Abstract

We describe a cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical-gating system specifically designed for studying nonlinear pulse-propagation dynamics in fibers of arbitrary length at telecommunication wavelengths. The formation of optical solitons and the appearance of temporal phase slips are observed in 100 m of fiber. The wide phase-matching bandwidth and high sensitivity of this system allow us to visualize femtosecond-pulse evolution in a range of linear and nonlinear propagation regimes.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).
  2. R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Optical Pulses (Kluwer, 2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, “Characterizing pulse propagation in optical fibers around 1550 nm using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 237–265 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. G. Omenetto, B. P. Luce, D. Yarotski, A. J. Taylor, “Observation of chirped soliton dynamics at λ = 1.55 µm in a single-mode optical fiber with frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1392–1394 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Ogawa, M. D. Pelusi, “Real-time spectrogram measurements of fibre Raman solitons,” Appl. Phys. B 74, S93–S96 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Linden, H. Giessen, J. Kuhl, “XFROG—a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses.” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119–124 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. N. Nishizawa, T. Goto, “Experimental analysis of ultrashort pulse propagation in optical fibers around zero-dispersion region using cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating,” Opt. Express 8, 328–334 (2001).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. M. Dudley, X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, S. Coen, R. S. Windeler, “Cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating analysis of broadband continuum generation in photonic crystal fiber: simulations and experiments,” Opt. Express 10, 1215–1221 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. N. Tsurumachi, K. Hikosaka, X. L. Wang, M. Ogura, N. Watanabe, T. Hattori, “Observation of ultrashort pulse propagation anisotropy in a semiconductor quantum nanostructure optical waveguide by cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2616–2621 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Zhang, A. P. Shreenath, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, R. Trebino, S. Link, “Measurement of the intensity and phase of attojoule femtosecond light pulses using optical parametric amplification cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Express 11, 601–609 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Efimov, A. J. Taylor, F. G. Omenetto, A. V. Yulin, N. Y. Joly, F. Biancalana, D. V. Skryabin, J. C. Knight, P. St. J. Russell, “Time-spectrally-resolved ultrafast nonlinear dynamics in small-core photonic crystal fibers: experiment and modeling,” Opt. Express 12, 6498–6507 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

2003

J. Zhang, A. P. Shreenath, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, R. Trebino, S. Link, “Measurement of the intensity and phase of attojoule femtosecond light pulses using optical parametric amplification cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Express 11, 601–609 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Tsurumachi, K. Hikosaka, X. L. Wang, M. Ogura, N. Watanabe, T. Hattori, “Observation of ultrashort pulse propagation anisotropy in a semiconductor quantum nanostructure optical waveguide by cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2616–2621 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

2001

1999

1998

S. Linden, H. Giessen, J. Kuhl, “XFROG—a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses.” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, “Characterizing pulse propagation in optical fibers around 1550 nm using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 237–265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

Barry, L. P.

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, “Characterizing pulse propagation in optical fibers around 1550 nm using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 237–265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biancalana, F.

Bollond, P. G.

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, “Characterizing pulse propagation in optical fibers around 1550 nm using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 237–265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Coen, S.

Dudley, J. M.

J. M. Dudley, X. Gu, L. Xu, M. Kimmel, E. Zeek, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, S. Coen, R. S. Windeler, “Cross-correlation frequency-resolved optical gating analysis of broadband continuum generation in photonic crystal fiber: simulations and experiments,” Opt. Express 10, 1215–1221 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, “Characterizing pulse propagation in optical fibers around 1550 nm using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 237–265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Efimov, A.

Giessen, H.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, J. Kuhl, “XFROG—a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses.” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Goto, T.

Gu, X.

Harvey, J. D.

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, “Characterizing pulse propagation in optical fibers around 1550 nm using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 237–265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hattori, T.

N. Tsurumachi, K. Hikosaka, X. L. Wang, M. Ogura, N. Watanabe, T. Hattori, “Observation of ultrashort pulse propagation anisotropy in a semiconductor quantum nanostructure optical waveguide by cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2616–2621 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hikosaka, K.

