Abstract

Linearly polarized radiation is sensitive to the microphysical properties of aerosols, namely, to the particle-size distribution and refractive index. The discriminating power of polarized radiation increases strongly with the increasing range of scattering angles and the addition of multiple wavelengths. The polarization and directionality of the Earth’s reflectances (POLDER) missions demonstrate that some aerosol properties can be successfully derived from spaceborne polarimetric, multiangular measurements at two visible wavelengths. We extend the concept to analyze the retrieval capabilities of a spaceborne instrument with six polarimetric channels at 412, 445, 555, 865, 1250, and 2250 nm, measuring approximately 100 scattering angles covering a range between 50 and 150 deg. Our focus is development of an analysis methodology that can help quantify the benefits of such multiangular and multispectral polarimetric measurements. To that goal we employ a sensitivity metric approach in a framework of the principal-component analysis. The radiances and noise used to construct the sensitivity metric are calculated with the realistic solar flux for representative orbital viewing geometries, accounting for surface reflection from the ground, and statistical and calibration errors of a notional instrument. Spherical aerosol particles covering a range of representative microphysical properties (effective radius, effective variance, real and imaginary parts of the refractive index, single-scattering albedo) are considered in the calculations. We find that there is a limiting threshold for the effective size (approximately 0.7 µm), below which the weak scattering intensity results in a decreased signal-to-noise ratio and minimal polarization sensitivity, precluding reliable aerosol retrievals. For such small particles, close to the Rayleigh scattering limit, the total intensity provides a much stronger aerosol signature than the linear polarization, inspiring retrieval when the combined signals of intensities and the polarization fraction are used. We also find a strong correlation between aerosol parameters, in particular between the effective size and the variance, which forces one to simultaneously retrieve at least these two parameters.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004 (1)

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, J. A. Ogren, A. A. Lacis, W. B. Rossow, J. W. Hovenier, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, “Aerosol retrievals from AVHRR radiances: effects of particle nonsphericity and absorption and an updated long-term global climatology of aerosol properties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79/80, 953–972 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Menon, A. Macke, A. A. Lacis, “The effect of black carbon on scattering and absorption of solar radiation by cloud droplets,” J. Quant. Spectrosc Radiat. Transfer 74, 195–204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (3)

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangular photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243–246 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuze, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913–4926 (2001) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

R. Kahn, P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, “Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to natural mixtures of aerosol over ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18219–18238 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

O. Dubovik, A. Smimov, B. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Network (AERO-NET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Quijano, I. N. Sokolik, O. B. Toon, “Influence of the aerosol vertical distribution on the retrievals of aerosol optical depth from satellite radiance measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3457–3460 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

I. N. Sokolik, O. B. Toon, “Incorporation of mineralogical composition into models of the radiative properties of mineral aerosol from UV to IR wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(D8), 9423–9444 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Goloub, D. Tanré, J.-L. Deuzé, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F.-M. Bréon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over ocean using the POLDER/ADEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

R. Kahn, P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, D. J. Diner, “Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to aerosol optical depth and pure-particle size distribution and composition over ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32195–32213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Yang, H. R. Gordon, “Retrieval of the columnar aerosol phase function and single-scattering albedo from sky radiance over land: simulations,” Appl. Opt. 37, 978–997 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F.-M. Breon, P. Goloub, “Cloud droplet effective radius from spaceborne polarization measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1879–1882 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (8)

F. Zhao, Z. Gong, H. Hu, M. Tanaka, T. Hayasaka, “Simultaneous determination of the aerosol complex refractive index of refraction and size distribution from scattering measurements of polarized light,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7992–8001 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, “Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum (6S), an overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675–686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Herman, J. L. Deuze, C. Cevaus, P. Goloub, F. M. Breon, D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17039–17049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. J Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Stowe, A. M. Ignatov, R. R. Singh, “Development, validation, and potential enhancements to the second-generation operational aerosol product at the national environmental satellite, data, and information service of the national oceanic and atmospheric administration,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16923–16934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16989–17013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Zhang, H. R. Gordon, “Columnar aerosol properties over oceans by combining surface and aircraft measurements: sensitivity study,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2650–2662 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Zhang, H. R. Gordon, “Retrieval of elements of the columnar aerosol scattering phase matrix from polarized sky radiance over the ocean: simulations,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7948–7959 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

