Abstract

Most research in optical imaging incorrectly assumes that light transport in nonscattering regions in the head may be modeled by use of the diffusion approximation. The effect of this assumption is examined in a series of experiments on tissue-equivalent phantoms. Images from cylindrical and head-shaped phantoms with and without clear regions [simulating the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) filled ventricles] and a clear layer (simulating the CSF layer surrounding the brain) are reconstructed with linear and nonlinear reconstruction techniques. The results suggest that absorbing and scattering perturbations can be identified reliably with nonlinear reconstruction methods when the clear regions are also present in the reference data but that the quality of the image degrades considerably if the reference data does not contain these features. Linear reconstruction performs similarly to nonlinear reconstruction, provided the clear regions are present in the reference data, but otherwise linear reconstruction fails. This study supports the use of linear reconstruction for dynamic imaging but suggests that, in all cases, image quality is likely to improve if the clear regions are modeled correctly.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2004 (1)

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (11)

J. C. Hebden, “Advances in optical imaging of the newborn infant brain,” Psychophysiology 40, 501–510 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marti-Lopez, J. Bouza-Dominguez, J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, R. A. Martinez-Celirio, “Validity Conditions for the radiative transfer equation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 20, 2046–2056 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, C. Stroszczynski, R. Macdonald, P. M. Schlag, H. Rinneberg, “Time-domain optical mammography: initial clinical results on detection and characterization of breast tumors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3170–3186 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, “Multiwavelength three-dimensional near-infrared tomography of the breast: initial simulation, phantom and clinical results,” Appl. Opt. 42, 135–145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Li, E. L. Miller, M. Kilmer, T. J. Brukilacchio, T. Chaves, J. J. Stott, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, D. A. Boas, “Tomographic optical breast imaging guided by three-dimensional mammography,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5181–5190 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, H. Dehghani, J. Riley, N. Everdell, R. Richards, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Optical tomography of a realistic neonatal head phantom,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3109–3116 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, F. M. Gonzalez, A. P. Gibson, E. M. Hillman, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, “Assessment of an in situ temporal calibration method for time-resolved optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 87–92 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, J. Riley, M. Schweiger, J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “A method for generating patient-specific finite element meshes for head modelling,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 481–495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, D. T. Delpy, “Near-infrared light propagation in an adult head model. I. Modeling of low-level scattering in the cerebrospinal fluid layer,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2906–2914 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hayashi, Y. Kashio, E. Okada, “Hybrid Monte Carlo-diffusion method for light propagation in tissue with a low-scattering region,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2888–2896 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Seehusen, M. M. Reeves, D. A. Fomin, “Cerebrospinal fluid analysis,” Am. Fam. Physician 68, 1103–1108 (2003).
[PubMed]

2002 (5)

D. A. Boas, J. P. Culver, J. J. Stott, A. K. Dunn, “Three dimensional Monte Carlo code for photon migration through complex heterogeneous media including the adult human head,” Opt. Express 10, 159–169 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, “Linear single-step image reconstruction in the presence of nonscattering regions,” J. Opt Soc. Am. A 19, 1162–1171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

G. Strangman, J. P. Culver, J. H. Thompson, D. A. Boas, “A quantitative comparison of simultaneous BOLD fMRI and NIRS recordings during functional brain activation,” Neuroimage 17, 719–731 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Schmitz, M. Locker, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation for fast functional optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 429–439 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, T. Austin, J. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155–4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (4)

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. DiMarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, Q. Zhang, “Imaging the body with diffuse optical tomography,” IEEE Signal Processing Mag. 18, 57–75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Bluestone, G. Abdouleav, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Barbour, A. H. Hielscher, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamics in the human head,” Opt. Express 9, 272–286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, “Normalized-constraint algorithm for minimizing inter-parameter crosstalk in DC optical tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 97–109 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Ripoll, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, S. R. Arridge, “Effect of roughness in nondiffusive regions within biological media,” J. Opt Soc. Am. A 18, 940–947 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (8)

