Abstract

A system for interstitial photodynamic therapy with δ-aminolaevulinic acid and multiple optical fibers has been developed. The system enables photodynamic treatment of large embedded tumor volumes and utilizes real-time measurements to allow on-line dosimetry. Important parameters such as light fluence rate, sensitizer fluorescence intensity, and changes in local blood oxygen saturation are measured with the same fibers that deliver the therapeutic light. Data from the first clinical treatments on nodular basal cell carcinomas indicate a major treatment-induced light absorption increase, rapid sensitizer photobleaching, and a relatively constant global tissue oxygen saturation level during the treatment.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  41. A. Curnow, B. W. McIlroy, M. J. Postle-Hacon, A. J. MacRobert, S. G. Bown, “Light dose fractionation to enhance photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid in the normal rat colon,” Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 71–76 (1999).
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2005 (1)

C. af Klinteberg, M. Andreasson, O. Sandström, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, “Compact medical fluorosensor for minimally invasive tissue characterization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 034303-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

J. H. Woodhams, L. Kunz, S. G. Bown, A. J. MacRobert, “Correlation of real-time haemoglobin oxygen saturation monitoring during photodynamic therapy with microvascular effects and tissue necrosis in normal rat liver,” Br. J. Cancer 91, 788–794 (2004).

M. Soumya, T. H. Foster, “Carbogen breathing significantly enhances the penetration of red light in murine tumours in vivo,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1891–1904 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Vogl, K. Eichler, M. G. Mack, S. Zangos, C. Herzog, A. Thalhammer, K. Engelmann, “Interstitial photodynamic laser therapy in interventional oncology,” Eur. Radiol. 14, 1063–1073 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. Jensen, “Red blood cell pH, the Bohr effect, and other oxygenation-linked phenomena in blood O2 and CO2 transport,” Acta Phys. Scand. 182, 215–227 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

D. R. Holmes, B. J. Davis, C. J. Bruce, R. A. Robb, “3D visualization, analysis, and treatment of the prostate using trans-urethral ultrasound,” Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 27, 339–349 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. A. Boere, D. J. Robinson, H. S. de Bruijn, J. van den Boogert, H. W. Tilanus, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, R. W. F. de Bruin, “Monitoring in situ dosimetry and protoporphyrin IX fluorescence photobleaching in the normal rat esophagus during 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 78, 271–272 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (4)

T. Johansson, M. Soto Thompson, M. Stenberg, C. af Klinteberg, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Feasibility study of a novel system for combined light dosimetry and interstitial photodynamic treatment of massive tumors,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1462–1468 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, Z. Huang, H. Chen, H. Shapiro, “Improvement of tumour response by manipulation of tumour oxygenation during PDT,” Photochem. Photobiol. 76, 197–203 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. G. Bown, A. Z. Rogowska, D. E. Whitelaw, W. R. Lees, L. B. Lovat, P. Ripley, L. Jones, P. Wyld, A. Gillams, A. W. Hatfield, “Photodynamic therapy for cancer of the pancreas,” Gut 50, 549–557 (2002).

K. A. Salva, “Photodynamic therapy: unapproved uses, dosages, or indications,” Clin. Dermatol. 20, 571–581 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

I. Wang, N. Bendsoe, C. af Klinteberg, A. M. K. Enejder, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy versus cryosurgery of basal cell carcinomas; results of a phase III randomized clinical trial,” Br. J. Dermatol. 144, 832–840 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

A. Curnow, J. C. Haller, S. G. Bown, “Oxygen monitoring during 5-aminolaevulinic acid induced photodynamic therapy in normal rat colon. Comparison of continuous and fractionated light regimes,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 58, 149–155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

U. Gustafsson, S. Pålsson, S. Svanberg, “Compact fibre-optic fluorosensor using a continuous wave violet diode laser and an integrated spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3004–3006 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (5)

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Robinson, H. S. de Bruijn, N. van der Veen, M. R. Stringer, S. B. Brown, W. M. Star, “Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence photobleaching during ALA-mediated photody-namic therapy of UVB-induced tumors in hairless mouse skin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 61–70 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. K. Lee, C. Whitehurst, M. L. Pantelides, J. V. Moore, “An interstitial light assembly for photodynamic therapy in prostatic carcinoma,” Br. J. Urol. Int. 84, 821–826 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Curnow, B. W. McIlroy, M. J. Postle-Hacon, A. J. MacRobert, S. G. Bown, “Light dose fractionation to enhance photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid in the normal rat colon,” Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 71–76 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15, R41–R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90, 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Robinson, H. S. de Bruijn, N. van der Veen, M. R. Stringer, S. B. Brown, W. M. Star, “Fluorescence photobleaching of ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX during photodynamic therapy of normal hairless mouse skin: the effect of light dose and irradiance and the resulting biological effect,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 140–149 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (3)

Q. Chen, B. C. Wilson, S. D. Shetty, M. S. Patterson, J. C. Cerny, F. W. Hetzel, “Changes in in vivo optical properties and light distributions in normal canine prostate during photodynamic therapy,” Radiat. Res. 147, 86–91 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. B. Fishkin, O. Coquoz, E. R. Anderson, M. Brenner, B. J. Tromberg, “Frequency-domain photon migration measurements of normal and malignant tissue optical properties in a human subject,” Appl. Opt. 36, 10–20 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Peng, T. Warloe, K. Berg, J. Moan, M. Kongshaug, K.-E. Giercksky, J. M. Nesland, “5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: clinical research and future challenges,” Cancer 79, 2282–2308 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

S. C. Chang, G. Buonaccorsi, A. MacRobert, S. G. Bown, “Interstitial and transurethral photodynamic therapy of the canine prostate using meso-tetra-(m-hydroxyphenyl) chlorin,” Int. J. Cancer 67, 555–562 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical δ-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130, 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

K. König, H. Schneckenburger, A. Rück, R. Steiner, “In vivo photoproduct formation during PDT with ALA-induced endogenous porphyrins,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 18, 287–290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, “Endogenous protoporphyrin IX, a clinically useful photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 14, 275–292 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, D. C. Pross, “Photodynamic therapy with endogenous protoporphyrin IX: basic principles and present clinical experience,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 6, 143–148 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

J. P. A. Marijnissen, W. M. Star, “Quantitative light do-simetry in vitro and in vivo,” Lasers Med. Sci. 2, 235–242 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Aalders, M. C.