D. Tanre, M. Herman, Y. J. Kaufman, “Information on aerosol size distribution contained in solar reflected spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19043–19060 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering by polydisperse, rotationally symmetric nonspherical particles: linear polarization,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 759–778 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

I. N. Sokolik, A. Andronova, T. C. Johnson, “Complex refractive index of atmospheric dust aerosol,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 27, 2495–2502 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Wang, H. R. Gordon, “Retrieval of the columnar aerosol phase function and single-scattering albedo from sky radiance over the ocean: simulations,” Appl. Opt. 32, 4598–4609 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. D. King, Y. Kaufman, W. P. Menzel, D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of cloud, aerosol, and water vapor properties from the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 30, 2–27 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, G. W. Bothwell, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Ford, L. E. Hovland, K. L. Jones, M. L. White, “A multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for terrestrial remote sensing from the Earth observing system,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 3, 92–107 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. F. Evans, G. L. Stephens, “A new polarized atmospheric radiative-transfer model,” J. Quant. Spectros. Radiat. Transfer 45, 413–423 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

D. P. Veselov, O. I. Popov, G. I. Seleznev, “On the polarization of upward radiation in the 0.8–2.2 µm spectral region,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 21, 997–999 (1985).

1976 (1)

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (2)

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hansen, J. W. Hovenier, “Interpretation of the polarization of Venus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137–1160 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Andronova, A.

I. N. Sokolik, A. Andronova, T. C. Johnson, “Complex refractive index of atmospheric dust aerosol,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 27, 2495–2502 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Banerjee, P.

R. Kahn, P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, “Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to natural mixtures of aerosol over ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18219–18238 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Kahn, P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, D. J. Diner, “Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to aerosol optical depth and pure-particle size distribution and composition over ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32195–32213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bevington, P. R.

P. R. Bevington, D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2003).

Bohren, C.

C. Bohren, D. Huffmann, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, 1983).

Bothwell, G. W.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, G. W. Bothwell, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Ford, L. E. Hovland, K. L. Jones, M. L. White, “A multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for terrestrial remote sensing from the Earth observing system,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 3, 92–107 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Breon, F. M.

J. L. Deuze, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913–4926 (2001) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M. Herman, J. L. Deuze, C. Cevaus, P. Goloub, F. M. Breon, D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17039–17049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Breon, F.-M.

F.-M. Breon, P. Goloub, “Cloud droplet effective radius from spaceborne polarization measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1879–1882 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bréon, F.-M.

P. Goloub, D. Tanré, J.-L. Deuzé, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F.-M. Bréon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over ocean using the POLDER/ADEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bruegge, C. J.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, G. W. Bothwell, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Ford, L. E. Hovland, K. L. Jones, M. L. White, “A multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for terrestrial remote sensing from the Earth observing system,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 3, 92–107 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Burg, R.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cairns, B.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangular photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243–246 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, E. E. Russell, “Polarization: ground-based upward-looking and aircraft/satellite-based downward-looking measurements,” in Satellite Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere II, J. D. Haigh, ed., Proc. SPIE3220, 103–114 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, E. E. Russell, “Research Scanning Polarimeter Calibration and ground-based measurements” in Polarization: Measurements, Analysis and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Casnault, eds., Proc. SPIE3754, 186–196 (1999).

Cevaus, C.

M. Herman, J. L. Deuze, C. Cevaus, P. Goloub, F. M. Breon, D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17039–17049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhary, J.

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangular photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243–246 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chylek, P.

P. Chylek, G. Videen, W. Geldart, S. Dobbie, W. Tso, “Effective medium approximation for heterogeneous particles,” in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Geophysical Applications, M. Mishchenko, ed. (Academic, 2000), pp. 273–308.
[CrossRef]

d’Almeida, G. A.

G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols—Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (A. Deepak, 1991), p. 561.

Danielson, E. D.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, G. W. Bothwell, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Ford, L. E. Hovland, K. L. Jones, M. L. White, “A multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for terrestrial remote sensing from the Earth observing system,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 3, 92–107 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Deuze, J. L.