J. Riley, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. Ripoll, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “3D optical tomography in the presence of void regions,” Opt. Express 7, 462–467 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “Optical tomography in the presence of void regions,” J. Opt Soc. Am. A 17, 1659–1670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. E. W. Schmidt, J. C. Hebden, E. M. C. Hillman, M. E. Fry, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Multiple-slice imaging of a tissue-equivalent phantom by use of time-resolved optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3380–3387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, “A method for 3D time-resolved optical tomography,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11, 2–11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. Taga, Y. Konishi, A. Maki, T. Tachibana, M. Fujiwara, H. Koizumi, “Spontaneous oscillation of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin changes with a phase difference throughout the occipital cortex of newborn infants observed using noninvasive optical topography,” Neurosci. Lett. 282, 101–104 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Franceschini, V. Toronov, M. E. Filiaci, E. Gratton, S. Fantini, “On-line optical imaging of the human brain with 160 ms temporal resolution,” Opt. Express 6, 49–57 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. A. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W.-F. Cheong, D. K. Stevenson, “Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20, 469–477 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. B. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, “Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 237–247 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (4)

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15, R41–R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Hintz, W. F. Cheong, J. P. van Houten, D. K. Stevenson, D. A. Benaron, “Bedside imaging of intracranial hemorrhage in the neonate using light: comparison with ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging,” Pediatr. Res. 45, 54–59 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2897–2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. D. Klose, A. H. Hielscher, “Iterative reconstruction scheme for optical tomography based on the equation of radiative transfer,” Med. Phys. 28, 1698–1707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

O. Dorn, “A transport-backtransport method for optical tomography,” Inverse Probl. 14, 1107–1130 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, R. L. Barbour, “Comparison of finite difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 1285–1302 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, E. Anday, S. Nioka, S. Zhou, L. Hong, K. Worden, C. Li, T. Murray, Y. Ovetsky, D. Pidikiti, R. Thomas, “A novel method for fast imaging of brain function, noninvasively, with light,” Opt. Express 2, 411–423 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Meek, M. Firbank, C. E. Elwell, J. Atkinson, O. Braddick, J. S. Wyatt, “Regional haemodynamic responses to visual stimulation in awake infants.,” Pediatr. Res. 42, 840–843 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Optical imaging in medicine: I. Experimental techniques,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825–840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head,” Appl. Opt. 36, 21–31 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Schöberl, “NETGEN - An advancing front 2D/3D-mesh generator based on abstract rules,” Comput. Visual. Sci. 1, 41–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767–783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

M. Firbank, M. Oda, D. T. Delpy, “An improved design for a stable and reproducible phantom material for use in near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 955–961 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, M. Cope, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Cotside measurement of cerebral blood flow in ill newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet 332, 770–771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1977 (1)

F. F. Jöbsis, “Noninvasive infrared monitoring of cerebral and myocardial oxygen sufficiency and circulatory parameters,” Science 198, 1264–1267 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Abdouleav, G.

Alcouffe, R. E.

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, R. L. Barbour, “Comparison of finite difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 1285–1302 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, “Non-diffusive photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues,” in Photon Propagation in Tissue II, B. Chance, D. Benaron, G. J. Müller, eds., Proc. SPIE2925, 22–30 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anday, E.

Arridge, S. R.

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Marti-Lopez, J. Bouza-Dominguez, J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, R. A. Martinez-Celirio, “Validity Conditions for the radiative transfer equation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 20, 2046–2056 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, H. Dehghani, J. Riley, N. Everdell, R. Richards, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Optical tomography of a realistic neonatal head phantom,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3109–3116 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, J. Riley, M. Schweiger, J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “A method for generating patient-specific finite element meshes for head modelling,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 481–495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Ripoll, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, S. R. Arridge, “Effect of roughness in nondiffusive regions within biological media,” J. Opt Soc. Am. A 18, 940–947 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Riley, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. Ripoll, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “3D optical tomography in the presence of void regions,” Opt. Express 7, 462–467 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “Optical tomography in the presence of void regions,” J. Opt Soc. Am. A 17, 1659–1670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. E. W. Schmidt, J. C. Hebden, E. M. C. Hillman, M. E. Fry, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Multiple-slice imaging of a tissue-equivalent phantom by use of time-resolved optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3380–3387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, “A method for 3D time-resolved optical tomography,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11, 2–11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2897–2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15, R41–R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Optical imaging in medicine: I. Experimental techniques,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825–840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head,” Appl. Opt. 36, 21–31 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767–783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Riley, S. R. Arridge, Y. Chrysanthou, H. Dehghani, E. M. Hillman, M. Schweiger, “Radiosity diffusion model in 3D,” in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Microscopy, S. Andersson-Engels, M. F. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE4431, 153–164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “Image reconstruction in the presence of a void region,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.2000), pp. 351–353.