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

af Klinteberg, C.

C. af Klinteberg, M. Andreasson, O. Sandström, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, “Compact medical fluorosensor for minimally invasive tissue characterization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 034303-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Johansson, M. Soto Thompson, M. Stenberg, C. af Klinteberg, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Feasibility study of a novel system for combined light dosimetry and interstitial photodynamic treatment of massive tumors,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1462–1468 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Wang, N. Bendsoe, C. af Klinteberg, A. M. K. Enejder, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy versus cryosurgery of basal cell carcinomas; results of a phase III randomized clinical trial,” Br. J. Dermatol. 144, 832–840 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stenberg, M. Soto Thompson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, C. af Klinteberg, S. Andersson-Engels, U. Stenram, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Interstitial photodynamic therapy—diagnostic measurements and treatment in malignant experimental rat tumours,” in Optical Biopsy and Tissue Optics, I. J. Bigio, G. J. Mueller, G. J. Puppels, R. W. Steiner, K. Svanberg, eds., Proc. SPIE4161, 151–157 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E. R.

Andersson, T.

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical δ-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130, 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andersson-Engels, S.

C. af Klinteberg, M. Andreasson, O. Sandström, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, “Compact medical fluorosensor for minimally invasive tissue characterization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 034303-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Johansson, M. Soto Thompson, M. Stenberg, C. af Klinteberg, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Feasibility study of a novel system for combined light dosimetry and interstitial photodynamic treatment of massive tumors,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1462–1468 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Wang, N. Bendsoe, C. af Klinteberg, A. M. K. Enejder, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy versus cryosurgery of basal cell carcinomas; results of a phase III randomized clinical trial,” Br. J. Dermatol. 144, 832–840 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. K. Nilsson, R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engels, “Measurements of the optical properties of tissue in conjunction with photodynamic therapy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4609–4619 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical δ-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130, 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Soto Thompson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, N. Bendsoe, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, J. Spigulis, A. Derjabo, J. Kapostins are preparing a manuscript to be called “Photodynamic therapy of basal cell carcinoma with multi-fibre contact light delivery.”

S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, K. Svanberg, “System for laser treatments of tumours,” Swedish patent950 1278 (6October1996).

M. Stenberg, M. Soto Thompson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, C. af Klinteberg, S. Andersson-Engels, U. Stenram, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Interstitial photodynamic therapy—diagnostic measurements and treatment in malignant experimental rat tumours,” in Optical Biopsy and Tissue Optics, I. J. Bigio, G. J. Mueller, G. J. Puppels, R. W. Steiner, K. Svanberg, eds., Proc. SPIE4161, 151–157 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Andersson-Engels, N. Bendsoe, A. Johansson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, M. Soto Thompson, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Integrated system for interstitial photodynamic therapy,” in Therapeutic Laser Applications and Laser-Tissue Interactions, R. Steiner, ed., Proc. SPIE5142, 42–48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, K. Svanberg, “Divider for distributing radiation,” Swedish patent503 408 (14November2001).

A. Johansson, T. Johansson, M. Soto Thompson, N. Bendsoe, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels are preparing a manuscript to be called “In vivo measurement of parameters of dosimetric importance during photodynamic therapy of thick skin tumors.”

Andreasson, M.

C. af Klinteberg, M. Andreasson, O. Sandström, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, “Compact medical fluorosensor for minimally invasive tissue characterization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 034303-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Arridge, S. R.

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15, R41–R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bendsoe, N.

I. Wang, N. Bendsoe, C. af Klinteberg, A. M. K. Enejder, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy versus cryosurgery of basal cell carcinomas; results of a phase III randomized clinical trial,” Br. J. Dermatol. 144, 832–840 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Soto Thompson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, N. Bendsoe, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, J. Spigulis, A. Derjabo, J. Kapostins are preparing a manuscript to be called “Photodynamic therapy of basal cell carcinoma with multi-fibre contact light delivery.”

S. Andersson-Engels, N. Bendsoe, A. Johansson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, M. Soto Thompson, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Integrated system for interstitial photodynamic therapy,” in Therapeutic Laser Applications and Laser-Tissue Interactions, R. Steiner, ed., Proc. SPIE5142, 42–48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Johansson, T. Johansson, M. Soto Thompson, N. Bendsoe, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels are preparing a manuscript to be called “In vivo measurement of parameters of dosimetric importance during photodynamic therapy of thick skin tumors.”

Berg, K.

Q. Peng, T. Warloe, K. Berg, J. Moan, M. Kongshaug, K.-E. Giercksky, J. M. Nesland, “5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: clinical research and future challenges,” Cancer 79, 2282–2308 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berg, R.

A. M. K. Nilsson, R. Berg, S. Andersson-Engels, “Measurements of the optical properties of tissue in conjunction with photodynamic therapy,” Appl. Opt. 34, 4609–4619 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical δ-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130, 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, K. Svanberg, “System for laser treatments of tumours,” Swedish patent950 1278 (6October1996).

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I. A. Boere, D. J. Robinson, H. S. de Bruijn, J. van den Boogert, H. W. Tilanus, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, R. W. F. de Bruin, “Monitoring in situ dosimetry and protoporphyrin IX fluorescence photobleaching in the normal rat esophagus during 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 78, 271–272 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bown, S. G.

J. H. Woodhams, L. Kunz, S. G. Bown, A. J. MacRobert, “Correlation of real-time haemoglobin oxygen saturation monitoring during photodynamic therapy with microvascular effects and tissue necrosis in normal rat liver,” Br. J. Cancer 91, 788–794 (2004).

S. G. Bown, A. Z. Rogowska, D. E. Whitelaw, W. R. Lees, L. B. Lovat, P. Ripley, L. Jones, P. Wyld, A. Gillams, A. W. Hatfield, “Photodynamic therapy for cancer of the pancreas,” Gut 50, 549–557 (2002).

A. Curnow, J. C. Haller, S. G. Bown, “Oxygen monitoring during 5-aminolaevulinic acid induced photodynamic therapy in normal rat colon. Comparison of continuous and fractionated light regimes,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 58, 149–155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Curnow, B. W. McIlroy, M. J. Postle-Hacon, A. J. MacRobert, S. G. Bown, “Light dose fractionation to enhance photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid in the normal rat colon,” Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 71–76 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Chang, G. Buonaccorsi, A. MacRobert, S. G. Bown, “Interstitial and transurethral photodynamic therapy of the canine prostate using meso-tetra-(m-hydroxyphenyl) chlorin,” Int. J. Cancer 67, 555–562 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brenner, M.

