Abstract

A spectrum-matching and look-up-table (LUT) methodology has been developed and evaluated to extract environmental information from remotely sensed hyperspectral imagery. The LUT methodology works as follows. First, a database of remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) spectra corresponding to various water depths, bottom reflectance spectra, and water-column inherent optical properties (IOPs) is constructed using a special version of the HydroLight radiative transfer numerical model. Second, the measured Rrs spectrum for a particular image pixel is compared with each spectrum in the database, and the closest match to the image spectrum is found using a least-squares minimization. The environmental conditions in nature are then assumed to be the same as the input conditions that generated the closest matching HydroLight-generated database spectrum. The LUT methodology has been evaluated by application to an Ocean Portable Hyperspectral Imaging Low-Light Spectrometer image acquired near Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas, on 17 May 2000. The LUT-retrieved bottom depths were on average within 5% and 0.5 m of independently obtained acoustic depths. The LUT-retrieved bottom classification was in qualitative agreement with diver and video spot classification of bottom types, and the LUT-retrieved IOPs were consistent with IOPs measured at nearby times and locations.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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2003 (8)

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, C. O. Davis, “Ocean color remote sensing of sea-grass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high-resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, C. O. Davis, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, “Optical remote sensing of benthic habitats and bathymetry in coastal environments at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas: a comparative spectral classification approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 511–521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Andréfouët, C. Payri, E. J. Hochberg, L. M. Che, M. J. Atkinson, “Airborne hyperspectral detection of microbial mat pigmentation in Rangiroa atoll (French Polynesia),” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 426–430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “The effect of bottom substrate on inherent optical properties: evidence of biogeochemical processes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 346–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Mazel, E. Fuchs, “Contribution of fluorescence to the spectral signature and perceived color of corals,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 390–401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Stephens, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, R. A. Maffione, “Effects of microalgal communities on reflectance spectra of carbonate sediments in subtidal optically shallow marine environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 535–546 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Decho, T. Kawaguchi, M. A. Allison, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, K. J. Voss, R. A. Wheatcroft, B. B. Taylor, “Sediment properties influencing upwelling spectral reflectance signatures: the ‘biofilm gel effect’,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 431–443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Drake, F. C. Dobbs, R. C. Zimmerman, “Effects of epiphyte load on optical properties and photosynthetic potential of the seagrasses Thalassia testudinum Banks ex König and Zostera marina L.,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 456–463 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (4)

2001 (2)

J. M. Melack, M. Gastil, “Airborne remote sensing of chlorophyll distributions in Mono Lake, California,” Hydrobiologia 466, 31–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectromenter (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106C, 11639–11651 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

1998 (1)

J. C. Sandage, R. J. Holyer, “Coastal bathymetry from hyperspectral observations of water radiance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 341–352 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

R. Gonzalez, G. P. Eberli, “Sediment transport and sedimentary structures in a carbonate tidal inlet; Lee Stocking Island, Exuma Islands, Bahamas,” Sedimentology 44, 1015–1030 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Mazel, “Diver-operated instrument for in situ measurement of spectral fluorescence and reflectance of benthic marine organisms and substrates,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2612–2617 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

F. A. Kruse, A. B. Lefkoff, J. W. Boardman, K. B. Heidebrecht, A. T. Shapiro, P. J. Brloon, A. F. H. Goetz, “The spectral image processing system (SIPS)—interactive visualization and analysis of imaging spectrometer data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 145–163 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ahmad, Z.

Allison, M. A.

A. W. Decho, T. Kawaguchi, M. A. Allison, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, K. J. Voss, R. A. Wheatcroft, B. B. Taylor, “Sediment properties influencing upwelling spectral reflectance signatures: the ‘biofilm gel effect’,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 431–443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Andréfouët, S.

S. Andréfouët, C. Payri, E. J. Hochberg, L. M. Che, M. J. Atkinson, “Airborne hyperspectral detection of microbial mat pigmentation in Rangiroa atoll (French Polynesia),” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 426–430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Atkinson, M. J.

S. Andréfouët, C. Payri, E. J. Hochberg, L. M. Che, M. J. Atkinson, “Airborne hyperspectral detection of microbial mat pigmentation in Rangiroa atoll (French Polynesia),” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 426–430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Hochberg, M. J. Atkinson, “Spectral discrimination of coral reef benthic communities,” Coral Reefs 19, 164–171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bissett, W. P.

