. Holst, ed., Proc. SPIE1689, 242–250 (1992).

Yin, Z.-D.

X.-F. Chi, Y.-H. Yu, C.-Y. Han, Z.-D. Yin, “Analysis of aliasing noise in a sampled-imaging system,” J. Jilin Univ. 20, 26–29 (2002; in Chinese).

Yu, Y.-H.

X.-F. Chi, Y.-H. Yu, C.-Y. Han, Z.-D. Yin, “Analysis of aliasing noise in a sampled-imaging system,” J. Jilin Univ. 20, 26–29 (2002; in Chinese).

Zhang, J.-Q.

X.-R. Wang, J.-Q. Zhang, H.-H. Chang, X. Liu, “A new method to characterize IR imaging systems performance,” Infrared Technol. 25, 24–28 (2003; in Chinese).

Y.-P. Zuo, J.-Q. Zhang, “Modeling and simulation of microscanning imaging systems in several patterns,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 22, 145–148 (2003; in Chinese).

Zuo, Y.-P.

Y.-P. Zuo, J.-Q. Zhang, “Modeling and simulation of microscanning imaging systems in several patterns,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 22, 145–148 (2003; in Chinese).

Appl. Opt. (1)

L. deLuca, G. Cardone, “Modulation transfer function cascades model for a sampled IR imaging system,” Appl. Opt. 13, 1659–1664 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Infrared Technol. (1)

X.-R. Wang, J.-Q. Zhang, H.-H. Chang, X. Liu, “A new method to characterize IR imaging systems performance,” Infrared Technol. 25, 24–28 (2003; in Chinese).

J. Infrared Millimeter Waves (1)

Y.-P. Zuo, J.-Q. Zhang, “Modeling and simulation of microscanning imaging systems in several patterns,” J. Infrared Millimeter Waves 22, 145–148 (2003; in Chinese).

J. Jilin Univ. (1)

X.-F. Chi, Y.-H. Yu, C.-Y. Han, Z.-D. Yin, “Analysis of aliasing noise in a sampled-imaging system,” J. Jilin Univ. 20, 26–29 (2002; in Chinese).

Opt. Eng. (4)

F. O. Huck, C. L. Fales, “Information-theoretical assessment of sampled imaging systems,” Opt. Eng. 38, 742–762 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. K. Park, Z. Rahman, “Fidelity analysis of sampled image systems,” Opt. Eng. 38, 786–800 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Hock, “Effect of oversampling in pixel arrays,” Opt. Eng. 34, 1281–1288 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. Hadar, G. D. Boreman, “Oversampling requirements for pixilated-imager systems,” Opt. Eng. 38, 782–785 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. Fortin, P. Chevere, “Realization of a fast microscanning device for infrared focal plane arrays,” in Targets and Backgrounds: Characterization and Representation II,W. R. Watkins, D. Clement, eds., Proc. SPIE2742, 185–196 (1996).

E. A. Watson, R. A. Muse, F. P. Blommel, “Aliasing and blurring in microscanning imagery,” in Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing III,G. C. Holst, ed., Proc. SPIE1689, 242–250 (1992).

S. K. Park, R. Hazra, “Aliasing as noise: a quantitative and qualitative assessment,” in Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing IV,G. C. Holst, ed., Proc. SPIE1969, 54–65 (1993).

K. Krapels, R. Dreiggers, R. Vollmerhausen, C. Halford, “A performance comparison of rectangular (4-point) and diagonal (2-point) dither,” in Infrared Imaging Systems: Design, Analysis, Modeling, and Testing XI,G. C. Holst, ed., Proc. SPIE4030, 151–169 (2000).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical microscanning patterns for the 2 × 2, 3 × 3, and 4 × 4 modes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

MTFtotal at the spatial Nyquist frequency as a function of the order of oversampling.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulation results of typical microscanning patterns.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

2 × 2 microscan reconstruction image corresponding to detectors with fill factors of (a) 1, (b) 2/3, and (c) 1/2; (a) shows the original object.

Equations (8)

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MTF ( ξ , η ) pixel = sinc ( α ξ ) sinc ( β η ) = sin ( π α ξ ) π α ξ sin ( π β η ) π β η ,
MTF ( ξ , η ) samp = sinc ( Δ h ξ ) sinc ( Δ v η ) = sin ( π Δ h ξ ) π Δ h ξ sin ( π Δ v η ) π Δ v η ,
MTF ( ξ , η ) total = MTF ( ξ , η ) pixel × MTF ( ξ , η ) samp .
MTF ( ξ , η ) total = sin ( π α ξ ) π α ξ sin ( π β η ) π β η × sin ( π Δ h ξ ) π Δ h ξ sin ( π Δ v η ) π Δ v η .
MTF ( ξ N h , η N ν ) total = sin ( π / 2 ) π / 2 sin ( π / 2 ) π / 2 sin ( π / 2 ) π / 2 × sin ( π / 2 ) π / 2 0.165.
MTF ( ξ N h , η N ν ) total = sin ( π / 2 ) π / 2 sin ( π / 2 ) π / 2 sin ( π / 4 ) π / 4 × sin ( π / 4 ) π / 4 0.33.
MTF ( ξ N h , η N ν ) total = sin ( π / 2 ) π / 2 sin ( π / 2 ) π / 2 sin ( π / 6 ) π / 6 × sin ( π / 6 ) π / 6 0.37.
MTF ( ξ N h , η N ν ) total = sin ( π / 2 ) π / 2 sin ( π / 2 ) π / 2 sin ( π / 8 ) π / 8 × sin ( π / 8 ) π / 8 0.385.

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