J. L. Deuze, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913–4926 (2001) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

M. Herman, J. L. Deuze, C. Cevaus, P. Goloub, F. M. Breon, D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17039–17049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, “Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum (6S), an overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675–686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Deuzé, J.-L.

P. Goloub, D. Tanré, J.-L. Deuzé, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F.-M. Bréon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over ocean using the POLDER/ADEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
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J. L. Deuze, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913–4926 (2001) and references therein.
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D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, G. W. Bothwell, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Ford, L. E. Hovland, K. L. Jones, M. L. White, “A multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for terrestrial remote sensing from the Earth observing system,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 3, 92–107 (1991).
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O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
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O. Dubovik, A. Smimov, B. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Network (AERO-NET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
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O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
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O. Dubovik, A. Smimov, B. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Network (AERO-NET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
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D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, G. W. Bothwell, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Ford, L. E. Hovland, K. L. Jones, M. L. White, “A multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for terrestrial remote sensing from the Earth observing system,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 3, 92–107 (1991).
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Y. J Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
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P. Chylek, G. Videen, W. Geldart, S. Dobbie, W. Tso, “Effective medium approximation for heterogeneous particles,” in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Geophysical Applications, M. Mishchenko, ed. (Academic, 2000), pp. 273–308.
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M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, J. A. Ogren, A. A. Lacis, W. B. Rossow, J. W. Hovenier, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, “Aerosol retrievals from AVHRR radiances: effects of particle nonsphericity and absorption and an updated long-term global climatology of aerosol properties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79/80, 953–972 (2003).
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J. L. Deuze, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913–4926 (2001) and references therein.
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P. Goloub, D. Tanré, J.-L. Deuzé, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F.-M. Bréon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over ocean using the POLDER/ADEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
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F.-M. Breon, P. Goloub, “Cloud droplet effective radius from spaceborne polarization measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1879–1882 (1998).
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M. Herman, J. L. Deuze, C. Cevaus, P. Goloub, F. M. Breon, D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17039–17049 (1997).
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Y. J Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
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M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
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Herman, B. M.

Y. J Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
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J. L. Deuze, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913–4926 (2001) and references therein.
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P. Goloub, D. Tanré, J.-L. Deuzé, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F.-M. Bréon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over ocean using the POLDER/ADEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Herman, J. L. Deuze, C. Cevaus, P. Goloub, F. M. Breon, D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17039–17049 (1997).
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E. F. Vermote, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, “Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum (6S), an overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675–686 (1997).
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D. Tanre, M. Herman, Y. J. Kaufman, “Information on aerosol size distribution contained in solar reflected spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19043–19060 (1996).
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O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Smimov, B. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Network (AERO-NET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
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M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, J. A. Ogren, A. A. Lacis, W. B. Rossow, J. W. Hovenier, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, “Aerosol retrievals from AVHRR radiances: effects of particle nonsphericity and absorption and an updated long-term global climatology of aerosol properties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79/80, 953–972 (2003).
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D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, G. W. Bothwell, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Ford, L. E. Hovland, K. L. Jones, M. L. White, “A multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for terrestrial remote sensing from the Earth observing system,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 3, 92–107 (1991).
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Y. J Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
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M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Smimov, B. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Network (AERO-NET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
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D. Tanre, M. Herman, Y. J. Kaufman, “Information on aerosol size distribution contained in solar reflected spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19043–19060 (1996).
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O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
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O. Dubovik, A. Smimov, B. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Network (AERO-NET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
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Y. J Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
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M. D. King, Y. Kaufman, W. P. Menzel, D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of cloud, aerosol, and water vapor properties from the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 30, 2–27 (1992).
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G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols—Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (A. Deepak, 1991), p. 561.