Boardman, J. W.

F. A. Kruse, A. B. Lefkoff, J. W. Boardman, K. B. Heidebrecht, A. T. Shapiro, P. J. Brloon, A. F. H. Goetz, “The spectral image processing system (SIPS)—interactive visualization and analysis of imaging spectrometer data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 145–163 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Boss, E.

E. Boss, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “The effect of bottom substrate on inherent optical properties: evidence of biogeochemical processes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 346–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Mobley, L. K. Sundman, E. Boss, “Phase function effects on oceanic light fields,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1035–1050 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowles, J.

Bowles, J. H.

R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, J. H. Bowles, C. O. Davis, M. E. Kappus, W. Chen, D. Korwan, M. J. Montes, W. J. Rhea, M. E. Carney, “Ocean PHILLS data collection and processing: May 2000 deployment, Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas,” (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 2002).

Brloon, P. J.

F. A. Kruse, A. B. Lefkoff, J. W. Boardman, K. B. Heidebrecht, A. T. Shapiro, P. J. Brloon, A. F. H. Goetz, “The spectral image processing system (SIPS)—interactive visualization and analysis of imaging spectrometer data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 145–163 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Carder, K. L.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, “Effects of spectral-band number on retrievals of water column and bottom properties from ocean-color data,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2191–2201 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectromenter (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106C, 11639–11651 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Carney, M. E.

R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, J. H. Bowles, C. O. Davis, M. E. Kappus, W. Chen, D. Korwan, M. J. Montes, W. J. Rhea, M. E. Carney, “Ocean PHILLS data collection and processing: May 2000 deployment, Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas,” (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 2002).

Che, L. M.

S. Andréfouët, C. Payri, E. J. Hochberg, L. M. Che, M. J. Atkinson, “Airborne hyperspectral detection of microbial mat pigmentation in Rangiroa atoll (French Polynesia),” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 426–430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chen, R. F.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectromenter (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106C, 11639–11651 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, W. P. Bissett, R. A. Reisse, “Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration,” Opt. Express 10, 210–221 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, J. H. Bowles, C. O. Davis, M. E. Kappus, W. Chen, D. Korwan, M. J. Montes, W. J. Rhea, M. E. Carney, “Ocean PHILLS data collection and processing: May 2000 deployment, Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas,” (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 2002).

Davis, C. O.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, C. O. Davis, “Ocean color remote sensing of sea-grass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high-resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, C. O. Davis, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, “Optical remote sensing of benthic habitats and bathymetry in coastal environments at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas: a comparative spectral classification approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 511–521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, W. P. Bissett, R. A. Reisse, “Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration,” Opt. Express 10, 210–221 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, C. O. Davis, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, R. A. Maffione, “Derivative analysis of absorption features in hyperspectral remote sensing data of carbonate sediments,” Opt. Express 10, 1573–1584 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B.-C. Gao, M. J. Montes, Z. Ahmad, C. O. Davis, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for hyperspectral remote sensing of ocean color from space,” Appl. Opt. 39, 887–896 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, J. H. Bowles, C. O. Davis, M. E. Kappus, W. Chen, D. Korwan, M. J. Montes, W. J. Rhea, M. E. Carney, “Ocean PHILLS data collection and processing: May 2000 deployment, Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas,” (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 2002).

M. J. Montes, B.-C. Gao, C. O. Davis, “A new algorithm for atmospheric correction of hyperspectral remote sensing data,” in Geo-Spatial Image and Data Exploitation II, W. E. Roper, ed., Proc. SPIE4383, 23–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Decho, A. W.

A. W. Decho, T. Kawaguchi, M. A. Allison, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, K. J. Voss, R. A. Wheatcroft, B. B. Taylor, “Sediment properties influencing upwelling spectral reflectance signatures: the ‘biofilm gel effect’,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 431–443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dierssen, H. M.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, C. O. Davis, “Ocean color remote sensing of sea-grass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high-resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dobbs, F. C.