Brown, S. B.

D. J. Robinson, H. S. de Bruijn, N. van der Veen, M. R. Stringer, S. B. Brown, W. M. Star, “Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence photobleaching during ALA-mediated photody-namic therapy of UVB-induced tumors in hairless mouse skin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 61–70 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Robinson, H. S. de Bruijn, N. van der Veen, M. R. Stringer, S. B. Brown, W. M. Star, “Fluorescence photobleaching of ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX during photodynamic therapy of normal hairless mouse skin: the effect of light dose and irradiance and the resulting biological effect,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 140–149 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. R. Holmes, B. J. Davis, C. J. Bruce, R. A. Robb, “3D visualization, analysis, and treatment of the prostate using trans-urethral ultrasound,” Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 27, 339–349 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. C. Chang, G. Buonaccorsi, A. MacRobert, S. G. Bown, “Interstitial and transurethral photodynamic therapy of the canine prostate using meso-tetra-(m-hydroxyphenyl) chlorin,” Int. J. Cancer 67, 555–562 (1996).
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Q. Chen, B. C. Wilson, S. D. Shetty, M. S. Patterson, J. C. Cerny, F. W. Hetzel, “Changes in in vivo optical properties and light distributions in normal canine prostate during photodynamic therapy,” Radiat. Res. 147, 86–91 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. C. Chang, G. Buonaccorsi, A. MacRobert, S. G. Bown, “Interstitial and transurethral photodynamic therapy of the canine prostate using meso-tetra-(m-hydroxyphenyl) chlorin,” Int. J. Cancer 67, 555–562 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Q. Chen, Z. Huang, H. Chen, H. Shapiro, “Improvement of tumour response by manipulation of tumour oxygenation during PDT,” Photochem. Photobiol. 76, 197–203 (2002).
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Q. Chen, Z. Huang, H. Chen, H. Shapiro, “Improvement of tumour response by manipulation of tumour oxygenation during PDT,” Photochem. Photobiol. 76, 197–203 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Chen, B. C. Wilson, S. D. Shetty, M. S. Patterson, J. C. Cerny, F. W. Hetzel, “Changes in in vivo optical properties and light distributions in normal canine prostate during photodynamic therapy,” Radiat. Res. 147, 86–91 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Cross, F. W.

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Curnow, J. C. Haller, S. G. Bown, “Oxygen monitoring during 5-aminolaevulinic acid induced photodynamic therapy in normal rat colon. Comparison of continuous and fractionated light regimes,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 58, 149–155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Curnow, B. W. McIlroy, M. J. Postle-Hacon, A. J. MacRobert, S. G. Bown, “Light dose fractionation to enhance photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid in the normal rat colon,” Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 71–76 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. R. Holmes, B. J. Davis, C. J. Bruce, R. A. Robb, “3D visualization, analysis, and treatment of the prostate using trans-urethral ultrasound,” Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 27, 339–349 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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I. A. Boere, D. J. Robinson, H. S. de Bruijn, J. van den Boogert, H. W. Tilanus, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, R. W. F. de Bruin, “Monitoring in situ dosimetry and protoporphyrin IX fluorescence photobleaching in the normal rat esophagus during 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 78, 271–272 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Robinson, H. S. de Bruijn, N. van der Veen, M. R. Stringer, S. B. Brown, W. M. Star, “Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence photobleaching during ALA-mediated photody-namic therapy of UVB-induced tumors in hairless mouse skin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 61–70 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Robinson, H. S. de Bruijn, N. van der Veen, M. R. Stringer, S. B. Brown, W. M. Star, “Fluorescence photobleaching of ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX during photodynamic therapy of normal hairless mouse skin: the effect of light dose and irradiance and the resulting biological effect,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 140–149 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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I. A. Boere, D. J. Robinson, H. S. de Bruijn, J. van den Boogert, H. W. Tilanus, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, R. W. F. de Bruin, “Monitoring in situ dosimetry and protoporphyrin IX fluorescence photobleaching in the normal rat esophagus during 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 78, 271–272 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Soto Thompson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, N. Bendsoe, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, J. Spigulis, A. Derjabo, J. Kapostins are preparing a manuscript to be called “Photodynamic therapy of basal cell carcinoma with multi-fibre contact light delivery.”

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R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90, 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. J. Vogl, K. Eichler, M. G. Mack, S. Zangos, C. Herzog, A. Thalhammer, K. Engelmann, “Interstitial photodynamic laser therapy in interventional oncology,” Eur. Radiol. 14, 1063–1073 (2004).
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I. Wang, N. Bendsoe, C. af Klinteberg, A. M. K. Enejder, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy versus cryosurgery of basal cell carcinomas; results of a phase III randomized clinical trial,” Br. J. Dermatol. 144, 832–840 (2001).
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T. J. Vogl, K. Eichler, M. G. Mack, S. Zangos, C. Herzog, A. Thalhammer, K. Engelmann, “Interstitial photodynamic laser therapy in interventional oncology,” Eur. Radiol. 14, 1063–1073 (2004).
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Q. Peng, T. Warloe, K. Berg, J. Moan, M. Kongshaug, K.-E. Giercksky, J. M. Nesland, “5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: clinical research and future challenges,” Cancer 79, 2282–2308 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gillams, A.

S. G. Bown, A. Z. Rogowska, D. E. Whitelaw, W. R. Lees, L. B. Lovat, P. Ripley, L. Jones, P. Wyld, A. Gillams, A. W. Hatfield, “Photodynamic therapy for cancer of the pancreas,” Gut 50, 549–557 (2002).

Gomer, C. J.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90, 889–905 (1998).
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U. Gustafsson, S. Pålsson, S. Svanberg, “Compact fibre-optic fluorosensor using a continuous wave violet diode laser and an integrated spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3004–3006 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haller, J. C.

A. Curnow, J. C. Haller, S. G. Bown, “Oxygen monitoring during 5-aminolaevulinic acid induced photodynamic therapy in normal rat colon. Comparison of continuous and fractionated light regimes,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 58, 149–155 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hatfield, A. W.