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M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, J. A. Ogren, A. A. Lacis, W. B. Rossow, J. W. Hovenier, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, “Aerosol retrievals from AVHRR radiances: effects of particle nonsphericity and absorption and an updated long-term global climatology of aerosol properties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79/80, 953–972 (2003).
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L. Liu, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Menon, A. Macke, A. A. Lacis, “The effect of black carbon on scattering and absorption of solar radiation by cloud droplets,” J. Quant. Spectrosc Radiat. Transfer 74, 195–204 (2002).
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J. L. Deuze, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913–4926 (2001) and references therein.
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Y. J Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
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M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, J. A. Ogren, A. A. Lacis, W. B. Rossow, J. W. Hovenier, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, “Aerosol retrievals from AVHRR radiances: effects of particle nonsphericity and absorption and an updated long-term global climatology of aerosol properties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79/80, 953–972 (2003).
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L. Liu, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Menon, A. Macke, A. A. Lacis, “The effect of black carbon on scattering and absorption of solar radiation by cloud droplets,” J. Quant. Spectrosc Radiat. Transfer 74, 195–204 (2002).
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L. Liu, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Menon, A. Macke, A. A. Lacis, “The effect of black carbon on scattering and absorption of solar radiation by cloud droplets,” J. Quant. Spectrosc Radiat. Transfer 74, 195–204 (2002).
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J. L. Deuze, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913–4926 (2001) and references therein.
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J. L. Deuze, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913–4926 (2001) and references therein.
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P. Goloub, D. Tanré, J.-L. Deuzé, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F.-M. Bréon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over ocean using the POLDER/ADEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
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M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
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D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, G. W. Bothwell, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Ford, L. E. Hovland, K. L. Jones, M. L. White, “A multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for terrestrial remote sensing from the Earth observing system,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 3, 92–107 (1991).
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McDonald, D.

R. Kahn, P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, “Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to natural mixtures of aerosol over ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18219–18238 (2001).
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R. Kahn, P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, D. J. Diner, “Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to aerosol optical depth and pure-particle size distribution and composition over ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32195–32213 (1998).
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L. Liu, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Menon, A. Macke, A. A. Lacis, “The effect of black carbon on scattering and absorption of solar radiation by cloud droplets,” J. Quant. Spectrosc Radiat. Transfer 74, 195–204 (2002).
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M. D. King, Y. Kaufman, W. P. Menzel, D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of cloud, aerosol, and water vapor properties from the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 30, 2–27 (1992).
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M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
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M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, J. A. Ogren, A. A. Lacis, W. B. Rossow, J. W. Hovenier, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, “Aerosol retrievals from AVHRR radiances: effects of particle nonsphericity and absorption and an updated long-term global climatology of aerosol properties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79/80, 953–972 (2003).
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L. Liu, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Menon, A. Macke, A. A. Lacis, “The effect of black carbon on scattering and absorption of solar radiation by cloud droplets,” J. Quant. Spectrosc Radiat. Transfer 74, 195–204 (2002).
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Muñoz, O.

M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, J. A. Ogren, A. A. Lacis, W. B. Rossow, J. W. Hovenier, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, “Aerosol retrievals from AVHRR radiances: effects of particle nonsphericity and absorption and an updated long-term global climatology of aerosol properties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79/80, 953–972 (2003).
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J. L. Deuze, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913–4926 (2001) and references therein.
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Y. J Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
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M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, J. A. Ogren, A. A. Lacis, W. B. Rossow, J. W. Hovenier, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, “Aerosol retrievals from AVHRR radiances: effects of particle nonsphericity and absorption and an updated long-term global climatology of aerosol properties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79/80, 953–972 (2003).
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J. L. Deuze, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913–4926 (2001) and references therein.
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Shettle, E. P.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
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Singh, R. R.

L. L. Stowe, A. M. Ignatov, R. R. Singh, “Development, validation, and potential enhancements to the second-generation operational aerosol product at the national environmental satellite, data, and information service of the national oceanic and atmospheric administration,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16923–16934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Slutsker, I.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Smimov, B. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Network (AERO-NET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Smimov, A.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, A. Smimov, B. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Network (AERO-NET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sokolik, I. N.

A. L. Quijano, I. N. Sokolik, O. B. Toon, “Influence of the aerosol vertical distribution on the retrievals of aerosol optical depth from satellite radiance measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3457–3460 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Sokolik, O. B. Toon, “Incorporation of mineralogical composition into models of the radiative properties of mineral aerosol from UV to IR wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(D8), 9423–9444 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Sokolik, A. Andronova, T. C. Johnson, “Complex refractive index of atmospheric dust aerosol,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 27, 2495–2502 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, G. L.

K. F. Evans, G. L. Stephens, “A new polarized atmospheric radiative-transfer model,” J. Quant. Spectros. Radiat. Transfer 45, 413–423 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stowe, L. L.