L. A. Drake, F. C. Dobbs, R. C. Zimmerman, “Effects of epiphyte load on optical properties and photosynthetic potential of the seagrasses Thalassia testudinum Banks ex König and Zostera marina L.,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 456–463 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Downes, T. V.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, C. O. Davis, “Ocean color remote sensing of sea-grass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high-resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, C. O. Davis, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, “Optical remote sensing of benthic habitats and bathymetry in coastal environments at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas: a comparative spectral classification approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 511–521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, W. P. Bissett, R. A. Reisse, “Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration,” Opt. Express 10, 210–221 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, C. O. Davis, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, R. A. Maffione, “Derivative analysis of absorption features in hyperspectral remote sensing data of carbonate sediments,” Opt. Express 10, 1573–1584 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, J. H. Bowles, C. O. Davis, M. E. Kappus, W. Chen, D. Korwan, M. J. Montes, W. J. Rhea, M. E. Carney, “Ocean PHILLS data collection and processing: May 2000 deployment, Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas,” (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 2002).

Drake, L. A.

L. A. Drake, F. C. Dobbs, R. C. Zimmerman, “Effects of epiphyte load on optical properties and photosynthetic potential of the seagrasses Thalassia testudinum Banks ex König and Zostera marina L.,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 456–463 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eberli, G. P.

R. Gonzalez, G. P. Eberli, “Sediment transport and sedimentary structures in a carbonate tidal inlet; Lee Stocking Island, Exuma Islands, Bahamas,” Sedimentology 44, 1015–1030 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fenn, R. W.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

Fisher, J.

Fuchs, E.

C. H. Mazel, E. Fuchs, “Contribution of fluorescence to the spectral signature and perceived color of corals,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 390–401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Gao, B.-C.

B.-C. Gao, M. J. Montes, Z. Ahmad, C. O. Davis, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for hyperspectral remote sensing of ocean color from space,” Appl. Opt. 39, 887–896 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Montes, B.-C. Gao, C. O. Davis, “A new algorithm for atmospheric correction of hyperspectral remote sensing data,” in Geo-Spatial Image and Data Exploitation II, W. E. Roper, ed., Proc. SPIE4383, 23–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gastil, M.

J. M. Melack, M. Gastil, “Airborne remote sensing of chlorophyll distributions in Mono Lake, California,” Hydrobiologia 466, 31–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Goetz, A. F. H.

F. A. Kruse, A. B. Lefkoff, J. W. Boardman, K. B. Heidebrecht, A. T. Shapiro, P. J. Brloon, A. F. H. Goetz, “The spectral image processing system (SIPS)—interactive visualization and analysis of imaging spectrometer data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 145–163 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, R.

R. Gonzalez, G. P. Eberli, “Sediment transport and sedimentary structures in a carbonate tidal inlet; Lee Stocking Island, Exuma Islands, Bahamas,” Sedimentology 44, 1015–1030 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Heidebrecht, K. B.

F. A. Kruse, A. B. Lefkoff, J. W. Boardman, K. B. Heidebrecht, A. T. Shapiro, P. J. Brloon, A. F. H. Goetz, “The spectral image processing system (SIPS)—interactive visualization and analysis of imaging spectrometer data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 145–163 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, E. J.

S. Andréfouët, C. Payri, E. J. Hochberg, L. M. Che, M. J. Atkinson, “Airborne hyperspectral detection of microbial mat pigmentation in Rangiroa atoll (French Polynesia),” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 426–430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Hochberg, M. J. Atkinson, “Spectral discrimination of coral reef benthic communities,” Coral Reefs 19, 164–171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Holyer, R. J.

J. C. Sandage, R. J. Holyer, “Coastal bathymetry from hyperspectral observations of water radiance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 341–352 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kappus, M. E.

R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, J. H. Bowles, C. O. Davis, M. E. Kappus, W. Chen, D. Korwan, M. J. Montes, W. J. Rhea, M. E. Carney, “Ocean PHILLS data collection and processing: May 2000 deployment, Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas,” (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 2002).

Kawaguchi, T.

A. W. Decho, T. Kawaguchi, M. A. Allison, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, K. J. Voss, R. A. Wheatcroft, B. B. Taylor, “Sediment properties influencing upwelling spectral reflectance signatures: the ‘biofilm gel effect’,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 431–443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kohler, D. D. R.