J. C. Hebden, T. Bland, E. M. C. Hillman, A. P. Gibson, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, M. Douek, “Optical tomography of the breast using a 32-channel time-resolved imager,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), 187–189.

Atkinson, J.

J. Meek, M. Firbank, C. E. Elwell, J. Atkinson, O. Braddick, J. S. Wyatt, “Regional haemodynamic responses to visual stimulation in awake infants.,” Pediatr. Res. 42, 840–843 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Austin, T.

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, T. Austin, J. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155–4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbour, R. L.

C. H. Schmitz, M. Locker, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation for fast functional optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 429–439 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pei, H. L. Graber, R. L. Barbour, “Normalized-constraint algorithm for minimizing inter-parameter crosstalk in DC optical tomography,” Opt. Express 11, 97–109 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Bluestone, G. Abdouleav, C. H. Schmitz, R. L. Barbour, A. H. Hielscher, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of hemodynamics in the human head,” Opt. Express 9, 272–286 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, R. L. Barbour, “Comparison of finite difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 1285–1302 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benaron, D. A.

D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. A. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W.-F. Cheong, D. K. Stevenson, “Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20, 469–477 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Hintz, W. F. Cheong, J. P. van Houten, D. K. Stevenson, D. A. Benaron, “Bedside imaging of intracranial hemorrhage in the neonate using light: comparison with ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging,” Pediatr. Res. 45, 54–59 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bland, T.

J. C. Hebden, T. Bland, E. M. C. Hillman, A. P. Gibson, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, M. Douek, “Optical tomography of the breast using a 32-channel time-resolved imager,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), 187–189.

Bluestone, A. Y.

Boas, D. A.

A. Li, E. L. Miller, M. Kilmer, T. J. Brukilacchio, T. Chaves, J. J. Stott, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, D. A. Boas, “Tomographic optical breast imaging guided by three-dimensional mammography,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5181–5190 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Strangman, J. P. Culver, J. H. Thompson, D. A. Boas, “A quantitative comparison of simultaneous BOLD fMRI and NIRS recordings during functional brain activation,” Neuroimage 17, 719–731 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas, J. P. Culver, J. J. Stott, A. K. Dunn, “Three dimensional Monte Carlo code for photon migration through complex heterogeneous media including the adult human head,” Opt. Express 10, 159–169 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. DiMarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, Q. Zhang, “Imaging the body with diffuse optical tomography,” IEEE Signal Processing Mag. 18, 57–75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. A. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W.-F. Cheong, D. K. Stevenson, “Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20, 469–477 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouza-Dominguez, J.

L. Marti-Lopez, J. Bouza-Dominguez, J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, R. A. Martinez-Celirio, “Validity Conditions for the radiative transfer equation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. 20, 2046–2056 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Braddick, O.

J. Meek, M. Firbank, C. E. Elwell, J. Atkinson, O. Braddick, J. S. Wyatt, “Regional haemodynamic responses to visual stimulation in awake infants.,” Pediatr. Res. 42, 840–843 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brooks, D. H.

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. DiMarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, Q. Zhang, “Imaging the body with diffuse optical tomography,” IEEE Signal Processing Mag. 18, 57–75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Brukilacchio, T. J.

Butler, J.

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. B. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, “Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 237–247 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chance, B.

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. B. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, “Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 237–247 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Chance, E. Anday, S. Nioka, S. Zhou, L. Hong, K. Worden, C. Li, T. Murray, Y. Ovetsky, D. Pidikiti, R. Thomas, “A novel method for fast imaging of brain function, noninvasively, with light,” Opt. Express 2, 411–423 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chaves, T.

Cheong, W. F.

S. R. Hintz, W. F. Cheong, J. P. van Houten, D. K. Stevenson, D. A. Benaron, “Bedside imaging of intracranial hemorrhage in the neonate using light: comparison with ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging,” Pediatr. Res. 45, 54–59 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheong, W.-F.

D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. A. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W.-F. Cheong, D. K. Stevenson, “Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20, 469–477 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chorlton, M.

Chrysanthou, Y.

J. D. Riley, S. R. Arridge, Y. Chrysanthou, H. Dehghani, E. M. Hillman, M. Schweiger, “Radiosity diffusion model in 3D,” in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Microscopy, S. Andersson-Engels, M. F. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE4431, 153–164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cope, M.