L. L. Stowe, A. M. Ignatov, R. R. Singh, “Development, validation, and potential enhancements to the second-generation operational aerosol product at the national environmental satellite, data, and information service of the national oceanic and atmospheric administration,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16923–16934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, M.

Tanre, D.

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuze, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913–4926 (2001) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, “Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum (6S), an overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675–686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Herman, J. L. Deuze, C. Cevaus, P. Goloub, F. M. Breon, D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17039–17049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. J Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Tanre, M. Herman, Y. J. Kaufman, “Information on aerosol size distribution contained in solar reflected spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19043–19060 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tanré, D.

P. Goloub, D. Tanré, J.-L. Deuzé, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F.-M. Bréon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over ocean using the POLDER/ADEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. D. King, Y. Kaufman, W. P. Menzel, D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of cloud, aerosol, and water vapor properties from the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 30, 2–27 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Teillet, P. M.

Y. J Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. B.

A. L. Quijano, I. N. Sokolik, O. B. Toon, “Influence of the aerosol vertical distribution on the retrievals of aerosol optical depth from satellite radiance measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3457–3460 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Sokolik, O. B. Toon, “Incorporation of mineralogical composition into models of the radiative properties of mineral aerosol from UV to IR wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(D8), 9423–9444 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangular photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243–246 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16989–17013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering by polydisperse, rotationally symmetric nonspherical particles: linear polarization,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 759–778 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, E. E. Russell, “Polarization: ground-based upward-looking and aircraft/satellite-based downward-looking measurements,” in Satellite Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere II, J. D. Haigh, ed., Proc. SPIE3220, 103–114 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, E. E. Russell, “Research Scanning Polarimeter Calibration and ground-based measurements” in Polarization: Measurements, Analysis and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Casnault, eds., Proc. SPIE3754, 186–196 (1999).

Tso, W.

P. Chylek, G. Videen, W. Geldart, S. Dobbie, W. Tso, “Effective medium approximation for heterogeneous particles,” in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Geophysical Applications, M. Mishchenko, ed. (Academic, 2000), pp. 273–308.
[CrossRef]

Vermote, E. F.

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, “Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum (6S), an overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675–686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Veselov, D. P.

D. P. Veselov, O. I. Popov, G. I. Seleznev, “On the polarization of upward radiation in the 0.8–2.2 µm spectral region,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 21, 997–999 (1985).

Videen, G.

P. Chylek, G. Videen, W. Geldart, S. Dobbie, W. Tso, “Effective medium approximation for heterogeneous particles,” in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Geophysical Applications, M. Mishchenko, ed. (Academic, 2000), pp. 273–308.
[CrossRef]

Volten, H.

M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, J. A. Ogren, A. A. Lacis, W. B. Rossow, J. W. Hovenier, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, “Aerosol retrievals from AVHRR radiances: effects of particle nonsphericity and absorption and an updated long-term global climatology of aerosol properties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79/80, 953–972 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M.

White, M. L.

D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, G. W. Bothwell, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Ford, L. E. Hovland, K. L. Jones, M. L. White, “A multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for terrestrial remote sensing from the Earth observing system,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 3, 92–107 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

Zhang, T.

Zhao, F.

Appl. Opt. (5)

Atmos. Environ. Part A (1)

I. N. Sokolik, A. Andronova, T. C. Johnson, “Complex refractive index of atmospheric dust aerosol,” Atmos. Environ. Part A 27, 2495–2502 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Geophys. Res. Lett. (3)

J. Chowdhary, B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, “Retrieval of aerosol properties over the ocean using multispectral and multiangular photopolarimetric measurements from the Research Scanning Polarimeter,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 28, 243–246 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F.-M. Breon, P. Goloub, “Cloud droplet effective radius from spaceborne polarization measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 1879–1882 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Quijano, I. N. Sokolik, O. B. Toon, “Influence of the aerosol vertical distribution on the retrievals of aerosol optical depth from satellite radiance measurements,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 3457–3460 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

E. F. Vermote, D. Tanre, J. L. Deuze, M. Herman, J. J. Morcrette, “Second simulation of the satellite signal in the solar spectrum (6S), an overview,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 35, 675–686 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing (2)