D. D. R. Kohler, “An evaluation of a derivative based hyper-spectral bathymetric algorithm,” Ph.D. dissertation (Cornell UniversityIthaca, N.Y, 2001).

Korwan, D.

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, W. P. Bissett, R. A. Reisse, “Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration,” Opt. Express 10, 210–221 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, J. H. Bowles, C. O. Davis, M. E. Kappus, W. Chen, D. Korwan, M. J. Montes, W. J. Rhea, M. E. Carney, “Ocean PHILLS data collection and processing: May 2000 deployment, Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas,” (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 2002).

Kruse, F. A.

F. A. Kruse, A. B. Lefkoff, J. W. Boardman, K. B. Heidebrecht, A. T. Shapiro, P. J. Brloon, A. F. H. Goetz, “The spectral image processing system (SIPS)—interactive visualization and analysis of imaging spectrometer data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 145–163 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leathers, R. A.

E. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, C. O. Davis, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, “Optical remote sensing of benthic habitats and bathymetry in coastal environments at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas: a comparative spectral classification approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 511–521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, C. O. Davis, “Ocean color remote sensing of sea-grass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high-resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, W. P. Bissett, R. A. Reisse, “Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration,” Opt. Express 10, 210–221 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, C. O. Davis, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, R. A. Maffione, “Derivative analysis of absorption features in hyperspectral remote sensing data of carbonate sediments,” Opt. Express 10, 1573–1584 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, J. H. Bowles, C. O. Davis, M. E. Kappus, W. Chen, D. Korwan, M. J. Montes, W. J. Rhea, M. E. Carney, “Ocean PHILLS data collection and processing: May 2000 deployment, Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas,” (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 2002).

Lee, Z. P.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, “Effects of spectral-band number on retrievals of water column and bottom properties from ocean-color data,” Appl. Opt. 41, 2191–2201 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectromenter (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106C, 11639–11651 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lefkoff, A. B.

F. A. Kruse, A. B. Lefkoff, J. W. Boardman, K. B. Heidebrecht, A. T. Shapiro, P. J. Brloon, A. F. H. Goetz, “The spectral image processing system (SIPS)—interactive visualization and analysis of imaging spectrometer data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 145–163 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Louchard, E.

E. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, C. O. Davis, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, “Optical remote sensing of benthic habitats and bathymetry in coastal environments at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas: a comparative spectral classification approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 511–521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, C. O. Davis, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, R. A. Maffione, “Derivative analysis of absorption features in hyperspectral remote sensing data of carbonate sediments,” Opt. Express 10, 1573–1584 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Louchard, E. M.

F. C. Stephens, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, R. A. Maffione, “Effects of microalgal communities on reflectance spectra of carbonate sediments in subtidal optically shallow marine environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 535–546 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Decho, T. Kawaguchi, M. A. Allison, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, K. J. Voss, R. A. Wheatcroft, B. B. Taylor, “Sediment properties influencing upwelling spectral reflectance signatures: the ‘biofilm gel effect’,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 431–443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Maffione, R. A.

F. C. Stephens, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, R. A. Maffione, “Effects of microalgal communities on reflectance spectra of carbonate sediments in subtidal optically shallow marine environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 535–546 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, C. O. Davis, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, R. A. Maffione, “Derivative analysis of absorption features in hyperspectral remote sensing data of carbonate sediments,” Opt. Express 10, 1573–1584 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazel, C. H.

C. H. Mazel, E. Fuchs, “Contribution of fluorescence to the spectral signature and perceived color of corals,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 390–401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Mazel, “Diver-operated instrument for in situ measurement of spectral fluorescence and reflectance of benthic marine organisms and substrates,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2612–2617 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Melack, J. M.

J. M. Melack, M. Gastil, “Airborne remote sensing of chlorophyll distributions in Mono Lake, California,” Hydrobiologia 466, 31–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mobley, C. D.

Montes, M. J.

B.-C. Gao, M. J. Montes, Z. Ahmad, C. O. Davis, “Atmospheric correction algorithm for hyperspectral remote sensing of ocean color from space,” Appl. Opt. 39, 887–896 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, J. H. Bowles, C. O. Davis, M. E. Kappus, W. Chen, D. Korwan, M. J. Montes, W. J. Rhea, M. E. Carney, “Ocean PHILLS data collection and processing: May 2000 deployment, Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas,” (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 2002).