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head,” Appl. Opt. 36, 21–31 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, M. Cope, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Cotside measurement of cerebral blood flow in ill newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet 332, 770–771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Culver, J. P.

G. Strangman, J. P. Culver, J. H. Thompson, D. A. Boas, “A quantitative comparison of simultaneous BOLD fMRI and NIRS recordings during functional brain activation,” Neuroimage 17, 719–731 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. Boas, J. P. Culver, J. J. Stott, A. K. Dunn, “Three dimensional Monte Carlo code for photon migration through complex heterogeneous media including the adult human head,” Opt. Express 10, 159–169 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dehghani, H.

A. P. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, H. Dehghani, J. Riley, N. Everdell, R. Richards, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Optical tomography of a realistic neonatal head phantom,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3109–3116 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, “Multiwavelength three-dimensional near-infrared tomography of the breast: initial simulation, phantom and clinical results,” Appl. Opt. 42, 135–145 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, “Linear single-step image reconstruction in the presence of nonscattering regions,” J. Opt Soc. Am. A 19, 1162–1171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Riley, H. Dehghani, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, J. Ripoll, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, “3D optical tomography in the presence of void regions,” Opt. Express 7, 462–467 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “Optical tomography in the presence of void regions,” J. Opt Soc. Am. A 17, 1659–1670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, “A method for 3D time-resolved optical tomography,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11, 2–11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. E. W. Schmidt, J. C. Hebden, E. M. C. Hillman, M. E. Fry, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Multiple-slice imaging of a tissue-equivalent phantom by use of time-resolved optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3380–3387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2897–2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Riley, S. R. Arridge, Y. Chrysanthou, H. Dehghani, E. M. Hillman, M. Schweiger, “Radiosity diffusion model in 3D,” in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Microscopy, S. Andersson-Engels, M. F. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE4431, 153–164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “Image reconstruction in the presence of a void region,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.2000), pp. 351–353.

Delpy, D. T.

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, H. Dehghani, J. Riley, N. Everdell, R. Richards, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Optical tomography of a realistic neonatal head phantom,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3109–3116 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, D. T. Delpy, “Near-infrared light propagation in an adult head model. I. Modeling of low-level scattering in the cerebrospinal fluid layer,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2906–2914 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, J. Riley, M. Schweiger, J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “A method for generating patient-specific finite element meshes for head modelling,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 481–495 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, F. M. Gonzalez, A. P. Gibson, E. M. Hillman, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, “Assessment of an in situ temporal calibration method for time-resolved optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 87–92 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, “Linear single-step image reconstruction in the presence of nonscattering regions,” J. Opt Soc. Am. A 19, 1162–1171 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, T. Austin, J. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155–4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “Optical tomography in the presence of void regions,” J. Opt Soc. Am. A 17, 1659–1670 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. E. W. Schmidt, J. C. Hebden, E. M. C. Hillman, M. E. Fry, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Multiple-slice imaging of a tissue-equivalent phantom by use of time-resolved optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3380–3387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, “A method for 3D time-resolved optical tomography,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11, 2–11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2897–2906 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Optical imaging in medicine: I. Experimental techniques,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825–840 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head,” Appl. Opt. 36, 21–31 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767–783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, M. Oda, D. T. Delpy, “An improved design for a stable and reproducible phantom material for use in near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 955–961 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, M. Cope, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Cotside measurement of cerebral blood flow in ill newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet 332, 770–771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Hebden, T. Bland, E. M. C. Hillman, A. P. Gibson, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, M. Douek, “Optical tomography of the breast using a 32-channel time-resolved imager,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), 187–189.

H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “Image reconstruction in the presence of a void region,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.2000), pp. 351–353.

DiMarzio, C. A.

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. DiMarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, Q. Zhang, “Imaging the body with diffuse optical tomography,” IEEE Signal Processing Mag. 18, 57–75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Dorn, O.

O. Dorn, “A transport-backtransport method for optical tomography,” Inverse Probl. 14, 1107–1130 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Douek, M.

J. C. Hebden, T. Bland, E. M. C. Hillman, A. P. Gibson, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, M. Douek, “Optical tomography of the breast using a 32-channel time-resolved imager,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), 187–189.

Dunn, A. K.

Edwards, A. D.

