Abstract

A new surface plasmon resonance (SPR) imaging technique was proposed. After measurements were conducted at varying wavelengths, the wavelength affording the minimum brightness (SPR wavelength) was determined at each pixel of the image. A two-dimensional map of the SPR wavelength could be converted to a thickness profile by use of a nonlinear calibration curve, which was obtained by Fresnel calculation. An array of protein thin layers on a gold film was evaluated in air to present the layers’ surface structure in nanometer scale.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. E. H. Berger, T. A. M. Beumer, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance multisensing,” Anal. Chem. 70, 703–706 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Guedon, T. Livache, F. Martin, F. Lesbre, A. Roget, G. Bidan, Y. Levy, “Characterization and optimization of a real-time, parallel, label-free, polypyrrole-based DNA sensor by surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Anal. Chem. 72, 6003–6009 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. J. Lee, T. T. Goodrich, R. M. Corn, “SPR imaging measurements of 1-D and 2-D DNA microarrays created from microfluidic channels on gold thin films,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5525–5531 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. Rothenhausler, W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon microscopy,” Nature 332, 615–617 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Otsuki, K. Murai, S. Yoshikawa, “Development of a two-dimensional evaluation method for thin layers using surface plasmon resonance,” Chem. Lett. 2001, 1312–1313.
  6. H. Knobloch, G. von Szada-Borryszkowski, S. Woigk, A. Helms, L. Brehmer, “Dispersive surface plasmon microscopy for the characterization of ultrathin organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2336–2337 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Johansen, H. Arwin, I. Lundstrom, B. Liedberg, “Imaging surface plasmon resonance sensor based on multiple wavelengths: sensitivity consideration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3530–3538 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. W. Hickel, W. Knoll, “Optical waveguide microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1286–1288 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, E. Stenberg, “Principles of biosensing with an extended coupling matrix and surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B11, 63–72 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. W. Lukosz, “Principles and sensitivities of integrated optical and surface plasmon sensors for direct affinity sensing and immunosensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 6, 215–225 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to absorbed films,” Langmuir 14, 5636–5648 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Haemers, G. J. M. Koper, M. C. van der Leeden, G. Frens, “A alternative method to quantify surface plasmon resonance measurements of absorption on flat surfaces,” Langmuir 18, 2069–2074 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Stenberg, B. Persson, H. Roos, C. Urbaniczky, “Quantitative determination of surface concentration of protein with surface plasmon resonance using radiolabeled proteins,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 143, 513–526 (1991).
    [CrossRef]

2002 (1)

S. Haemers, G. J. M. Koper, M. C. van der Leeden, G. Frens, “A alternative method to quantify surface plasmon resonance measurements of absorption on flat surfaces,” Langmuir 18, 2069–2074 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

H. J. Lee, T. T. Goodrich, R. M. Corn, “SPR imaging measurements of 1-D and 2-D DNA microarrays created from microfluidic channels on gold thin films,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5525–5531 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

P. Guedon, T. Livache, F. Martin, F. Lesbre, A. Roget, G. Bidan, Y. Levy, “Characterization and optimization of a real-time, parallel, label-free, polypyrrole-based DNA sensor by surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Anal. Chem. 72, 6003–6009 (2000).
[CrossRef]

K. Johansen, H. Arwin, I. Lundstrom, B. Liedberg, “Imaging surface plasmon resonance sensor based on multiple wavelengths: sensitivity consideration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3530–3538 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

C. E. H. Berger, T. A. M. Beumer, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance multisensing,” Anal. Chem. 70, 703–706 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to absorbed films,” Langmuir 14, 5636–5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

H. Knobloch, G. von Szada-Borryszkowski, S. Woigk, A. Helms, L. Brehmer, “Dispersive surface plasmon microscopy for the characterization of ultrathin organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2336–2337 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, E. Stenberg, “Principles of biosensing with an extended coupling matrix and surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B11, 63–72 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

W. Lukosz, “Principles and sensitivities of integrated optical and surface plasmon sensors for direct affinity sensing and immunosensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 6, 215–225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Stenberg, B. Persson, H. Roos, C. Urbaniczky, “Quantitative determination of surface concentration of protein with surface plasmon resonance using radiolabeled proteins,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 143, 513–526 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

W. Hickel, W. Knoll, “Optical waveguide microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1286–1288 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

B. Rothenhausler, W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon microscopy,” Nature 332, 615–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Arwin, H.

K. Johansen, H. Arwin, I. Lundstrom, B. Liedberg, “Imaging surface plasmon resonance sensor based on multiple wavelengths: sensitivity consideration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3530–3538 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Berger, C. E. H.

C. E. H. Berger, T. A. M. Beumer, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance multisensing,” Anal. Chem. 70, 703–706 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Beumer, T. A. M.

C. E. H. Berger, T. A. M. Beumer, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance multisensing,” Anal. Chem. 70, 703–706 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bidan, G.