M. J. Montes, B.-C. Gao, C. O. Davis, “A new algorithm for atmospheric correction of hyperspectral remote sensing data,” in Geo-Spatial Image and Data Exploitation II, W. E. Roper, ed., Proc. SPIE4383, 23–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Payri, C.

S. Andréfouët, C. Payri, E. J. Hochberg, L. M. Che, M. J. Atkinson, “Airborne hyperspectral detection of microbial mat pigmentation in Rangiroa atoll (French Polynesia),” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 426–430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peacock, T. G.

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectromenter (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106C, 11639–11651 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Platt, T.

Reid, R. P.

A. W. Decho, T. Kawaguchi, M. A. Allison, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, K. J. Voss, R. A. Wheatcroft, B. B. Taylor, “Sediment properties influencing upwelling spectral reflectance signatures: the ‘biofilm gel effect’,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 431–443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Stephens, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, R. A. Maffione, “Effects of microalgal communities on reflectance spectra of carbonate sediments in subtidal optically shallow marine environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 535–546 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, C. O. Davis, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, “Optical remote sensing of benthic habitats and bathymetry in coastal environments at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas: a comparative spectral classification approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 511–521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, C. O. Davis, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, R. A. Maffione, “Derivative analysis of absorption features in hyperspectral remote sensing data of carbonate sediments,” Opt. Express 10, 1573–1584 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reisse, R. A.

Rhea, W. J.

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, W. P. Bissett, R. A. Reisse, “Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration,” Opt. Express 10, 210–221 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, J. H. Bowles, C. O. Davis, M. E. Kappus, W. Chen, D. Korwan, M. J. Montes, W. J. Rhea, M. E. Carney, “Ocean PHILLS data collection and processing: May 2000 deployment, Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas,” (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 2002).

Sandage, J. C.

J. C. Sandage, R. J. Holyer, “Coastal bathymetry from hyperspectral observations of water radiance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 341–352 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sathyendranath, S.

Shapiro, A. T.

F. A. Kruse, A. B. Lefkoff, J. W. Boardman, K. B. Heidebrecht, A. T. Shapiro, P. J. Brloon, A. F. H. Goetz, “The spectral image processing system (SIPS)—interactive visualization and analysis of imaging spectrometer data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 145–163 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shettle, E. P.

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

Snyder, W. A.

C. O. Davis, J. Bowles, R. A. Leathers, D. Korwan, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, W. J. Rhea, W. Chen, J. Fisher, W. P. Bissett, R. A. Reisse, “Ocean PHILLS hyperspectral imager: design, characterization, and calibration,” Opt. Express 10, 210–221 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, J. H. Bowles, C. O. Davis, M. E. Kappus, W. Chen, D. Korwan, M. J. Montes, W. J. Rhea, M. E. Carney, “Ocean PHILLS data collection and processing: May 2000 deployment, Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas,” (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 2002).

Stephens, F. C.

E. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, C. O. Davis, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, “Optical remote sensing of benthic habitats and bathymetry in coastal environments at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas: a comparative spectral classification approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 511–521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Decho, T. Kawaguchi, M. A. Allison, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, K. J. Voss, R. A. Wheatcroft, B. B. Taylor, “Sediment properties influencing upwelling spectral reflectance signatures: the ‘biofilm gel effect’,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 431–443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Stephens, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, R. A. Maffione, “Effects of microalgal communities on reflectance spectra of carbonate sediments in subtidal optically shallow marine environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 535–546 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, C. O. Davis, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, R. A. Maffione, “Derivative analysis of absorption features in hyperspectral remote sensing data of carbonate sediments,” Opt. Express 10, 1573–1584 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sundman, L. K.

Taylor, B. B.

A. W. Decho, T. Kawaguchi, M. A. Allison, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, K. J. Voss, R. A. Wheatcroft, B. B. Taylor, “Sediment properties influencing upwelling spectral reflectance signatures: the ‘biofilm gel effect’,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 431–443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ulloa, O.

Voss, K. J.

