Abstract

Relying on reflective mask technology, extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is particularly vulnerable to mask substrate roughness. Previous research has shown mask roughness to play a significant role in printed line-edge roughness (LER). Here the analysis of mask-roughness effects is extended to printed contact-size variations. Unlike LER, illumination partial coherence is found to have little affect on the results for contacts that are near the diffraction limit. Analysis shows that, given the current state-of-the-art EUV mask, mask roughness has a significant effect on the process window for small contacts. The analysis also shows that a significant portion of the contact-size variation observed in recent 0.1-numerical-aperture EUV exposures can be attributed to the mask-roughness effect studied here.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  24. PROLITH is a registered trademark of KLA-Tencor Corporation, 160 Rio Robles, San Jose, Calif. 95134.
  25. SOLID-C is a registered trademark of SIGMA-C GmbH, Thomas-Dehler-Str. 9, 81737 München, Germany.
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2004 (2)

P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, S. Baker, V. Sperry, D. Stearns, E. Gullikson, “Developing a viable multilayer coating process for extreme ultraviolet lithography relicles,” J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 3, 139–145 (2004).

P. Naulleau, “Relevance of mask-roughness-induced printed line-edge roughness in recent and future extreme-ultraviolet lithography tests,” Appl. Opt. 434025–4032 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Gullikson, C. Cerjan, D. Stearns, P. Mirkarimi, D. Sweeney, “Practical approach for modeling extreme ultraviolet lithography mask defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 81–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, V. Sperry, S. Baker, “An ion-assisted Mo–Si deposition process for planarizing reticle substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1514–1516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

D. Stearns, E. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering from extreme ultraviolet multilayer coatings,” Physica B 283, 84–91 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Pistor, T. Y. Deng, A. Neureuther, “Extreme ultraviolet mask defect simulation: Low-profile defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2926–2929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Beaudry, T. Milster, “Effects of object roughness on partially coherent image formation,” Opt. Lett. 25, 454–456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

D. Stearns, “Stochastic model for thin film growth and erosion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1745–1747 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Anderson, E.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Baker, S.

P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, S. Baker, V. Sperry, D. Stearns, E. Gullikson, “Developing a viable multilayer coating process for extreme ultraviolet lithography relicles,” J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 3, 139–145 (2004).

E. Spiller, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, V. Sperry, E. Gullikson, D. Stearns, “High-performance Mo-Si multilayer coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography by ion-beam deposition,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4049–4058 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, V. Sperry, S. Baker, “An ion-assisted Mo–Si deposition process for planarizing reticle substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1514–1516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ballard, W.

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

Batson, P.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Beaudry, N.

N. Beaudry, T. Milster, “Effects of object roughness on partially coherent image formation,” Opt. Lett. 25, 454–456 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Beaudry, T. Milster, “Effects of mask roughness and condenser scattering in EUVL systems,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 653–662 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Benschop, J.

H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 1–10 (2002).

Bernardez, L.

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bjorkholm, J.

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, R. Bristol, J. Bjorkholm, “Shot noise effect on printing small contacts in EUVL,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 890–899 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Blaedel, K.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bokor, J.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bristol, R.

S. Lee, R. Bristol, J. Bjorkholm, “Shot noise effect on printing small contacts in EUVL,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 890–899 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cerjan, C.

E. Gullikson, C. Cerjan, D. Stearns, P. Mirkarimi, D. Sweeney, “Practical approach for modeling extreme ultraviolet lithography mask defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 81–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, H. N.

D. W. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, D. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100-nm CD imaging system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 2–10 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cobb, J.

Z. Zhengrong, K. Lucas, J. Cobb, S. Hector, A. Strojwas, “Rigorous EUV mask simulator using 2D and 3D waveguide methods,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 494–503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deng, T. Y.

T. Pistor, T. Y. Deng, A. Neureuther, “Extreme ultraviolet mask defect simulation: Low-profile defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2926–2929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Denham, P.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Erdmann, A.

A. Erdmann, C. Kalus, T. Schmoller, A. Wolter, “Efficient simulation of light diffraction from three-dimensional EUV masks using field decomposition techniques,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 482–493 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Geyl, R.