P. Guedon, T. Livache, F. Martin, F. Lesbre, A. Roget, G. Bidan, Y. Levy, “Characterization and optimization of a real-time, parallel, label-free, polypyrrole-based DNA sensor by surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Anal. Chem. 72, 6003–6009 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Brehmer, L.

H. Knobloch, G. von Szada-Borryszkowski, S. Woigk, A. Helms, L. Brehmer, “Dispersive surface plasmon microscopy for the characterization of ultrathin organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2336–2337 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, C. T.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to absorbed films,” Langmuir 14, 5636–5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chinowsky, T. M.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to absorbed films,” Langmuir 14, 5636–5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Corn, R. M.

H. J. Lee, T. T. Goodrich, R. M. Corn, “SPR imaging measurements of 1-D and 2-D DNA microarrays created from microfluidic channels on gold thin films,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5525–5531 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Frens, G.

S. Haemers, G. J. M. Koper, M. C. van der Leeden, G. Frens, “A alternative method to quantify surface plasmon resonance measurements of absorption on flat surfaces,” Langmuir 18, 2069–2074 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Goodrich, T. T.

H. J. Lee, T. T. Goodrich, R. M. Corn, “SPR imaging measurements of 1-D and 2-D DNA microarrays created from microfluidic channels on gold thin films,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5525–5531 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Greve, J.

C. E. H. Berger, T. A. M. Beumer, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance multisensing,” Anal. Chem. 70, 703–706 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guedon, P.

P. Guedon, T. Livache, F. Martin, F. Lesbre, A. Roget, G. Bidan, Y. Levy, “Characterization and optimization of a real-time, parallel, label-free, polypyrrole-based DNA sensor by surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Anal. Chem. 72, 6003–6009 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haemers, S.

S. Haemers, G. J. M. Koper, M. C. van der Leeden, G. Frens, “A alternative method to quantify surface plasmon resonance measurements of absorption on flat surfaces,” Langmuir 18, 2069–2074 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Helms, A.

H. Knobloch, G. von Szada-Borryszkowski, S. Woigk, A. Helms, L. Brehmer, “Dispersive surface plasmon microscopy for the characterization of ultrathin organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2336–2337 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hickel, W.

W. Hickel, W. Knoll, “Optical waveguide microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1286–1288 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Johansen, K.

K. Johansen, H. Arwin, I. Lundstrom, B. Liedberg, “Imaging surface plasmon resonance sensor based on multiple wavelengths: sensitivity consideration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3530–3538 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jung, L. S.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to absorbed films,” Langmuir 14, 5636–5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Knobloch, H.

H. Knobloch, G. von Szada-Borryszkowski, S. Woigk, A. Helms, L. Brehmer, “Dispersive surface plasmon microscopy for the characterization of ultrathin organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2336–2337 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Knoll, W.

W. Hickel, W. Knoll, “Optical waveguide microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1286–1288 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Rothenhausler, W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon microscopy,” Nature 332, 615–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kooyman, R. P. H.

C. E. H. Berger, T. A. M. Beumer, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance multisensing,” Anal. Chem. 70, 703–706 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koper, G. J. M.

S. Haemers, G. J. M. Koper, M. C. van der Leeden, G. Frens, “A alternative method to quantify surface plasmon resonance measurements of absorption on flat surfaces,” Langmuir 18, 2069–2074 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. J.

H. J. Lee, T. T. Goodrich, R. M. Corn, “SPR imaging measurements of 1-D and 2-D DNA microarrays created from microfluidic channels on gold thin films,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5525–5531 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lesbre, F.

P. Guedon, T. Livache, F. Martin, F. Lesbre, A. Roget, G. Bidan, Y. Levy, “Characterization and optimization of a real-time, parallel, label-free, polypyrrole-based DNA sensor by surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Anal. Chem. 72, 6003–6009 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Levy, Y.

P. Guedon, T. Livache, F. Martin, F. Lesbre, A. Roget, G. Bidan, Y. Levy, “Characterization and optimization of a real-time, parallel, label-free, polypyrrole-based DNA sensor by surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Anal. Chem. 72, 6003–6009 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liedberg, B.

K. Johansen, H. Arwin, I. Lundstrom, B. Liedberg, “Imaging surface plasmon resonance sensor based on multiple wavelengths: sensitivity consideration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3530–3538 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, E. Stenberg, “Principles of biosensing with an extended coupling matrix and surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B11, 63–72 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Livache, T.

P. Guedon, T. Livache, F. Martin, F. Lesbre, A. Roget, G. Bidan, Y. Levy, “Characterization and optimization of a real-time, parallel, label-free, polypyrrole-based DNA sensor by surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Anal. Chem. 72, 6003–6009 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lukosz, W.

W. Lukosz, “Principles and sensitivities of integrated optical and surface plasmon sensors for direct affinity sensing and immunosensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 6, 215–225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lundstrom, I.