S. G. Bown, A. Z. Rogowska, D. E. Whitelaw, W. R. Lees, L. B. Lovat, P. Ripley, L. Jones, P. Wyld, A. Gillams, A. W. Hatfield, “Photodynamic therapy for cancer of the pancreas,” Gut 50, 549–557 (2002).

Henderson, B. W.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90, 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. J. Vogl, K. Eichler, M. G. Mack, S. Zangos, C. Herzog, A. Thalhammer, K. Engelmann, “Interstitial photodynamic laser therapy in interventional oncology,” Eur. Radiol. 14, 1063–1073 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hetzel, F. W.

Q. Chen, B. C. Wilson, S. D. Shetty, M. S. Patterson, J. C. Cerny, F. W. Hetzel, “Changes in in vivo optical properties and light distributions in normal canine prostate during photodynamic therapy,” Radiat. Res. 147, 86–91 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. R. Holmes, B. J. Davis, C. J. Bruce, R. A. Robb, “3D visualization, analysis, and treatment of the prostate using trans-urethral ultrasound,” Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 27, 339–349 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Q. Chen, Z. Huang, H. Chen, H. Shapiro, “Improvement of tumour response by manipulation of tumour oxygenation during PDT,” Photochem. Photobiol. 76, 197–203 (2002).
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A. Johansson, T. Johansson, M. Soto Thompson, N. Bendsoe, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels are preparing a manuscript to be called “In vivo measurement of parameters of dosimetric importance during photodynamic therapy of thick skin tumors.”

S. Andersson-Engels, N. Bendsoe, A. Johansson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, M. Soto Thompson, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Integrated system for interstitial photodynamic therapy,” in Therapeutic Laser Applications and Laser-Tissue Interactions, R. Steiner, ed., Proc. SPIE5142, 42–48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical δ-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130, 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, K. Svanberg, “System for laser treatments of tumours,” Swedish patent950 1278 (6October1996).

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T. Johansson, M. Soto Thompson, M. Stenberg, C. af Klinteberg, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Feasibility study of a novel system for combined light dosimetry and interstitial photodynamic treatment of massive tumors,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1462–1468 (2002).
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S. Andersson-Engels, N. Bendsoe, A. Johansson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, M. Soto Thompson, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Integrated system for interstitial photodynamic therapy,” in Therapeutic Laser Applications and Laser-Tissue Interactions, R. Steiner, ed., Proc. SPIE5142, 42–48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Johansson, T. Johansson, M. Soto Thompson, N. Bendsoe, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels are preparing a manuscript to be called “In vivo measurement of parameters of dosimetric importance during photodynamic therapy of thick skin tumors.”

M. Stenberg, M. Soto Thompson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, C. af Klinteberg, S. Andersson-Engels, U. Stenram, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Interstitial photodynamic therapy—diagnostic measurements and treatment in malignant experimental rat tumours,” in Optical Biopsy and Tissue Optics, I. J. Bigio, G. J. Mueller, G. J. Puppels, R. W. Steiner, K. Svanberg, eds., Proc. SPIE4161, 151–157 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Soto Thompson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, N. Bendsoe, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, J. Spigulis, A. Derjabo, J. Kapostins are preparing a manuscript to be called “Photodynamic therapy of basal cell carcinoma with multi-fibre contact light delivery.”

Jones, L.

S. G. Bown, A. Z. Rogowska, D. E. Whitelaw, W. R. Lees, L. B. Lovat, P. Ripley, L. Jones, P. Wyld, A. Gillams, A. W. Hatfield, “Photodynamic therapy for cancer of the pancreas,” Gut 50, 549–557 (2002).

Jori, G.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90, 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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M. Soto Thompson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, N. Bendsoe, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, J. Spigulis, A. Derjabo, J. Kapostins are preparing a manuscript to be called “Photodynamic therapy of basal cell carcinoma with multi-fibre contact light delivery.”

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T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90, 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Killander, D.

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical δ-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130, 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kongshaug, M.

Q. Peng, T. Warloe, K. Berg, J. Moan, M. Kongshaug, K.-E. Giercksky, J. M. Nesland, “5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: clinical research and future challenges,” Cancer 79, 2282–2308 (1997).
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T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90, 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. H. Woodhams, L. Kunz, S. G. Bown, A. J. MacRobert, “Correlation of real-time haemoglobin oxygen saturation monitoring during photodynamic therapy with microvascular effects and tissue necrosis in normal rat liver,” Br. J. Cancer 91, 788–794 (2004).

Lang, R.

R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967–981 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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L. K. Lee, C. Whitehurst, M. L. Pantelides, J. V. Moore, “An interstitial light assembly for photodynamic therapy in prostatic carcinoma,” Br. J. Urol. Int. 84, 821–826 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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S. G. Bown, A. Z. Rogowska, D. E. Whitelaw, W. R. Lees, L. B. Lovat, P. Ripley, L. Jones, P. Wyld, A. Gillams, A. W. Hatfield, “Photodynamic therapy for cancer of the pancreas,” Gut 50, 549–557 (2002).

Lovat, L. B.

S. G. Bown, A. Z. Rogowska, D. E. Whitelaw, W. R. Lees, L. B. Lovat, P. Ripley, L. Jones, P. Wyld, A. Gillams, A. W. Hatfield, “Photodynamic therapy for cancer of the pancreas,” Gut 50, 549–557 (2002).

Mack, M. G.

T. J. Vogl, K. Eichler, M. G. Mack, S. Zangos, C. Herzog, A. Thalhammer, K. Engelmann, “Interstitial photodynamic laser therapy in interventional oncology,” Eur. Radiol. 14, 1063–1073 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacRobert, A.

S. C. Chang, G. Buonaccorsi, A. MacRobert, S. G. Bown, “Interstitial and transurethral photodynamic therapy of the canine prostate using meso-tetra-(m-hydroxyphenyl) chlorin,” Int. J. Cancer 67, 555–562 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacRobert, A. J.

J. H. Woodhams, L. Kunz, S. G. Bown, A. J. MacRobert, “Correlation of real-time haemoglobin oxygen saturation monitoring during photodynamic therapy with microvascular effects and tissue necrosis in normal rat liver,” Br. J. Cancer 91, 788–794 (2004).