M. D. King, Y. Kaufman, W. P. Menzel, D. Tanré, “Remote sensing of cloud, aerosol, and water vapor properties from the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS),” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 30, 2–27 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Goloub, D. Tanré, J.-L. Deuzé, M. Herman, A. Marchand, F.-M. Bréon, “Validation of the first algorithm applied for deriving the aerosol properties over ocean using the POLDER/ADEOS measurements,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sensing 37, 1586–1596 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. (1)

D. J. Diner, C. J. Bruegge, J. V. Martonchik, G. W. Bothwell, E. D. Danielson, V. G. Ford, L. E. Hovland, K. L. Jones, M. L. White, “A multi-angle imaging spectroradiometer for terrestrial remote sensing from the Earth observing system,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 3, 92–107 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. (1)

D. P. Veselov, O. I. Popov, G. I. Seleznev, “On the polarization of upward radiation in the 0.8–2.2 µm spectral region,” Izv. Atmos. Ocean. Phys. 21, 997–999 (1985).

J. Atmos. Sci. (2)

J. E. Hansen, J. W. Hovenier, “Interpretation of the polarization of Venus,” J. Atmos. Sci. 31, 1137–1160 (1974).
[CrossRef]

O. Dubovik, B. Holben, T. F. Eck, A. Smimov, Y. J. Kaufman, M. D. King, D. Tanre, I. Slutsker, “Variability of absorption and optical properties of key aerosol types observed in worldwide locations,” J. Atmos. Sci. 59, 590–608 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (10)

O. Dubovik, A. Smimov, B. Holben, M. D. King, Y. J. Kaufman, T. F. Eck, I. Slutsker, “Accuracy assessments of aerosol optical properties retrieved from Aerosol Network (AERO-NET) Sun and sky radiance measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 9791–9806 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Satellite retrieval of aerosol properties over ocean using polarization as well as intensity of reflected sunlight,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16989–17013 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. N. Sokolik, O. B. Toon, “Incorporation of mineralogical composition into models of the radiative properties of mineral aerosol from UV to IR wavelengths,” J. Geophys. Res. 104(D8), 9423–9444 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. J Kaufman, D. Tanre, H. R. Gordon, T. Nakajima, J. Lenoble, R. Frouin, H. Grassl, B. M. Herman, M. D. King, P. M. Teillet, “Passive remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol and atmospheric correction for the aerosol effect,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16815–16830 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. L. Stowe, A. M. Ignatov, R. R. Singh, “Development, validation, and potential enhancements to the second-generation operational aerosol product at the national environmental satellite, data, and information service of the national oceanic and atmospheric administration,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 16923–16934 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Kahn, P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, D. J. Diner, “Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to aerosol optical depth and pure-particle size distribution and composition over ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 32195–32213 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Kahn, P. Banerjee, D. McDonald, “Sensitivity of multiangle imaging to natural mixtures of aerosol over ocean,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 18219–18238 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Herman, J. L. Deuze, C. Cevaus, P. Goloub, F. M. Breon, D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces including polarization measurements and application to POLDER measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17039–17049 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Deuze, F. M. Breon, C. Devaux, P. Goloub, M. Herman, B. Lafrance, F. Maignan, A. Marchand, F. Nadal, G. Perry, D. Tanre, “Remote sensing of aerosols over land surfaces from POLDER-ADEOS-1 polarized measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 4913–4926 (2001) and references therein.
[CrossRef]

D. Tanre, M. Herman, Y. J. Kaufman, “Information on aerosol size distribution contained in solar reflected spectral radiances,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 19043–19060 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectros. Radiat. Transfer (1)

K. F. Evans, G. L. Stephens, “A new polarized atmospheric radiative-transfer model,” J. Quant. Spectros. Radiat. Transfer 45, 413–423 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc Radiat. Transfer (1)

L. Liu, M. I. Mishchenko, S. Menon, A. Macke, A. A. Lacis, “The effect of black carbon on scattering and absorption of solar radiation by cloud droplets,” J. Quant. Spectrosc Radiat. Transfer 74, 195–204 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (3)