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, M. Cope, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Cotside measurement of cerebral blood flow in ill newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet 332, 770–771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Elwell, C. E.

J. Meek, M. Firbank, C. E. Elwell, J. Atkinson, O. Braddick, J. S. Wyatt, “Regional haemodynamic responses to visual stimulation in awake infants.,” Pediatr. Res. 42, 840–843 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Everdell, N.

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, H. Dehghani, J. Riley, N. Everdell, R. Richards, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Optical tomography of a realistic neonatal head phantom,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3109–3116 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, F. M. Gonzalez, A. P. Gibson, E. M. Hillman, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, “Assessment of an in situ temporal calibration method for time-resolved optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 87–92 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, T. Austin, J. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155–4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, T. Bland, E. M. C. Hillman, A. P. Gibson, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, M. Douek, “Optical tomography of the breast using a 32-channel time-resolved imager,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), 187–189.

Fantini, S.

Filiaci, M. E.

Firbank, M.

J. Meek, M. Firbank, C. E. Elwell, J. Atkinson, O. Braddick, J. S. Wyatt, “Regional haemodynamic responses to visual stimulation in awake infants.,” Pediatr. Res. 42, 840–843 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head,” Appl. Opt. 36, 21–31 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767–783 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Firbank, M. Oda, D. T. Delpy, “An improved design for a stable and reproducible phantom material for use in near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 955–961 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fishkin, J. B.

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. B. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, “Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 237–247 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fomin, D. A.

D. A. Seehusen, M. M. Reeves, D. A. Fomin, “Cerebrospinal fluid analysis,” Am. Fam. Physician 68, 1103–1108 (2003).
[PubMed]

Frahm, J.

D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. A. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W.-F. Cheong, D. K. Stevenson, “Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20, 469–477 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franceschini, M. A.

Fry, M. E.

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, “A method for 3D time-resolved optical tomography,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11, 2–11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

F. E. W. Schmidt, J. C. Hebden, E. M. C. Hillman, M. E. Fry, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Multiple-slice imaging of a tissue-equivalent phantom by use of time-resolved optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3380–3387 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Fujiwara, M.

G. Taga, Y. Konishi, A. Maki, T. Tachibana, M. Fujiwara, H. Koizumi, “Spontaneous oscillation of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin changes with a phase difference throughout the occipital cortex of newborn infants observed using noninvasive optical topography,” Neurosci. Lett. 282, 101–104 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaudette, R. J.

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. DiMarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, Q. Zhang, “Imaging the body with diffuse optical tomography,” IEEE Signal Processing Mag. 18, 57–75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gibson, A. P.

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, F. M. Gonzalez, A. P. Gibson, E. M. Hillman, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, “Assessment of an in situ temporal calibration method for time-resolved optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 87–92 (2003).
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A. P. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, H. Dehghani, J. Riley, N. Everdell, R. Richards, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Optical tomography of a realistic neonatal head phantom,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3109–3116 (2003).
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J. C. Hebden, T. Bland, E. M. C. Hillman, A. P. Gibson, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, M. Douek, “Optical tomography of the breast using a 32-channel time-resolved imager,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), 187–189.

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A. P. Gibson, J. Riley, M. Schweiger, J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “A method for generating patient-specific finite element meshes for head modelling,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 481–495 (2003).
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J. C. Hebden, F. M. Gonzalez, A. P. Gibson, E. M. Hillman, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, “Assessment of an in situ temporal calibration method for time-resolved optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 87–92 (2003).
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J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, T. Austin, J. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155–4166 (2002).
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Stroszczynski, C.

Tachibana, T.

G. Taga, Y. Konishi, A. Maki, T. Tachibana, M. Fujiwara, H. Koizumi, “Spontaneous oscillation of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin changes with a phase difference throughout the occipital cortex of newborn infants observed using noninvasive optical topography,” Neurosci. Lett. 282, 101–104 (2000).
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Taga, G.

G. Taga, Y. Konishi, A. Maki, T. Tachibana, M. Fujiwara, H. Koizumi, “Spontaneous oscillation of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin changes with a phase difference throughout the occipital cortex of newborn infants observed using noninvasive optical topography,” Neurosci. Lett. 282, 101–104 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, R.

Thompson, J. H.

G. Strangman, J. P. Culver, J. H. Thompson, D. A. Boas, “A quantitative comparison of simultaneous BOLD fMRI and NIRS recordings during functional brain activation,” Neuroimage 17, 719–731 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Toronov, V.