H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 1–10 (2002).

Goldberg, K.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, J.

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), Chap. 7, pp. 286–360.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), Chap. 2, pp. 7–59.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), Chap. 7, pp. 286–360.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), Appendix B, 533–538.

Gullikson, E.

P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, S. Baker, V. Sperry, D. Stearns, E. Gullikson, “Developing a viable multilayer coating process for extreme ultraviolet lithography relicles,” J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 3, 139–145 (2004).

E. Spiller, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, V. Sperry, E. Gullikson, D. Stearns, “High-performance Mo-Si multilayer coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography by ion-beam deposition,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4049–4058 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gullikson, C. Cerjan, D. Stearns, P. Mirkarimi, D. Sweeney, “Practical approach for modeling extreme ultraviolet lithography mask defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 81–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. Stearns, E. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering from extreme ultraviolet multilayer coatings,” Physica B 283, 84–91 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Gwyn, C.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Hada, H.

K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hale, L.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Hamamoto, K.

K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Haney, S.

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
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Harned, N.

H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 1–10 (2002).

Harteneck, B.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
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Hartman, R.

H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 1–10 (2002).

Hector, S.

Z. Zhengrong, K. Lucas, J. Cobb, S. Hector, A. Strojwas, “Rigorous EUV mask simulator using 2D and 3D waveguide methods,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 494–503 (2003).
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S. Hector, “EUVL masks: requirements and potential solutions,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 134–149 (2002).
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Hoef, B.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
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Høghøj, P.

H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 1–10 (2002).

Hoko, H.

T. Ogawa, M. Ito, H. Yamanashi, H. Hoko, E. Hoshino, S. Okazaki, “Simulation studies of roughness-smoothing effect of molybdenum/silicon multilayer coating based on resputtering model,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 716–724 (2002).
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Hoshino, E.

T. Ogawa, M. Ito, H. Yamanashi, H. Hoko, E. Hoshino, S. Okazaki, “Simulation studies of roughness-smoothing effect of molybdenum/silicon multilayer coating based on resputtering model,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 716–724 (2002).
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Hudyma, R.

D. W. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, D. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100-nm CD imaging system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 2–10 (1998).
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Ito, M.

T. Ogawa, M. Ito, H. Yamanashi, H. Hoko, E. Hoshino, S. Okazaki, “Simulation studies of roughness-smoothing effect of molybdenum/silicon multilayer coating based on resputtering model,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 716–724 (2002).
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Jackson, K.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
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Jefferson, K.

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
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Johnson, T.

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
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Kalus, C.

A. Erdmann, C. Kalus, T. Schmoller, A. Wolter, “Efficient simulation of light diffraction from three-dimensional EUV masks using field decomposition techniques,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 482–493 (2003).
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Kinoshita, H.

K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 664–671 (2002).
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Kishimura, S.

K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 664–671 (2002).
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Komano, H.

K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 664–671 (2002).
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Kubiak, G.

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
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Kürz, P.

H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 1–10 (2002).

Lee, S.

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
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S. Lee, R. Bristol, J. Bjorkholm, “Shot noise effect on printing small contacts in EUVL,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 890–899 (2003).
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Leung, A.

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
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Lucas, K.

Z. Zhengrong, K. Lucas, J. Cobb, S. Hector, A. Strojwas, “Rigorous EUV mask simulator using 2D and 3D waveguide methods,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 494–503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Meiling, H.

H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 1–10 (2002).

Milster, T.

N. Beaudry, T. Milster, “Effects of object roughness on partially coherent image formation,” Opt. Lett. 25, 454–456 (2000).
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N. Beaudry, T. Milster, “Effects of mask roughness and condenser scattering in EUVL systems,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 653–662 (1999).
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Mirkarimi, P.

P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, S. Baker, V. Sperry, D. Stearns, E. Gullikson, “Developing a viable multilayer coating process for extreme ultraviolet lithography relicles,” J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 3, 139–145 (2004).