A. Curnow, B. W. McIlroy, M. J. Postle-Hacon, A. J. MacRobert, S. G. Bown, “Light dose fractionation to enhance photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid in the normal rat colon,” Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 71–76 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Curnow, B. W. McIlroy, M. J. Postle-Hacon, A. J. MacRobert, S. G. Bown, “Light dose fractionation to enhance photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid in the normal rat colon,” Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 71–76 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moan, J.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90, 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Peng, T. Warloe, K. Berg, J. Moan, M. Kongshaug, K.-E. Giercksky, J. M. Nesland, “5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: clinical research and future challenges,” Cancer 79, 2282–2308 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moore, J. V.

L. K. Lee, C. Whitehurst, M. L. Pantelides, J. V. Moore, “An interstitial light assembly for photodynamic therapy in prostatic carcinoma,” Br. J. Urol. Int. 84, 821–826 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nesland, J. M.

Q. Peng, T. Warloe, K. Berg, J. Moan, M. Kongshaug, K.-E. Giercksky, J. M. Nesland, “5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: clinical research and future challenges,” Cancer 79, 2282–2308 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Pålsson, S.

U. Gustafsson, S. Pålsson, S. Svanberg, “Compact fibre-optic fluorosensor using a continuous wave violet diode laser and an integrated spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3004–3006 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Soto Thompson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, N. Bendsoe, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, J. Spigulis, A. Derjabo, J. Kapostins are preparing a manuscript to be called “Photodynamic therapy of basal cell carcinoma with multi-fibre contact light delivery.”

M. Stenberg, M. Soto Thompson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, C. af Klinteberg, S. Andersson-Engels, U. Stenram, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Interstitial photodynamic therapy—diagnostic measurements and treatment in malignant experimental rat tumours,” in Optical Biopsy and Tissue Optics, I. J. Bigio, G. J. Mueller, G. J. Puppels, R. W. Steiner, K. Svanberg, eds., Proc. SPIE4161, 151–157 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Andersson-Engels, N. Bendsoe, A. Johansson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, M. Soto Thompson, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Integrated system for interstitial photodynamic therapy,” in Therapeutic Laser Applications and Laser-Tissue Interactions, R. Steiner, ed., Proc. SPIE5142, 42–48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Pantelides, M. L.

L. K. Lee, C. Whitehurst, M. L. Pantelides, J. V. Moore, “An interstitial light assembly for photodynamic therapy in prostatic carcinoma,” Br. J. Urol. Int. 84, 821–826 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Patterson, M. S.

Q. Chen, B. C. Wilson, S. D. Shetty, M. S. Patterson, J. C. Cerny, F. W. Hetzel, “Changes in in vivo optical properties and light distributions in normal canine prostate during photodynamic therapy,” Radiat. Res. 147, 86–91 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, Q.

T. J. Dougherty, C. J. Gomer, B. W. Henderson, G. Jori, D. Kessel, M. Korbelik, J. Moan, Q. Peng, “Photodynamic therapy,” J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90, 889–905 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Peng, T. Warloe, K. Berg, J. Moan, M. Kongshaug, K.-E. Giercksky, J. M. Nesland, “5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: clinical research and future challenges,” Cancer 79, 2282–2308 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Postle-Hacon, M. J.

A. Curnow, B. W. McIlroy, M. J. Postle-Hacon, A. J. MacRobert, S. G. Bown, “Light dose fractionation to enhance photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid in the normal rat colon,” Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 71–76 (1999).
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J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, “Endogenous protoporphyrin IX, a clinically useful photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 14, 275–292 (1992).
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J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, D. C. Pross, “Photodynamic therapy with endogenous protoporphyrin IX: basic principles and present clinical experience,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 6, 143–148 (1990).
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S. A. Prahl, “Tabulated molar extinction coefficient for hemoglobin in water,” Oregon Medical Laser Center (1998), omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/hemoglobin/summary.html .

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J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, D. C. Pross, “Photodynamic therapy with endogenous protoporphyrin IX: basic principles and present clinical experience,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 6, 143–148 (1990).
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S. G. Bown, A. Z. Rogowska, D. E. Whitelaw, W. R. Lees, L. B. Lovat, P. Ripley, L. Jones, P. Wyld, A. Gillams, A. W. Hatfield, “Photodynamic therapy for cancer of the pancreas,” Gut 50, 549–557 (2002).

Robb, R. A.

D. R. Holmes, B. J. Davis, C. J. Bruce, R. A. Robb, “3D visualization, analysis, and treatment of the prostate using trans-urethral ultrasound,” Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 27, 339–349 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, D. J.

I. A. Boere, D. J. Robinson, H. S. de Bruijn, J. van den Boogert, H. W. Tilanus, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, R. W. F. de Bruin, “Monitoring in situ dosimetry and protoporphyrin IX fluorescence photobleaching in the normal rat esophagus during 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 78, 271–272 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Robinson, H. S. de Bruijn, N. van der Veen, M. R. Stringer, S. B. Brown, W. M. Star, “Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence photobleaching during ALA-mediated photody-namic therapy of UVB-induced tumors in hairless mouse skin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 61–70 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Robinson, H. S. de Bruijn, N. van der Veen, M. R. Stringer, S. B. Brown, W. M. Star, “Fluorescence photobleaching of ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX during photodynamic therapy of normal hairless mouse skin: the effect of light dose and irradiance and the resulting biological effect,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 140–149 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. G. Bown, A. Z. Rogowska, D. E. Whitelaw, W. R. Lees, L. B. Lovat, P. Ripley, L. Jones, P. Wyld, A. Gillams, A. W. Hatfield, “Photodynamic therapy for cancer of the pancreas,” Gut 50, 549–557 (2002).

Rück, A.

K. König, H. Schneckenburger, A. Rück, R. Steiner, “In vivo photoproduct formation during PDT with ALA-induced endogenous porphyrins,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 18, 287–290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salva, K. A.

K. A. Salva, “Photodynamic therapy: unapproved uses, dosages, or indications,” Clin. Dermatol. 20, 571–581 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandström, O.

C. af Klinteberg, M. Andreasson, O. Sandström, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, “Compact medical fluorosensor for minimally invasive tissue characterization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 034303-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schneckenburger, H.

K. König, H. Schneckenburger, A. Rück, R. Steiner, “In vivo photoproduct formation during PDT with ALA-induced endogenous porphyrins,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 18, 287–290 (1993).
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Q. Chen, Z. Huang, H. Chen, H. Shapiro, “Improvement of tumour response by manipulation of tumour oxygenation during PDT,” Photochem. Photobiol. 76, 197–203 (2002).
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Shetty, S. D.