Tromberg, B. J.

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. B. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, “Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 237–247 (2000).
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van Houten, J. C.

D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. A. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W.-F. Cheong, D. K. Stevenson, “Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20, 469–477 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Houten, J. P.

S. R. Hintz, W. F. Cheong, J. P. van Houten, D. K. Stevenson, D. A. Benaron, “Bedside imaging of intracranial hemorrhage in the neonate using light: comparison with ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging,” Pediatr. Res. 45, 54–59 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Villringer, A.

D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. A. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W.-F. Cheong, D. K. Stevenson, “Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20, 469–477 (2000).
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Wabnitz, H.

Worden, K.

Wu, T.

Wyatt, J. S.

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, T. Austin, J. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155–4166 (2002).
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J. Meek, M. Firbank, C. E. Elwell, J. Atkinson, O. Braddick, J. S. Wyatt, “Regional haemodynamic responses to visual stimulation in awake infants.,” Pediatr. Res. 42, 840–843 (1998).
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A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, M. Cope, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Cotside measurement of cerebral blood flow in ill newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet 332, 770–771 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Yodh, A. G.

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. B. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, “Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 237–247 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yusof, R. M.

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117–1130 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, H. Dehghani, J. Riley, N. Everdell, R. Richards, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Optical tomography of a realistic neonatal head phantom,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3109–3116 (2003).
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J. C. Hebden, F. M. Gonzalez, A. P. Gibson, E. M. Hillman, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, “Assessment of an in situ temporal calibration method for time-resolved optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 87–92 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, T. Austin, J. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155–4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zaccanti, G.

J. C. Hebden, F. M. Gonzalez, A. P. Gibson, E. M. Hillman, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, “Assessment of an in situ temporal calibration method for time-resolved optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 87–92 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Q.

A. Li, E. L. Miller, M. Kilmer, T. J. Brukilacchio, T. Chaves, J. J. Stott, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, D. A. Boas, “Tomographic optical breast imaging guided by three-dimensional mammography,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5181–5190 (2003).
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D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. DiMarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, Q. Zhang, “Imaging the body with diffuse optical tomography,” IEEE Signal Processing Mag. 18, 57–75 (2001).
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Am. Fam. Physician (1)

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Appl. Opt. (8)

T. Hayashi, Y. Kashio, E. Okada, “Hybrid Monte Carlo-diffusion method for light propagation in tissue with a low-scattering region,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2888–2896 (2003).
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E. Okada, D. T. Delpy, “Near-infrared light propagation in an adult head model. I. Modeling of low-level scattering in the cerebrospinal fluid layer,” Appl. Opt. 42, 2906–2914 (2003).
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D. Grosenick, K. T. Moesta, H. Wabnitz, J. Mucke, C. Stroszczynski, R. Macdonald, P. M. Schlag, H. Rinneberg, “Time-domain optical mammography: initial clinical results on detection and characterization of breast tumors,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3170–3186 (2003).
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A. Li, E. L. Miller, M. Kilmer, T. J. Brukilacchio, T. Chaves, J. J. Stott, Q. Zhang, T. Wu, M. Chorlton, R. H. Moore, D. B. Kopans, D. A. Boas, “Tomographic optical breast imaging guided by three-dimensional mammography,” Appl. Opt. 42, 5181–5190 (2003).
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H. Dehghani, B. W. Pogue, S. P. Poplack, K. D. Paulsen, “Multiwavelength three-dimensional near-infrared tomography of the breast: initial simulation, phantom and clinical results,” Appl. Opt. 42, 135–145 (2003).
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E. Okada, M. Firbank, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Cope, D. T. Delpy, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of near-infrared light propagation in a model of the adult head,” Appl. Opt. 36, 21–31 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. P. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, H. Dehghani, J. Riley, N. Everdell, R. Richards, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Optical tomography of a realistic neonatal head phantom,” Appl. Opt. 42, 3109–3116 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. W. Schmidt, J. C. Hebden, E. M. C. Hillman, M. E. Fry, M. Schweiger, H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Multiple-slice imaging of a tissue-equivalent phantom by use of time-resolved optical tomography,” Appl. Opt. 39, 3380–3387 (2000).
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Comput. Visual. Sci. (1)

J. Schöberl, “NETGEN - An advancing front 2D/3D-mesh generator based on abstract rules,” Comput. Visual. Sci. 1, 41–52 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Signal Processing Mag. (1)