E. Spiller, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, V. Sperry, E. Gullikson, D. Stearns, “High-performance Mo-Si multilayer coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography by ion-beam deposition,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4049–4058 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gullikson, C. Cerjan, D. Stearns, P. Mirkarimi, D. Sweeney, “Practical approach for modeling extreme ultraviolet lithography mask defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 81–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, V. Sperry, S. Baker, “An ion-assisted Mo–Si deposition process for planarizing reticle substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1514–1516 (2001).
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Naulleau, P.

P. Naulleau, “Relevance of mask-roughness-induced printed line-edge roughness in recent and future extreme-ultraviolet lithography tests,” Appl. Opt. 434025–4032 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
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Neureuther, A.

T. Pistor, T. Y. Deng, A. Neureuther, “Extreme ultraviolet mask defect simulation: Low-profile defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2926–2929 (2000).
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O’Connell, D.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
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Ogawa, T.

T. Ogawa, M. Ito, H. Yamanashi, H. Hoko, E. Hoshino, S. Okazaki, “Simulation studies of roughness-smoothing effect of molybdenum/silicon multilayer coating based on resputtering model,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 716–724 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Okazaki, S.

T. Ogawa, M. Ito, H. Yamanashi, H. Hoko, E. Hoshino, S. Okazaki, “Simulation studies of roughness-smoothing effect of molybdenum/silicon multilayer coating based on resputtering model,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 716–724 (2002).
[CrossRef]

K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Olynick, D.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Panning, E.

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pistor, T.

T. Pistor, T. Y. Deng, A. Neureuther, “Extreme ultraviolet mask defect simulation: Low-profile defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2926–2929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rekawa, S.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Replogle, W.

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Salmassi, F.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schmoller, T.

A. Erdmann, C. Kalus, T. Schmoller, A. Wolter, “Efficient simulation of light diffraction from three-dimensional EUV masks using field decomposition techniques,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 482–493 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shafer, D.

D. W. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, D. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100-nm CD imaging system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 2–10 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Soufli, R.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sperry, V.

P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, S. Baker, V. Sperry, D. Stearns, E. Gullikson, “Developing a viable multilayer coating process for extreme ultraviolet lithography relicles,” J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 3, 139–145 (2004).

E. Spiller, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, V. Sperry, E. Gullikson, D. Stearns, “High-performance Mo-Si multilayer coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography by ion-beam deposition,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4049–4058 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, V. Sperry, S. Baker, “An ion-assisted Mo–Si deposition process for planarizing reticle substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1514–1516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Spiller, E.

P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, S. Baker, V. Sperry, D. Stearns, E. Gullikson, “Developing a viable multilayer coating process for extreme ultraviolet lithography relicles,” J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 3, 139–145 (2004).

E. Spiller, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, V. Sperry, E. Gullikson, D. Stearns, “High-performance Mo-Si multilayer coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography by ion-beam deposition,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4049–4058 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, V. Sperry, S. Baker, “An ion-assisted Mo–Si deposition process for planarizing reticle substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1514–1516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D.

P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, S. Baker, V. Sperry, D. Stearns, E. Gullikson, “Developing a viable multilayer coating process for extreme ultraviolet lithography relicles,” J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 3, 139–145 (2004).

E. Spiller, S. Baker, P. Mirkarimi, V. Sperry, E. Gullikson, D. Stearns, “High-performance Mo-Si multilayer coatings for extreme-ultraviolet lithography by ion-beam deposition,” Appl. Opt. 42, 4049–4058 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Gullikson, C. Cerjan, D. Stearns, P. Mirkarimi, D. Sweeney, “Practical approach for modeling extreme ultraviolet lithography mask defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 81–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, V. Sperry, S. Baker, “An ion-assisted Mo–Si deposition process for planarizing reticle substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1514–1516 (2001).
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D. Stearns, E. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering from extreme ultraviolet multilayer coatings,” Physica B 283, 84–91 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Stearns, “Stochastic model for thin film growth and erosion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1745–1747 (1993).
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Strojwas, A.

Z. Zhengrong, K. Lucas, J. Cobb, S. Hector, A. Strojwas, “Rigorous EUV mask simulator using 2D and 3D waveguide methods,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 494–503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Stulen, R.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
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R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
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Sweeney, D.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Gullikson, C. Cerjan, D. Stearns, P. Mirkarimi, D. Sweeney, “Practical approach for modeling extreme ultraviolet lithography mask defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 81–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sweeney, D. W.