N. Tsurumachi, K. Hikosaka, X. L. Wang, M. Ogura, N. Watanabe, T. Hattori, “Observation of ultrashort pulse propagation anisotropy in a semiconductor quantum nanostructure optical waveguide by cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2616–2621 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Joly, N. Y.

Kimmel, M.

Knight, J. C.

Kuhl, J.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, J. Kuhl, “XFROG—a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses.” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leonhardt, R.

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, “Characterizing pulse propagation in optical fibers around 1550 nm using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 237–265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Linden, S.

S. Linden, H. Giessen, J. Kuhl, “XFROG—a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses.” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Link, S.

Luce, B. P.

Nishizawa, N.

O’Shea, P.

Ogawa, K.

K. Ogawa, M. D. Pelusi, “Real-time spectrogram measurements of fibre Raman solitons,” Appl. Phys. B 74, S93–S96 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ogura, M.

N. Tsurumachi, K. Hikosaka, X. L. Wang, M. Ogura, N. Watanabe, T. Hattori, “Observation of ultrashort pulse propagation anisotropy in a semiconductor quantum nanostructure optical waveguide by cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2616–2621 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Omenetto, F. G.

Pelusi, M. D.

K. Ogawa, M. D. Pelusi, “Real-time spectrogram measurements of fibre Raman solitons,” Appl. Phys. B 74, S93–S96 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Russell, P. St. J.

Shreenath, A. P.

Skryabin, D. V.

Taylor, A. J.

Trebino, R.

Tsurumachi, N.

N. Tsurumachi, K. Hikosaka, X. L. Wang, M. Ogura, N. Watanabe, T. Hattori, “Observation of ultrashort pulse propagation anisotropy in a semiconductor quantum nanostructure optical waveguide by cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2616–2621 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. L.

N. Tsurumachi, K. Hikosaka, X. L. Wang, M. Ogura, N. Watanabe, T. Hattori, “Observation of ultrashort pulse propagation anisotropy in a semiconductor quantum nanostructure optical waveguide by cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2616–2621 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, N.

N. Tsurumachi, K. Hikosaka, X. L. Wang, M. Ogura, N. Watanabe, T. Hattori, “Observation of ultrashort pulse propagation anisotropy in a semiconductor quantum nanostructure optical waveguide by cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2616–2621 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Windeler, R. S.

Xu, L.

Yarotski, D.

Yulin, A. V.

Zeek, E.

Zhang, J.

Appl. Phys. B

K. Ogawa, M. D. Pelusi, “Real-time spectrogram measurements of fibre Raman solitons,” Appl. Phys. B 74, S93–S96 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

N. Tsurumachi, K. Hikosaka, X. L. Wang, M. Ogura, N. Watanabe, T. Hattori, “Observation of ultrashort pulse propagation anisotropy in a semiconductor quantum nanostructure optical waveguide by cross-correlation frequency resolved optical gating spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2616–2621 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Fiber Technol.

J. M. Dudley, L. P. Barry, P. G. Bollond, J. D. Harvey, R. Leonhardt, “Characterizing pulse propagation in optical fibers around 1550 nm using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 4, 237–265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Status Solidi B

S. Linden, H. Giessen, J. Kuhl, “XFROG—a new method for amplitude and phase characterization of weak ultrashort pulses.” Phys. Status Solidi B 206, 119–124 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics (Academic, 2001).

R. Trebino, Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating: The Measurement of Ultrashort Optical Pulses (Kluwer, 2000).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the XFROG system for studying pulse dynamics in arbitrarily long fibers. Shown schematically at the bottom is the pulse train generated by the laser system, with separate reference and signal pulses shaded. BBO, β-barium borate crystal; OSA, optical spectrum analyzer; POL, polarizer; λ/2, half-wave plate; λ/4, quarter-wave plate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Computed phase-matching curves for BBO crystals of various thicknesses in a noncollinear (5 deg interbeam angle) geometry for sum-frequency generation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental XFROG traces at an output of 100 m of fiber. The average input power increases sequentially from (a) to (d). The color scale corresponds to the logarithm of the sum-frequency signal intensity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wavelength-dependent group delay for several input powers obtained directly from respective XFROG traces of Figs. 3(a)–(d). The curves are offset for clarity, and the power increases from top to bottom.

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