D. A. Boas, D. H. Brooks, E. L. Miller, C. A. DiMarzio, M. Kilmer, R. J. Gaudette, Q. Zhang, “Imaging the body with diffuse optical tomography,” IEEE Signal Processing Mag. 18, 57–75 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. (1)

S. R. Arridge, J. C. Hebden, M. Schweiger, F. E. W. Schmidt, M. E. Fry, E. M. C. Hillman, H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, “A method for 3D time-resolved optical tomography,” Int. J. Imaging Syst. Technol. 11, 2–11 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Inverse Probl. (2)

S. R. Arridge, “Optical tomography in medical imaging,” Inverse Probl. 15, R41–R93 (1999).
[CrossRef]

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J. Biomed. Opt. (2)

M. J. Holboke, B. J. Tromberg, X. Li, N. Shah, J. B. Fishkin, D. Kidney, J. Butler, B. Chance, A. G. Yodh, “Three-dimensional diffuse optical mammography with ultrasound localization in a human subject,” J. Biomed. Opt. 5, 237–247 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, F. M. Gonzalez, A. P. Gibson, E. M. Hillman, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, G. Zaccanti, F. Martelli, “Assessment of an in situ temporal calibration method for time-resolved optical tomography,” J. Biomed. Opt. 8, 87–92 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1)

D. A. Benaron, S. R. Hintz, A. Villringer, D. A. Boas, A. Kleinschmidt, J. Frahm, C. Hirth, H. Obrig, J. C. van Houten, E. L. Kermit, W.-F. Cheong, D. K. Stevenson, “Noninvasive functional imaging of human brain using light,” J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 20, 469–477 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Opt Soc. Am. A (3)

J. Ripoll, M. Nieto-Vesperinas, S. R. Arridge, “Effect of roughness in nondiffusive regions within biological media,” J. Opt Soc. Am. A 18, 940–947 (2001).
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H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “Optical tomography in the presence of void regions,” J. Opt Soc. Am. A 17, 1659–1670 (2000).
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H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, “Linear single-step image reconstruction in the presence of nonscattering regions,” J. Opt Soc. Am. A 19, 1162–1171 (2002).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. A. (1)

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[CrossRef]

Lancet (1)

A. D. Edwards, C. Richardson, M. Cope, J. S. Wyatt, D. T. Delpy, E. O. R. Reynolds, “Cotside measurement of cerebral blood flow in ill newborn infants by near infrared spectroscopy,” Lancet 332, 770–771 (1988).
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Med. Phys. (2)

M. Schweiger, S. R. Arridge, M. Hiraoka, D. T. Delpy, “The finite element method for the propagation of light in scattering media: boundary and source conditions,” Med. Phys. 22, 1779–1792 (1995).
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A. D. Klose, A. H. Hielscher, “Iterative reconstruction scheme for optical tomography based on the equation of radiative transfer,” Med. Phys. 28, 1698–1707 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Neuroimage (1)

G. Strangman, J. P. Culver, J. H. Thompson, D. A. Boas, “A quantitative comparison of simultaneous BOLD fMRI and NIRS recordings during functional brain activation,” Neuroimage 17, 719–731 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neurosci. Lett. (1)

G. Taga, Y. Konishi, A. Maki, T. Tachibana, M. Fujiwara, H. Koizumi, “Spontaneous oscillation of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin changes with a phase difference throughout the occipital cortex of newborn infants observed using noninvasive optical topography,” Neurosci. Lett. 282, 101–104 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

Pediatr. Res. (2)

S. R. Hintz, W. F. Cheong, J. P. van Houten, D. K. Stevenson, D. A. Benaron, “Bedside imaging of intracranial hemorrhage in the neonate using light: comparison with ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging,” Pediatr. Res. 45, 54–59 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Meek, M. Firbank, C. E. Elwell, J. Atkinson, O. Braddick, J. S. Wyatt, “Regional haemodynamic responses to visual stimulation in awake infants.,” Pediatr. Res. 42, 840–843 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Med. Biol. (8)

