Abstract

In an effort to establish a more reliable set of optical cross sections for a variety of chemical and biological aerosol simulants, we have developed a flow-through photoacoustic system that is capable of measuring absolute, mass-normalized extinction and absorption cross sections. By employing a flow-through design we avoid issues associated with closed aerosol photoacoustic systems and improve sensitivity. Although the results shown here were obtained for the tunable CO2 laser waveband region, i.e., 9.20–10.80 µm, application to other wavelengths is easily achievable. The aerosols considered are categorized as biological, chemical, and inorganic in origin, i.e., Bacillus atrophaeus endospores, dimethicone silicone oil (SF-96 grade 50), and kaolin clay powder (alumina and silicate), respectively. Results compare well with spectral extinction measured previously by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Comparisons with Mie theory calculations based on previously published complex indices of refraction and measured size distributions are also presented.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Wieliczka, M. Querry, “four Techniques to measure complex refractive indices of liquids and solids at carbon dioxide laser wavelengths in the infrared spectral region,” Tech. Rep. CRDEC-CR-062 (U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development & Engineering Center, 1990).
  2. C. Bohren, D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).
  3. C. Wick, R. Edmonds, J. Blew, “Rapid detection and identification of background levels of airborne biological particles,” Tech. Rep. ERDEC-TR-155 (Edgewood Research, Development & Engineering Center, 1995).
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  7. D. M. Roessler, F. R. Faxvog, “Optoacoustic measurement of optical absorption in acetylene smoke,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 69, 1699–1704 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Rosencwag, Photoacoustics and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (Krieger, 1990).
  9. K. P. Gurton, D. Ligon, R. Dahmani, “Measured infrared optical cross sections for a variety of chemical and biological aerosol simulants,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4564–4570 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. K. P. Gurton, D. Ligon, R. Kvavilashvili, “Measured infrared spectral extinction for aerosolized Bacillus atrophaeus var. niger endospores from 3 to 13 µm,” Appl. Opt. 40, 4443–4448 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  11. K. P. Gurton, D. Ligon, R. Dahmani, “).In situ measurement of the infrared spectral extinction for various chemical, biological, and background aerosols,” Tech. Rep. ARL-TR-3071 (U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2003).
  12. M. R. Querry, “Optical constants of minerals and other materials from the millimeter to the ultraviolet,” Tech. Rep. CRDEC-CR88009 (U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center, 1987).
  13. D. Wieliczka, M. Querry, “Four techniques to measure complex refractive indices of liquid and solids at carbon dioxide laser wavelengths in the infrared spectral region,” Tech. Rep. CRDEC-CR-062 (U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development & Engineering Center, 1990).
  14. P. M. Pellegrino, N. F. Fell, “Bacterial endospore detection using terbium dipicolinate photoluminescence in the presence of chemical and biological materials,” Anal. Chem. 70, 1755–1760 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

P. M. Pellegrino, N. F. Fell, “Bacterial endospore detection using terbium dipicolinate photoluminescence in the presence of chemical and biological materials,” Anal. Chem. 70, 1755–1760 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1983 (1)

1979 (1)

1977 (1)

Blew, J.

C. Wick, R. Edmonds, J. Blew, “Rapid detection and identification of background levels of airborne biological particles,” Tech. Rep. ERDEC-TR-155 (Edgewood Research, Development & Engineering Center, 1995).

Bohren, C.

C. Bohren, D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Bruce, C. W.

Dahmani, R.

K. P. Gurton, D. Ligon, R. Dahmani, “Measured infrared optical cross sections for a variety of chemical and biological aerosol simulants,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4564–4570 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. P. Gurton, D. Ligon, R. Dahmani, “).In situ measurement of the infrared spectral extinction for various chemical, biological, and background aerosols,” Tech. Rep. ARL-TR-3071 (U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2003).

Edmonds, R.

C. Wick, R. Edmonds, J. Blew, “Rapid detection and identification of background levels of airborne biological particles,” Tech. Rep. ERDEC-TR-155 (Edgewood Research, Development & Engineering Center, 1995).

Faxvog, F. R.

Fell, N. F.

P. M. Pellegrino, N. F. Fell, “Bacterial endospore detection using terbium dipicolinate photoluminescence in the presence of chemical and biological materials,” Anal. Chem. 70, 1755–1760 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gurton, K. P.

Huffman, D.

C. Bohren, D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

Kvavilashvili, R.

Ligon, D.

Pellegrino, P. M.

P. M. Pellegrino, N. F. Fell, “Bacterial endospore detection using terbium dipicolinate photoluminescence in the presence of chemical and biological materials,” Anal. Chem. 70, 1755–1760 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pinnick, R. G.