A. W. Decho, T. Kawaguchi, M. A. Allison, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, K. J. Voss, R. A. Wheatcroft, B. B. Taylor, “Sediment properties influencing upwelling spectral reflectance signatures: the ‘biofilm gel effect’,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 431–443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wheatcroft, R. A.

A. W. Decho, T. Kawaguchi, M. A. Allison, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, K. J. Voss, R. A. Wheatcroft, B. B. Taylor, “Sediment properties influencing upwelling spectral reflectance signatures: the ‘biofilm gel effect’,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 431–443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zaneveld, J. R. V.

E. Boss, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “The effect of bottom substrate on inherent optical properties: evidence of biogeochemical processes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 346–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Zimmerman, R. C.

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, C. O. Davis, “Ocean color remote sensing of sea-grass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high-resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Drake, F. C. Dobbs, R. C. Zimmerman, “Effects of epiphyte load on optical properties and photosynthetic potential of the seagrasses Thalassia testudinum Banks ex König and Zostera marina L.,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 456–463 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Coral Reefs (1)

E. J. Hochberg, M. J. Atkinson, “Spectral discrimination of coral reef benthic communities,” Coral Reefs 19, 164–171 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hydrobiologia (1)

J. M. Melack, M. Gastil, “Airborne remote sensing of chlorophyll distributions in Mono Lake, California,” Hydrobiologia 466, 31–38 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (1)

Z. P. Lee, K. L. Carder, R. F. Chen, T. G. Peacock, “Properties of the water column and bottom derived from Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectromenter (AVIRIS) data,” J. Geophys. Res. 106C, 11639–11651 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Limnol. Oceanogr. (8)

H. M. Dierssen, R. C. Zimmerman, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, C. O. Davis, “Ocean color remote sensing of sea-grass and bathymetry in the Bahamas Banks by high-resolution airborne imagery,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 444–455 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, C. O. Davis, R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, “Optical remote sensing of benthic habitats and bathymetry in coastal environments at Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas: a comparative spectral classification approach,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 511–521 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Andréfouët, C. Payri, E. J. Hochberg, L. M. Che, M. J. Atkinson, “Airborne hyperspectral detection of microbial mat pigmentation in Rangiroa atoll (French Polynesia),” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 426–430 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Mazel, E. Fuchs, “Contribution of fluorescence to the spectral signature and perceived color of corals,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 390–401 (2003).
[CrossRef]

F. C. Stephens, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, R. A. Maffione, “Effects of microalgal communities on reflectance spectra of carbonate sediments in subtidal optically shallow marine environments,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 535–546 (2003).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Decho, T. Kawaguchi, M. A. Allison, E. M. Louchard, R. P. Reid, F. C. Stephens, K. J. Voss, R. A. Wheatcroft, B. B. Taylor, “Sediment properties influencing upwelling spectral reflectance signatures: the ‘biofilm gel effect’,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 431–443 (2003).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Drake, F. C. Dobbs, R. C. Zimmerman, “Effects of epiphyte load on optical properties and photosynthetic potential of the seagrasses Thalassia testudinum Banks ex König and Zostera marina L.,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 456–463 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Boss, J. R. V. Zaneveld, “The effect of bottom substrate on inherent optical properties: evidence of biogeochemical processes,” Limnol. Oceanogr. 48, 346–354 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

C. H. Mazel, “Diver-operated instrument for in situ measurement of spectral fluorescence and reflectance of benthic marine organisms and substrates,” Opt. Eng. 36, 2612–2617 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Remote Sens. Environ. (2)

J. C. Sandage, R. J. Holyer, “Coastal bathymetry from hyperspectral observations of water radiance,” Remote Sens. Environ. 65, 341–352 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. A. Kruse, A. B. Lefkoff, J. W. Boardman, K. B. Heidebrecht, A. T. Shapiro, P. J. Brloon, A. F. H. Goetz, “The spectral image processing system (SIPS)—interactive visualization and analysis of imaging spectrometer data,” Remote Sens. Environ. 44, 145–163 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sedimentology (1)

R. Gonzalez, G. P. Eberli, “Sediment transport and sedimentary structures in a carbonate tidal inlet; Lee Stocking Island, Exuma Islands, Bahamas,” Sedimentology 44, 1015–1030 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

E. P. Shettle, R. W. Fenn, “Models for the aerosols of the lower atmosphere and the effects of humidity variations on their optical properties,” (U.S. Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom Air Force Base, Mass., 1979).