M. Firbank, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “An investigation of light transport through scattering bodies with non-scattering regions,” Phys. Med. Biol. 41, 767–783 (1996).
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A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, R. L. Barbour, “Comparison of finite difference transport and diffusion calculations for photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues,” Phys. Med. Biol. 43, 1285–1302 (1998).
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H. Dehghani, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, “Photon migration in non-scattering tissue and the effects on image reconstruction,” Phys. Med. Biol. 44, 2897–2906 (1999).
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M. Firbank, M. Oda, D. T. Delpy, “An improved design for a stable and reproducible phantom material for use in near-infrared spectroscopy and imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol. 40, 955–961 (1995).
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J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, E. M. Hillman, D. T. Delpy, T. Austin, J. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Three-dimensional optical tomography of the premature infant brain,” Phys. Med. Biol. 47, 4155–4166 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. Hebden, A. P. Gibson, T. Austin, R. M. Yusof, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, J. H. Meek, J. S. Wyatt, “Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol. 49, 1117–1130 (2004).
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J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “Optical imaging in medicine: I. Experimental techniques,” Phys. Med. Biol. 42, 825–840 (1997).
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A. P. Gibson, J. Riley, M. Schweiger, J. C. Hebden, S. R. Arridge, D. T. Delpy, “A method for generating patient-specific finite element meshes for head modelling,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48, 481–495 (2003).
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J. C. Hebden, “Advances in optical imaging of the newborn infant brain,” Psychophysiology 40, 501–510 (2003).
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Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. H. Schmitz, M. Locker, J. M. Lasker, A. H. Hielscher, R. L. Barbour, “Instrumentation for fast functional optical tomography,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 429–439 (2002).
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Other (4)

J. C. Hebden, T. Bland, E. M. C. Hillman, A. P. Gibson, N. Everdell, D. T. Delpy, S. R. Arridge, M. Douek, “Optical tomography of the breast using a 32-channel time-resolved imager,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 2002), 187–189.

J. D. Riley, S. R. Arridge, Y. Chrysanthou, H. Dehghani, E. M. Hillman, M. Schweiger, “Radiosity diffusion model in 3D,” in Photon Migration, Optical Coherence Tomography, and Microscopy, S. Andersson-Engels, M. F. Kaschke, eds., Proc. SPIE4431, 153–164 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Hielscher, R. E. Alcouffe, “Non-diffusive photon migration in homogeneous and heterogeneous tissues,” in Photon Propagation in Tissue II, B. Chance, D. Benaron, G. J. Müller, eds., Proc. SPIE2925, 22–30 (1996).
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H. Dehghani, S. R. Arridge, M. Schweiger, D. T. Delpy, “Image reconstruction in the presence of a void region,” in Digest of OSA Biomedical Topical Meetings (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C.2000), pp. 351–353.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram showing the phantoms. The hollow cylindrical phantom with and without a clear layer and the head-shaped phantom with and without a clear layer are shown with two clear regions and two diffusive perturbations. The locations and sizes of the perturbations are illustrative only and are not to scale.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram showing the reconstruction combinations. On the left is the homogeneous phantom, with or without clear regions, and finally transverse slices through the phantom with or without two diffusive perturbations. From the right are the equivalent combinations in the phantom with a clear layer. Clear regions are white; diffusive regions gray. The labels on the central network of solid lines refer to the imaging combinations, the results of which are shown in Figs. 3 to 5.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Effect of clear regions. From left: (a) two perturbations in homogeneous tank, reconstructed with homogenous tank as reference; (b) two perturbations and two clear regions in homogeneous tank, reconstructed against homogenous tank; (c) two perturbations and two clear regions in homogeneous tank, reconstructed against homogenous tank with two clear regions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of clear ring: (a) tank with clear ring and no perturbations, reconstructed against homogeneous tank; (b) two perturbations in clear ring, reconstructed against homogeneous tank; (c) two perturbations in clear ring, reconstructed against tank with clear ring as reference.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of clear regions and ring. Tank with perturbations in clear ring with two clear regions, reconstructed against (a) homogeneous tank; (b) tank with clear ring and clear regions; (c) homogeneous tank with clear regions.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Reconstructions from head-shaped phantom: (a) two diffusive perturbations in diffusive-only phantom reconstructed with homogeneous phantom as reference; (b) two diffusive perturbations placed into phantom with clear layer and two clear regions reconstructed with same phantom as reference (simulating physiological change); (c) two diffusive perturbations placed into phantom with clear layer and two clear regions reconstructed with homogeneous, diffusive-only phantom as reference (simulating static imaging with fluid-filled balloon as reference).

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