M. I. Mishchenko, B. Cairns, J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, R. Burg, Y. J. Kaufman, J. V. Martins, E. P. Shettle, “Monitoring of aerosol forcing from space: analysis of measurement requirements,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 88, 149–161 (2004).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering by polydisperse, rotationally symmetric nonspherical particles: linear polarization,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 51, 759–778 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, I. V. Geogdzhayev, L. Liu, J. A. Ogren, A. A. Lacis, W. B. Rossow, J. W. Hovenier, H. Volten, O. Muñoz, “Aerosol retrievals from AVHRR radiances: effects of particle nonsphericity and absorption and an updated long-term global climatology of aerosol properties,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 79/80, 953–972 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. (1)

C. D. Rodgers, “Retrieval of atmospheric temperature and composition from remote measurements of thermal radiation,” Rev. Geophys. Space Phys. 14, 609–624 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Space Sci. Rev. (1)

J. E. Hansen, L. D. Travis, “Light scattering in planetary atmospheres,” Space Sci. Rev. 16, 527–610 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Other (12)

B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, E. E. Russell, “Polarization: ground-based upward-looking and aircraft/satellite-based downward-looking measurements,” in Satellite Remote Sensing of Clouds and the Atmosphere II, J. D. Haigh, ed., Proc. SPIE3220, 103–114 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, 1975).

G. A. d’Almeida, P. Koepke, E. P. Shettle, Atmospheric Aerosols—Global Climatology and Radiative Characteristics (A. Deepak, 1991), p. 561.

B. Cairns, L. D. Travis, E. E. Russell, “Research Scanning Polarimeter Calibration and ground-based measurements” in Polarization: Measurements, Analysis and Remote Sensing II, D. H. Goldstein, D. B. Casnault, eds., Proc. SPIE3754, 186–196 (1999).

NPOESS Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), in VIIRS Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document(ATBD): Version 1.3 (2000), http://npoesslib.ipo.noaa.gov/ .

P. R. Bevington, D. K. Robinson, Data Reduction and Error Analysis for the Physical Sciences, 3rd ed. (McGraw-Hill, 2003).

P. Chylek, G. Videen, W. Geldart, S. Dobbie, W. Tso, “Effective medium approximation for heterogeneous particles,” in Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Geophysical Applications, M. Mishchenko, ed. (Academic, 2000), pp. 273–308.
[CrossRef]

Aerosol Polarimetry Sensor, “Sensor requirements document” for National Polar-Orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS), http://www.ipo.noaa.qov .

C. Bohren, D. Huffmann, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-Interscience, 1983).

J. T. Houghton, Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden, D. Xiaosu, eds., Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis, Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Cambridge U. Press, 2001).

C. D. Rodgers, Inverse Methods for Atmospheric Sounding: Theory and Practice (World Scientific, 2002), p. 238.

ASTM E490-00a, “Standard solar constant and zero air mass solar spectral irradiance tables” (American Society for Testing and Materials, 2000).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Lognormal size distribution functions [Eq. (3)] for soot (reff = 0.04 µm, νeff = 0.61), water-soluble aerosol (reff = 0.1 µm, νeff = 0.61), and a combined bimodal distribution with a mixing ratio of 6:4.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Two equivalent representations of the resolving power λ (reff, νeff, n) between the oceanic aerosol characterized by reff = 2.5 µm and νeff = 1.3 and other types corresponding to different size-distribution parameters projected onto the (reff, νeff) plane. The resolving power in the right panel is represented by color; χ has a global minimum in the proximity of (2.5, 1.3), and no local minima are present. The size of the white rectangle surrounding the (2.5, 1.3) point is 1σ of the standard deviation corresponding to the retrieval accuracy.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