D. W. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, D. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100-nm CD imaging system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 2–10 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tichenor, D.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Underwood, J. H.

Walton, C.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wolter, A.

A. Erdmann, C. Kalus, T. Schmoller, A. Wolter, “Efficient simulation of light diffraction from three-dimensional EUV masks using field decomposition techniques,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 482–493 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wurm, S.

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamanashi, H.

T. Ogawa, M. Ito, H. Yamanashi, H. Hoko, E. Hoshino, S. Okazaki, “Simulation studies of roughness-smoothing effect of molybdenum/silicon multilayer coating based on resputtering model,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 716–724 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Yan, P.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhengrong, Z.

Z. Zhengrong, K. Lucas, J. Cobb, S. Hector, A. Strojwas, “Rigorous EUV mask simulator using 2D and 3D waveguide methods,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 494–503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

D. Stearns, “Stochastic model for thin film growth and erosion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1745–1747 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, D. Stearns, V. Sperry, S. Baker, “An ion-assisted Mo–Si deposition process for planarizing reticle substrates for extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 37, 1514–1516 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Stulen, D. Sweeney, “Extreme ultraviolet lithography,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 694–699 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. (1)

P. Mirkarimi, E. Spiller, S. Baker, V. Sperry, D. Stearns, E. Gullikson, “Developing a viable multilayer coating process for extreme ultraviolet lithography relicles,” J. Microlithogr., Microfabr., Microsyst. 3, 139–145 (2004).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (3)

T. Pistor, T. Y. Deng, A. Neureuther, “Extreme ultraviolet mask defect simulation: Low-profile defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18, 2926–2929 (2000).
[CrossRef]

E. Gullikson, C. Cerjan, D. Stearns, P. Mirkarimi, D. Sweeney, “Practical approach for modeling extreme ultraviolet lithography mask defects,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 81–86 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Naulleau, K. Goldberg, E. Anderson, D. Attwood, P. Batson, J. Bokor, P. Denham, E. Gullikson, B. Harteneck, B. Hoef, K. Jackson, D. Olynick, S. Rekawa, F. Salmassi, K. Blaedel, H. Chapman, L. Hale, P. Mirkarimi, R. Soufli, E. Spiller, D. Sweeney, J. Taylor, C. Walton, D. O’Connell, R. Stulen, D. Tichenor, C. Gwyn, P. Yan, G. Zhang, “Sub-70-nm EUV lithography at the Advanced Light Source Static Microfield Exposure Station using the ETS Set-2 Optic,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 20, 2829–2833 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Physica B (1)

D. Stearns, E. Gullikson, “Nonspecular scattering from extreme ultraviolet multilayer coatings,” Physica B 283, 84–91 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (16)

Z. Zhengrong, K. Lucas, J. Cobb, S. Hector, A. Strojwas, “Rigorous EUV mask simulator using 2D and 3D waveguide methods,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 494–503 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Erdmann, C. Kalus, T. Schmoller, A. Wolter, “Efficient simulation of light diffraction from three-dimensional EUV masks using field decomposition techniques,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 482–493 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Ogawa, M. Ito, H. Yamanashi, H. Hoko, E. Hoshino, S. Okazaki, “Simulation studies of roughness-smoothing effect of molybdenum/silicon multilayer coating based on resputtering model,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 716–724 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Hector, “EUVL masks: requirements and potential solutions,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 134–149 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), Chap. 7, pp. 286–360.

D. W. Sweeney, R. Hudyma, H. N. Chapman, D. Shafer, “EUV optical design for a 100-nm CD imaging system,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies II, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3331, 2–10 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. O’Connell, S. Lee, D. Tichenor, W. Ballard, L. Bernardez, J. Goldsmith, S. Haney, K. Jefferson, T. Johnson, A. Leung, W. Replogle, J. Bjorkholm, E. Panning, P. Naulleau, H. Chapman, S. Wurm, G. Kubiak, C. Gwyn, “Lithographic characterization of improved projection optics in the EUVL Engineering Test Stand,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 83–94 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), Chap. 7, pp. 286–360.