Q. Chen, B. C. Wilson, S. D. Shetty, M. S. Patterson, J. C. Cerny, F. W. Hetzel, “Changes in in vivo optical properties and light distributions in normal canine prostate during photodynamic therapy,” Radiat. Res. 147, 86–91 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soto Thompson, M.

T. Johansson, M. Soto Thompson, M. Stenberg, C. af Klinteberg, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Feasibility study of a novel system for combined light dosimetry and interstitial photodynamic treatment of massive tumors,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1462–1468 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Andersson-Engels, N. Bendsoe, A. Johansson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, M. Soto Thompson, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Integrated system for interstitial photodynamic therapy,” in Therapeutic Laser Applications and Laser-Tissue Interactions, R. Steiner, ed., Proc. SPIE5142, 42–48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. Johansson, T. Johansson, M. Soto Thompson, N. Bendsoe, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels are preparing a manuscript to be called “In vivo measurement of parameters of dosimetric importance during photodynamic therapy of thick skin tumors.”

M. Stenberg, M. Soto Thompson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, C. af Klinteberg, S. Andersson-Engels, U. Stenram, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Interstitial photodynamic therapy—diagnostic measurements and treatment in malignant experimental rat tumours,” in Optical Biopsy and Tissue Optics, I. J. Bigio, G. J. Mueller, G. J. Puppels, R. W. Steiner, K. Svanberg, eds., Proc. SPIE4161, 151–157 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Soto Thompson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, N. Bendsoe, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, J. Spigulis, A. Derjabo, J. Kapostins are preparing a manuscript to be called “Photodynamic therapy of basal cell carcinoma with multi-fibre contact light delivery.”

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M. Soto Thompson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, N. Bendsoe, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, J. Spigulis, A. Derjabo, J. Kapostins are preparing a manuscript to be called “Photodynamic therapy of basal cell carcinoma with multi-fibre contact light delivery.”

Star, W. M.

D. J. Robinson, H. S. de Bruijn, N. van der Veen, M. R. Stringer, S. B. Brown, W. M. Star, “Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence photobleaching during ALA-mediated photody-namic therapy of UVB-induced tumors in hairless mouse skin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 61–70 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Robinson, H. S. de Bruijn, N. van der Veen, M. R. Stringer, S. B. Brown, W. M. Star, “Fluorescence photobleaching of ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX during photodynamic therapy of normal hairless mouse skin: the effect of light dose and irradiance and the resulting biological effect,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 140–149 (1998).
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Steiner, R.

K. König, H. Schneckenburger, A. Rück, R. Steiner, “In vivo photoproduct formation during PDT with ALA-induced endogenous porphyrins,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 18, 287–290 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stenberg, M.

T. Johansson, M. Soto Thompson, M. Stenberg, C. af Klinteberg, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Feasibility study of a novel system for combined light dosimetry and interstitial photodynamic treatment of massive tumors,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1462–1468 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Stenberg, M. Soto Thompson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, C. af Klinteberg, S. Andersson-Engels, U. Stenram, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Interstitial photodynamic therapy—diagnostic measurements and treatment in malignant experimental rat tumours,” in Optical Biopsy and Tissue Optics, I. J. Bigio, G. J. Mueller, G. J. Puppels, R. W. Steiner, K. Svanberg, eds., Proc. SPIE4161, 151–157 (2000).
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Stenram, U.

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical δ-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130, 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Soto Thompson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, N. Bendsoe, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, J. Spigulis, A. Derjabo, J. Kapostins are preparing a manuscript to be called “Photodynamic therapy of basal cell carcinoma with multi-fibre contact light delivery.”

M. Stenberg, M. Soto Thompson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, C. af Klinteberg, S. Andersson-Engels, U. Stenram, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Interstitial photodynamic therapy—diagnostic measurements and treatment in malignant experimental rat tumours,” in Optical Biopsy and Tissue Optics, I. J. Bigio, G. J. Mueller, G. J. Puppels, R. W. Steiner, K. Svanberg, eds., Proc. SPIE4161, 151–157 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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I. A. Boere, D. J. Robinson, H. S. de Bruijn, J. van den Boogert, H. W. Tilanus, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, R. W. F. de Bruin, “Monitoring in situ dosimetry and protoporphyrin IX fluorescence photobleaching in the normal rat esophagus during 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 78, 271–272 (2003).
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R. M. P. Doornbos, R. Lang, M. C. Aalders, F. W. Cross, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, “The determination of in vivo human tissue optical properties and absolute chromophore concentrations using spatially resolved steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 967–981 (1999).
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D. J. Robinson, H. S. de Bruijn, N. van der Veen, M. R. Stringer, S. B. Brown, W. M. Star, “Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence photobleaching during ALA-mediated photody-namic therapy of UVB-induced tumors in hairless mouse skin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 61–70 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Robinson, H. S. de Bruijn, N. van der Veen, M. R. Stringer, S. B. Brown, W. M. Star, “Fluorescence photobleaching of ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX during photodynamic therapy of normal hairless mouse skin: the effect of light dose and irradiance and the resulting biological effect,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 140–149 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Svanberg, K.

T. Johansson, M. Soto Thompson, M. Stenberg, C. af Klinteberg, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Feasibility study of a novel system for combined light dosimetry and interstitial photodynamic treatment of massive tumors,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1462–1468 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Wang, N. Bendsoe, C. af Klinteberg, A. M. K. Enejder, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy versus cryosurgery of basal cell carcinomas; results of a phase III randomized clinical trial,” Br. J. Dermatol. 144, 832–840 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical δ-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130, 743–751 (1994).
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M. Soto Thompson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, N. Bendsoe, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, J. Spigulis, A. Derjabo, J. Kapostins are preparing a manuscript to be called “Photodynamic therapy of basal cell carcinoma with multi-fibre contact light delivery.”

M. Stenberg, M. Soto Thompson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, C. af Klinteberg, S. Andersson-Engels, U. Stenram, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Interstitial photodynamic therapy—diagnostic measurements and treatment in malignant experimental rat tumours,” in Optical Biopsy and Tissue Optics, I. J. Bigio, G. J. Mueller, G. J. Puppels, R. W. Steiner, K. Svanberg, eds., Proc. SPIE4161, 151–157 (2000).
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[CrossRef]

A. Johansson, T. Johansson, M. Soto Thompson, N. Bendsoe, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels are preparing a manuscript to be called “In vivo measurement of parameters of dosimetric importance during photodynamic therapy of thick skin tumors.”