R. A. Leathers, T. V. Downes, W. A. Snyder, J. H. Bowles, C. O. Davis, M. E. Kappus, W. Chen, D. Korwan, M. J. Montes, W. J. Rhea, M. E. Carney, “Ocean PHILLS data collection and processing: May 2000 deployment, Lee Stocking Island, Bahamas,” (U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, D.C., 2002).

Hyper-TSRB is a product of Satlantic, Inc., http://www.satlantic.com .

D. D. R. Kohler, “An evaluation of a derivative based hyper-spectral bathymetric algorithm,” Ph.D. dissertation (Cornell UniversityIthaca, N.Y, 2001).

Interactive Display Language is a product of Research Systems Inc., http://www.rsinc.com .

The ac-9 is a product of WETLabs, Inc., http://www.wetlabs.com .

C. D. Mobley, Light and Water (Academic, 1994), http://www.hydrolight.info .

M. J. Montes, B.-C. Gao, C. O. Davis, “A new algorithm for atmospheric correction of hyperspectral remote sensing data,” in Geo-Spatial Image and Data Exploitation II, W. E. Roper, ed., Proc. SPIE4383, 23–30 (2001).
[CrossRef]

HydroScat-6 is a product of HOBILabs, Inc., http://www.hobilabs.com .

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Figures (15)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Image of Adderly Cut generated from wavelengths 446, 565, and 680 nm of the hyperspectral PHILLS data. Major features are identified. Line A to B is the west-to-east transect plotted in Fig. 3.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Bathymetry corresponding to the area shown in Fig. 1. The black line shows the track of the small boat used to acquire the acoustic data.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison of acoustic depth and Rrs along the west-to-east transect A to B shown in Fig. 1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured ac-9 (a) absorption and (b) scattering spectra. The solid curves include pure water; symbols are at the ac-9 wavelengths.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Eleven total (a) absorption and (b) scattering spectra in the database. Solid curves, measured ac-9 spectra; dotted curves, interpolated ac-9 spectra; dashed curves, pure water (bottom curve) and Case 1 models.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Bottom classification based on diver observation (squares) and video recorded from a small boat (circles).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Irradiance reflectances of various bottom materials and mixtures: (a) sediments, (b) biota, (c) mixtures, (d) all spectra.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Randomly chosen selection of 2% of the 41,591 EcoLUT-generated Rrs spectra in the LUT database (832 spectra plotted).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Comparison of acoustic and LUT-retrieved depths as obtained using the unconstrained database. The percent difference (pct diff) and depth differences (z diff) are computed using Eqs. (2) and (3), respectively. The standard deviation of the depth differences is displayed as z sd. (a) Sediments, (b) seagrass, (c) other, (d) all bottoms.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Depth distribution of the number of pixels for different retrieved bottom types: (a) sediments, (b) seagrass, (c) other, (d) all bottoms.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Pixel-by-pixel map of LUT-retrieved depths as obtained using the offset PHILLS spectra and the unconstrained database; compare with Fig. 2. Line A to B shows the boat track used for the pixel-by-pixel comparison with acoustic depths in Fig. 12.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Comparison of acoustic and unconstrained LUT-retrieved depths along line A to B shown in Fig. 11.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

LUT-retrieved bottom type for the unconstrained inversion.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

LUT-retrieved IOPs corresponding to Figs. 11 and 13. IOP set 1 is the lowest-CDOM water; set 7 is the highest in CDOM. Set 8 is pure water, and 9–11 are Case 1 waters.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Bottom type retrieval for the constrained database with only IOPs 2–4. Compare with Figs. 6 and 14.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

LSQ ( i ) = j = 1 J w ( λ j ) [ R rs ( i , λ j ) R rs ( λ j ) ] 2 ,
percent difference = 100 N × i = 1 N z b ( LUT ; i ) z b ( acoustic ; i ) z b ( acoustic ; i ) ,
depth difference = 1 N i = 1 N [ z b ( LUT ; i ) z b ( acoustic ; i ) ] .

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