H. Meiling, J. Benschop, R. Hartman, P. Kürz, P. Høghøj, R. Geyl, N. Harned, “EXSTATIC: ASML’s α-tool development for EUVL,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 1–10 (2002).

K. Hamamoto, T. Watanabe, H. Hada, H. Komano, S. Kishimura, S. Okazaki, H. Kinoshita, “Fine pattern replication on 10 × 10-mm exposure area using the ETS-1 laboratory tool in HIT,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VI, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE4688, 664–671 (2002).
[CrossRef]

S. Lee, R. Bristol, J. Bjorkholm, “Shot noise effect on printing small contacts in EUVL,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies VII, R. L. Engelstad, ed., Proc. SPIE5037, 890–899 (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Beaudry, T. Milster, “Effects of mask roughness and condenser scattering in EUVL systems,” in Emerging Lithographic Technologies III, Y. Vladimirsky, ed., Proc. SPIE3676, 653–662 (1999).
[CrossRef]

PROLITH is a registered trademark of KLA-Tencor Corporation, 160 Rio Robles, San Jose, Calif. 95134.

SOLID-C is a registered trademark of SIGMA-C GmbH, Thomas-Dehler-Str. 9, 81737 München, Germany.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), Appendix B, 533–538.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1985), Chap. 2, pp. 7–59.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Comparison of the numerical random-walk results over a 5000-element sample with the analytical results as a function of N. (b) Fractional error (the analytical answer minus the numerical answer divided by the numerical answer).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Power spectral density (PSD) from a representative state-of-the-art EUV mask blank.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Plot of the modeled rms printed contact-size variation for 30-nm contacts through focus. To improve the statistics of the modeling, the simulation is performed 11 times, each time with an independent realization of the mask roughness. The error bars are derived from the rms spread of the 11 simulations. Also shown is the through-focus behavior determined analytically by use of the analysis presented here.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Plot of the modeled rms printed contact-size variation on 30-nm contacts for 90-nm defocus as a function of partial coherence. Again, 11 independent simulations are performed for each coherence setting to improve the statistics. The error bars are determined as described in Fig. 3. Also shown is the analytically determined behavior. The two methods agree within statistical uncertainty of the modeled data, except for the 0.1 partial-coherence case.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Field of 70-nm contacts printed by use of the 0.1-N.A. ETS Set-2 optic in the Berkeley Static Exposure Station. The illumination partial coherence was 0.7. The exposure reveals a rms printed contact-size variation of 4.2 nm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Atomic force microscope image of the reflector surface of the mask used to print the contacts in Fig. 5. With a rms roughness of 0.54 nm, this older-generation mask is significantly rougher than the current state-of-the-art mask represented by the PSD in Fig. 2.

Equations (7)

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a exp ( j θ ) = 1 N k = 1 N α k exp ( j ϕ k ) ,
a ¯ = N α ¯ k M ϕ ( 1 ) , σ r 2 = ( α 2 ¯ / 2 ) [ 1 + M ϕ ( 2 ) ] - ( α ¯ ) 2 M ϕ 2 ( 1 ) , σ i 2 = ( α 2 ¯ / 2 ) [ 1 - M ϕ ( 2 ) ] ,
M ϕ ( ω ) = exp ( - σ 2 ω 2 / 2 ) .
a ¯ = N exp ( - σ 2 / 2 ) , σ r 2 = ( 1 / 2 ) [ 1 + exp ( - 2 σ 2 ) ] - exp ( - σ 2 ) , σ i 2 = ( 1 / 2 ) [ 1 - exp ( - 2 σ 2 ) ] .
σ a 2 σ r 2 a ¯ 2 = ( 1 / 2 ) [ 1 + exp ( - 2 σ 2 ) ] - exp ( - σ 2 ) [ ( A c / A r ) 1 / 2 exp ( - σ 2 / 2 ) ] 2 .
σ I ^ = 2 { ( 1 / 2 ) [ 1 + exp ( - 2 σ 2 ) ] - exp ( - σ 2 ) } 1 / 2 ( A c / A r ) exp ( - σ 2 / 2 ) .
σ W = σ I ^ d W d I ^ ,

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