Querry, M.

D. Wieliczka, M. Querry, “four Techniques to measure complex refractive indices of liquids and solids at carbon dioxide laser wavelengths in the infrared spectral region,” Tech. Rep. CRDEC-CR-062 (U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development & Engineering Center, 1990).

D. Wieliczka, M. Querry, “Four techniques to measure complex refractive indices of liquid and solids at carbon dioxide laser wavelengths in the infrared spectral region,” Tech. Rep. CRDEC-CR-062 (U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development & Engineering Center, 1990).

Querry, M. R.

M. R. Querry, “Optical constants of minerals and other materials from the millimeter to the ultraviolet,” Tech. Rep. CRDEC-CR88009 (U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center, 1987).

Richardson, N. M.

Roessler, D. M.

Rosencwag, A.

A. Rosencwag, Photoacoustics and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (Krieger, 1990).

Stromberg, T. F.

Wick, C.

C. Wick, R. Edmonds, J. Blew, “Rapid detection and identification of background levels of airborne biological particles,” Tech. Rep. ERDEC-TR-155 (Edgewood Research, Development & Engineering Center, 1995).

Wieliczka, D.

D. Wieliczka, M. Querry, “four Techniques to measure complex refractive indices of liquids and solids at carbon dioxide laser wavelengths in the infrared spectral region,” Tech. Rep. CRDEC-CR-062 (U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development & Engineering Center, 1990).

D. Wieliczka, M. Querry, “Four techniques to measure complex refractive indices of liquid and solids at carbon dioxide laser wavelengths in the infrared spectral region,” Tech. Rep. CRDEC-CR-062 (U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development & Engineering Center, 1990).

Anal. Chem. (1)

P. M. Pellegrino, N. F. Fell, “Bacterial endospore detection using terbium dipicolinate photoluminescence in the presence of chemical and biological materials,” Anal. Chem. 70, 1755–1760 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (5)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Other (7)

A. Rosencwag, Photoacoustics and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy (Krieger, 1990).

K. P. Gurton, D. Ligon, R. Dahmani, “).In situ measurement of the infrared spectral extinction for various chemical, biological, and background aerosols,” Tech. Rep. ARL-TR-3071 (U.S. Army Research Laboratory, 2003).

M. R. Querry, “Optical constants of minerals and other materials from the millimeter to the ultraviolet,” Tech. Rep. CRDEC-CR88009 (U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center, 1987).

D. Wieliczka, M. Querry, “Four techniques to measure complex refractive indices of liquid and solids at carbon dioxide laser wavelengths in the infrared spectral region,” Tech. Rep. CRDEC-CR-062 (U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development & Engineering Center, 1990).

D. Wieliczka, M. Querry, “four Techniques to measure complex refractive indices of liquids and solids at carbon dioxide laser wavelengths in the infrared spectral region,” Tech. Rep. CRDEC-CR-062 (U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development & Engineering Center, 1990).

C. Bohren, D. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, 1983).

C. Wick, R. Edmonds, J. Blew, “Rapid detection and identification of background levels of airborne biological particles,” Tech. Rep. ERDEC-TR-155 (Edgewood Research, Development & Engineering Center, 1995).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the flow-through photoacoustic experiment used to measure in situ extinction and absorption cross sections.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured size distributions for SF-96 silicone oil, Bacillus atrophaeus endospores, and kaolin clay aerosol.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Typical calibration curve for the photoacoustic spectrophone with isopropanol vapor.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the measured and calculated extinction and absorption cross sections for SF-96, grade 50 silicone oil. The individual data points represent the photoacoustic measured cross sections. The thin red curve represents spectral extinction measured previously by FTIR aerosol spectroscopy. The thicker solid and dashed curves represent Mie theory calculations based on the size distributions shown in Fig. 1 and on the previously published complex indices of Querry.12

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of extinction and absorption cross sections for aerosolized BG endospores. The individual points represent the photoacoustic measured cross sections. The thin red curve represents spectral extinction measured previously by FTIR aerosol spectroscopy. The dashed and thicker solid curves represent Mie theory calculations based on the size distributions shown in Fig. 1 and the previously published complex indices of Querry.12

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Comparison of extinction and absorption cross sections for aerosolized kaolin clay powder. The individual points represent the photoacoustic measured cross sections. The thin red curve represents spectral extinction measured previously by FTIR aerosol spectroscopy. The dashed and thicker solid curves are the corresponding Mie theory calculations based on the size distributions shown in Fig. 1 and the previously published complex indices of Querry.12

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