First four largest principal components Φ1–4, projected on the reff and the νeff coordinates. The other microphysical parameters are fixed at n = 1.7−0i (nonabsorbing oceanic aerosol). To expose the details, we use a different scale for each component.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Same as Fig. 3, but the projected coordinates are reff and Re(n). The other parameters are fixed at νeff = 1.3 and Im(n) = 0.0.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as Fig. 3, but the projected coordinates are Im(n) and Re(n). The other parameters are fixed at reff = 2.5 µm and νeff = 1.2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Resolving power χ in the neighborhood of the nonabsorbing oceanic aerosol (reff = 2.49 µm, νeff = 1.33, n = 1.53−0i), projected on the orthogonal planes in the aerosol parameter space. The size of the white rectangle surrounding the oceanic aerosol is 1σ of the retrieval precision. The color scale is the same on each panel. Our simulations show no local minima of χ(reff, νeff, n), indicating the unique retrievals of the oceanic aerosol.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Same as Fig. 6 but for a water-soluble aerosol (reff = 0.1 µm, νeff = 2.3, n = 1.51−0.005i).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Same as Fig. 6 but for soot aerosol (reff = 0.1 µm, νeff = 0.6, n = 1.68−0.5i).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Particle-size parameters for a bimodal distribution that do not meet the retrieval accuracy (indicated by black). (a) The non-absorbing mode parameters are calculated for a fixed absorbing aerosol, r2 = 0.04 µm and υ2 = 0.61 (soot). (b) Likewise, the absorbing mode parameters are calculated for a fixed mode of the nonabsorbing aerosol, r1 = 0.1 µm and υ1 = 0.61, which corresponds to that of water-soluble aerosol.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Difference between the resolving power obtained with the total intensity χ1 and polarization fraction χ2 for νeff = 0.6 and n = 1.68−0.5i, plotted for small particle sizes (reff < 0.25 µm).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Comparison of the resolving power λ between (a), (c) the total intensity and (b), (d) the polarization fraction measurements for soot particles (reff = 0.04 µm, νeff = 0.6, n = 1.7 − 0.5i), projected (a), (b) on the effective size and variance and (c), (d) on the effective size and single-scattering albedo. The resolving power is calculated for arbitrary displacements of the size parameters but such that Δreff > 0.1 µm, Δνeff > 0.3, and Δϖ > 0.03. The gray areas in (c) and (d) result from a narrow range of single-scattering albedo given the available range of νeff and n for each value of reff.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters, Coverage Range, and Precision Requirements for Aerosol Properties

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

µ d S λ ( τ λ , μ , ϕ ) d τ λ = S λ ( τ λ , μ , ϕ ) + ϖ λ 4 π 0 2 π 1 1 F λ ( μ , ϕ ; μ , ϕ ) × S λ ( τ λ , μ , ϕ ) d μ d ϕ + J λ ( τ λ , μ , ϕ ) ,
ϖ = 1 2 0 π [ ϖ F 00 ( θ ) ] sin θ d θ , 0 π F 00 ( θ ) sin θ d θ = 4 π ,
d N d r = i = 1 2 N i ( 2 π ) 1 / 2 ν m i r m i exp { 1 2 [ ln ( r ) ln ( r m i ) ν m i ] 2 } .
r eff = r m exp ( 2.5 ν m 2 ) , ν eff = exp ( ν m 2 ) 1 .
Q sca = 0.5 k 4 r 6 | n 1 n + 1 | 2 ( 1 + cos 2 θ ) , k = 2 π λ , P = sin 2 θ 1 + cos 2 θ .
Δ x = [ Δ r eff , Δ ν eff , Δ Re ( n ) , Δ ϖ ] , Δ Ψ ( x ) λ , θ = Ψ λ , θ ( x + Δ x ) Ψ λ , θ ( x ) ,
χ ( x ) = { 1 N λ , θ N [ Ψ λ , θ ( x + Δ x ) Ψ λ , θ ( x ) σ λ , θ ( x ) ] 2 } 1 / 2 .
ϕ x = [ y obs Ψ ( x ) ] T Ξ ε 1 [ y obs Ψ ( x ) ] + ( x x a ) T Ξ a 1 ( x x a ) ,
S λ , θ A = S λ , θ TOA S λ , θ C ± Δ S λ , θ ( S λ , θ TOA ) = S λ , θ A m ± Δ S λ , θ ( S λ , θ TOA ) ,
( S 0 S 1 ) = τ ϖ S 0 H 4 π μ ( F 00 F 10 ) ,
σ ( P ) λ , θ = σ ( S TOA ) λ , θ S 0 A [ 2 ( 1 + P 2 ) ] 1 / 2 .
K i j = 1 N k = 1 N [ Ψ i ( x k ) Ψ ¯ i ] [ Ψ j ( x k ) Ψ ¯ j ] ,
ε i = ( C T K C ) i i = 1 N k = 1 N [ Φ i ( x k ) Φ i ¯ ] 2 , Φ = C Ψ ,

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