S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, K. Svanberg, “Divider for distributing radiation,” Swedish patent503 408 (14November2001).

Svanberg, S.

C. af Klinteberg, M. Andreasson, O. Sandström, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, “Compact medical fluorosensor for minimally invasive tissue characterization,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 76, 034303-1 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Johansson, M. Soto Thompson, M. Stenberg, C. af Klinteberg, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Feasibility study of a novel system for combined light dosimetry and interstitial photodynamic treatment of massive tumors,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1462–1468 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Wang, N. Bendsoe, C. af Klinteberg, A. M. K. Enejder, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy versus cryosurgery of basal cell carcinomas; results of a phase III randomized clinical trial,” Br. J. Dermatol. 144, 832–840 (2001).
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U. Gustafsson, S. Pålsson, S. Svanberg, “Compact fibre-optic fluorosensor using a continuous wave violet diode laser and an integrated spectrometer,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3004–3006 (2000).
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K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical δ-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130, 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Soto Thompson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, N. Bendsoe, U. Stenram, K. Svanberg, J. Spigulis, A. Derjabo, J. Kapostins are preparing a manuscript to be called “Photodynamic therapy of basal cell carcinoma with multi-fibre contact light delivery.”

S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, K. Svanberg, “System for laser treatments of tumours,” Swedish patent950 1278 (6October1996).

M. Stenberg, M. Soto Thompson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, C. af Klinteberg, S. Andersson-Engels, U. Stenram, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Interstitial photodynamic therapy—diagnostic measurements and treatment in malignant experimental rat tumours,” in Optical Biopsy and Tissue Optics, I. J. Bigio, G. J. Mueller, G. J. Puppels, R. W. Steiner, K. Svanberg, eds., Proc. SPIE4161, 151–157 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Andersson-Engels, N. Bendsoe, A. Johansson, T. Johansson, S. Pålsson, M. Soto Thompson, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, “Integrated system for interstitial photodynamic therapy,” in Therapeutic Laser Applications and Laser-Tissue Interactions, R. Steiner, ed., Proc. SPIE5142, 42–48 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels, K. Svanberg, “Divider for distributing radiation,” Swedish patent503 408 (14November2001).

A. Johansson, T. Johansson, M. Soto Thompson, N. Bendsoe, K. Svanberg, S. Svanberg, S. Andersson-Engels are preparing a manuscript to be called “In vivo measurement of parameters of dosimetric importance during photodynamic therapy of thick skin tumors.”

Thalhammer, A.

T. J. Vogl, K. Eichler, M. G. Mack, S. Zangos, C. Herzog, A. Thalhammer, K. Engelmann, “Interstitial photodynamic laser therapy in interventional oncology,” Eur. Radiol. 14, 1063–1073 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tilanus, H. W.

I. A. Boere, D. J. Robinson, H. S. de Bruijn, J. van den Boogert, H. W. Tilanus, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, R. W. F. de Bruin, “Monitoring in situ dosimetry and protoporphyrin IX fluorescence photobleaching in the normal rat esophagus during 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 78, 271–272 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tromberg, B. J.

van den Boogert, J.

I. A. Boere, D. J. Robinson, H. S. de Bruijn, J. van den Boogert, H. W. Tilanus, H. J. C. M. Sterenborg, R. W. F. de Bruin, “Monitoring in situ dosimetry and protoporphyrin IX fluorescence photobleaching in the normal rat esophagus during 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy,” Photochem. Photobiol. 78, 271–272 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van der Veen, N.

D. J. Robinson, H. S. de Bruijn, N. van der Veen, M. R. Stringer, S. B. Brown, W. M. Star, “Protoporphyrin IX fluorescence photobleaching during ALA-mediated photody-namic therapy of UVB-induced tumors in hairless mouse skin,” Photochem. Photobiol. 69, 61–70 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Robinson, H. S. de Bruijn, N. van der Veen, M. R. Stringer, S. B. Brown, W. M. Star, “Fluorescence photobleaching of ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX during photodynamic therapy of normal hairless mouse skin: the effect of light dose and irradiance and the resulting biological effect,” Photochem. Photobiol. 67, 140–149 (1998).
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van Gemert, M. J. C.

A. J. Welch, M. J. C. van Gemert, Optical-Thermal Response of Laser-Irradiated Tissue (Plenum, 1995).
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Vogl, T. J.

T. J. Vogl, K. Eichler, M. G. Mack, S. Zangos, C. Herzog, A. Thalhammer, K. Engelmann, “Interstitial photodynamic laser therapy in interventional oncology,” Eur. Radiol. 14, 1063–1073 (2004).
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Wang, I.

I. Wang, N. Bendsoe, C. af Klinteberg, A. M. K. Enejder, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy versus cryosurgery of basal cell carcinomas; results of a phase III randomized clinical trial,” Br. J. Dermatol. 144, 832–840 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical δ-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130, 743–751 (1994).
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Warloe, T.

Q. Peng, T. Warloe, K. Berg, J. Moan, M. Kongshaug, K.-E. Giercksky, J. M. Nesland, “5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: clinical research and future challenges,” Cancer 79, 2282–2308 (1997).
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Whitehurst, C.

L. K. Lee, C. Whitehurst, M. L. Pantelides, J. V. Moore, “An interstitial light assembly for photodynamic therapy in prostatic carcinoma,” Br. J. Urol. Int. 84, 821–826 (1999).
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Whitelaw, D. E.

S. G. Bown, A. Z. Rogowska, D. E. Whitelaw, W. R. Lees, L. B. Lovat, P. Ripley, L. Jones, P. Wyld, A. Gillams, A. W. Hatfield, “Photodynamic therapy for cancer of the pancreas,” Gut 50, 549–557 (2002).

Wilson, B. C.

Q. Chen, B. C. Wilson, S. D. Shetty, M. S. Patterson, J. C. Cerny, F. W. Hetzel, “Changes in in vivo optical properties and light distributions in normal canine prostate during photodynamic therapy,” Radiat. Res. 147, 86–91 (1997).
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J. H. Woodhams, L. Kunz, S. G. Bown, A. J. MacRobert, “Correlation of real-time haemoglobin oxygen saturation monitoring during photodynamic therapy with microvascular effects and tissue necrosis in normal rat liver,” Br. J. Cancer 91, 788–794 (2004).

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S. G. Bown, A. Z. Rogowska, D. E. Whitelaw, W. R. Lees, L. B. Lovat, P. Ripley, L. Jones, P. Wyld, A. Gillams, A. W. Hatfield, “Photodynamic therapy for cancer of the pancreas,” Gut 50, 549–557 (2002).

Zangos, S.

T. J. Vogl, K. Eichler, M. G. Mack, S. Zangos, C. Herzog, A. Thalhammer, K. Engelmann, “Interstitial photodynamic laser therapy in interventional oncology,” Eur. Radiol. 14, 1063–1073 (2004).
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Appl. Opt. (3)

Br. J. Cancer (1)

J. H. Woodhams, L. Kunz, S. G. Bown, A. J. MacRobert, “Correlation of real-time haemoglobin oxygen saturation monitoring during photodynamic therapy with microvascular effects and tissue necrosis in normal rat liver,” Br. J. Cancer 91, 788–794 (2004).

Br. J. Dermatol. (2)

K. Svanberg, T. Andersson, D. Killander, I. Wang, U. Stenram, S. Andersson-Engels, R. Berg, J. Johansson, S. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy of non-melanoma malignant tumours of the skin using topical δ-amino levulinic acid sensitization and laser irradiation,” Br. J. Dermatol. 130, 743–751 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Wang, N. Bendsoe, C. af Klinteberg, A. M. K. Enejder, S. Andersson-Engels, S. Svanberg, K. Svanberg, “Photodynamic therapy versus cryosurgery of basal cell carcinomas; results of a phase III randomized clinical trial,” Br. J. Dermatol. 144, 832–840 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Br. J. Urol. Int. (1)

L. K. Lee, C. Whitehurst, M. L. Pantelides, J. V. Moore, “An interstitial light assembly for photodynamic therapy in prostatic carcinoma,” Br. J. Urol. Int. 84, 821–826 (1999).
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Cancer (1)

Q. Peng, T. Warloe, K. Berg, J. Moan, M. Kongshaug, K.-E. Giercksky, J. M. Nesland, “5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy: clinical research and future challenges,” Cancer 79, 2282–2308 (1997).
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Clin. Dermatol. (1)

K. A. Salva, “Photodynamic therapy: unapproved uses, dosages, or indications,” Clin. Dermatol. 20, 571–581 (2002).
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Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. (1)

D. R. Holmes, B. J. Davis, C. J. Bruce, R. A. Robb, “3D visualization, analysis, and treatment of the prostate using trans-urethral ultrasound,” Comput. Med. Imaging Graph. 27, 339–349 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eur. Radiol. (1)

T. J. Vogl, K. Eichler, M. G. Mack, S. Zangos, C. Herzog, A. Thalhammer, K. Engelmann, “Interstitial photodynamic laser therapy in interventional oncology,” Eur. Radiol. 14, 1063–1073 (2004).
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Gut (1)

S. G. Bown, A. Z. Rogowska, D. E. Whitelaw, W. R. Lees, L. B. Lovat, P. Ripley, L. Jones, P. Wyld, A. Gillams, A. W. Hatfield, “Photodynamic therapy for cancer of the pancreas,” Gut 50, 549–557 (2002).

Int. J. Cancer (1)

S. C. Chang, G. Buonaccorsi, A. MacRobert, S. G. Bown, “Interstitial and transurethral photodynamic therapy of the canine prostate using meso-tetra-(m-hydroxyphenyl) chlorin,” Int. J. Cancer 67, 555–562 (1996).
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J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1)

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J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. (4)

J. C. Kennedy, R. H. Pottier, D. C. Pross, “Photodynamic therapy with endogenous protoporphyrin IX: basic principles and present clinical experience,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B. 6, 143–148 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of an interactive system for IPDT.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

System as seen in a clinical treatment situation and system overview during calibration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Interactive IPDT system shown in the treatment mode. The disks in the light distribution module are placed in close proximity (here drawn apart) to each other on a common axis (not shown). The therapeutic light is coupled through the disks into the patient fibers. The components used in the measurement mode were omitted for clarity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Interactive IPDT system shown in the measurement mode, assessed by rotating the turnable light distributor disk 30 deg with respect to the disk position for treatment. Nonactive measurement light sources are shown in gray. The active light source is coupled into one patient fiber while the other five patient fibers collect the tissue response back into the spectrometer. By rotating the turnable disk in steps of 60 deg, all patient fibers can be made to act as transmitters for the individual light sources. The therapeutic components were omitted for clarity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Fluence rate at 635 nm as measured during the treatment. The time interval between measurement sequences was 30 s for the first 90 s of treatment; thereafter measurements were performed every minute up to an effective treatment time of 720 s. The end of the therapeutic irradiation is indicated by the dashed line.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Average of the normalized sensitizer fluorescence signal (±SD) at 705 nm during treatment. The therapeutic irradiation was turned off after 400 s, indicated by the dashed line.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Tissue oxygenation (±SD) as a function of the treatment time as measured during one treatment. The therapeutic irradiation was turned off after 400 s, indicated by the vertical dashed line. The horizontal dashed line indicates the 50% tissue oxygen saturation level.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optical Parameters of Normal Tissue and Tumor Used

Equations (7)

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2 ϕ ( r ) = μ eff 2 ϕ ( r ) = i S ( r i ) ,
S O 2 = [ HbO 2 ] [ Hb ] + [ HbO 2 ] ,
μ a 760 ɛ Hb 760 [ Hb ] + ɛ HbO 2 760 [ HbO 2 ] , μ a 800 ɛ Hb 800 [ Hb ] + ɛ HbO 2 800 [ HbO 2 ] ,
S O 2 = 1 ɛ Hb 760 ɛ HbO 2 760 ( ɛ Hb 760 ɛ 800 μ a 760 μ a 800 ) ,
ϕ ( r ) = P μ eff 2 4 π μ a r exp ( μ eff r ) ,
( μ eff 760 μ eff 800 ) 2 = μ a 760 ( μ a 760 + μ s 760 ) μ a 800 ( μ a 800 + μ s 800 ) μ s 760 μ s 800 μ a 760 μ a 800 ,
μ s λ 1.11 .

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