K. Johansen, H. Arwin, I. Lundstrom, B. Liedberg, “Imaging surface plasmon resonance sensor based on multiple wavelengths: sensitivity consideration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3530–3538 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, E. Stenberg, “Principles of biosensing with an extended coupling matrix and surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B11, 63–72 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mar, M. N.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to absorbed films,” Langmuir 14, 5636–5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Martin, F.

P. Guedon, T. Livache, F. Martin, F. Lesbre, A. Roget, G. Bidan, Y. Levy, “Characterization and optimization of a real-time, parallel, label-free, polypyrrole-based DNA sensor by surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Anal. Chem. 72, 6003–6009 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Murai, K.

S. Otsuki, K. Murai, S. Yoshikawa, “Development of a two-dimensional evaluation method for thin layers using surface plasmon resonance,” Chem. Lett. 2001, 1312–1313.

Otsuki, S.

S. Otsuki, K. Murai, S. Yoshikawa, “Development of a two-dimensional evaluation method for thin layers using surface plasmon resonance,” Chem. Lett. 2001, 1312–1313.

Persson, B.

E. Stenberg, B. Persson, H. Roos, C. Urbaniczky, “Quantitative determination of surface concentration of protein with surface plasmon resonance using radiolabeled proteins,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 143, 513–526 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Roget, A.

P. Guedon, T. Livache, F. Martin, F. Lesbre, A. Roget, G. Bidan, Y. Levy, “Characterization and optimization of a real-time, parallel, label-free, polypyrrole-based DNA sensor by surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Anal. Chem. 72, 6003–6009 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Roos, H.

E. Stenberg, B. Persson, H. Roos, C. Urbaniczky, “Quantitative determination of surface concentration of protein with surface plasmon resonance using radiolabeled proteins,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 143, 513–526 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rothenhausler, B.

B. Rothenhausler, W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon microscopy,” Nature 332, 615–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stenberg, E.

B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, E. Stenberg, “Principles of biosensing with an extended coupling matrix and surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B11, 63–72 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Stenberg, B. Persson, H. Roos, C. Urbaniczky, “Quantitative determination of surface concentration of protein with surface plasmon resonance using radiolabeled proteins,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 143, 513–526 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Urbaniczky, C.

E. Stenberg, B. Persson, H. Roos, C. Urbaniczky, “Quantitative determination of surface concentration of protein with surface plasmon resonance using radiolabeled proteins,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 143, 513–526 (1991).
[CrossRef]

van der Leeden, M. C.

S. Haemers, G. J. M. Koper, M. C. van der Leeden, G. Frens, “A alternative method to quantify surface plasmon resonance measurements of absorption on flat surfaces,” Langmuir 18, 2069–2074 (2002).
[CrossRef]

von Szada-Borryszkowski, G.

H. Knobloch, G. von Szada-Borryszkowski, S. Woigk, A. Helms, L. Brehmer, “Dispersive surface plasmon microscopy for the characterization of ultrathin organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2336–2337 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Woigk, S.

H. Knobloch, G. von Szada-Borryszkowski, S. Woigk, A. Helms, L. Brehmer, “Dispersive surface plasmon microscopy for the characterization of ultrathin organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2336–2337 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yee, S. S.

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to absorbed films,” Langmuir 14, 5636–5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yoshikawa, S.

S. Otsuki, K. Murai, S. Yoshikawa, “Development of a two-dimensional evaluation method for thin layers using surface plasmon resonance,” Chem. Lett. 2001, 1312–1313.

Anal. Chem. (3)

C. E. H. Berger, T. A. M. Beumer, R. P. H. Kooyman, J. Greve, “Surface plasmon resonance multisensing,” Anal. Chem. 70, 703–706 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Guedon, T. Livache, F. Martin, F. Lesbre, A. Roget, G. Bidan, Y. Levy, “Characterization and optimization of a real-time, parallel, label-free, polypyrrole-based DNA sensor by surface plasmon resonance imaging,” Anal. Chem. 72, 6003–6009 (2000).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Lee, T. T. Goodrich, R. M. Corn, “SPR imaging measurements of 1-D and 2-D DNA microarrays created from microfluidic channels on gold thin films,” Anal. Chem. 73, 5525–5531 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Knobloch, G. von Szada-Borryszkowski, S. Woigk, A. Helms, L. Brehmer, “Dispersive surface plasmon microscopy for the characterization of ultrathin organic films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 2336–2337 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Hickel, W. Knoll, “Optical waveguide microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1286–1288 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

W. Lukosz, “Principles and sensitivities of integrated optical and surface plasmon sensors for direct affinity sensing and immunosensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 6, 215–225 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Lett. (1)

S. Otsuki, K. Murai, S. Yoshikawa, “Development of a two-dimensional evaluation method for thin layers using surface plasmon resonance,” Chem. Lett. 2001, 1312–1313.

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

E. Stenberg, B. Persson, H. Roos, C. Urbaniczky, “Quantitative determination of surface concentration of protein with surface plasmon resonance using radiolabeled proteins,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 143, 513–526 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (2)

L. S. Jung, C. T. Campbell, T. M. Chinowsky, M. N. Mar, S. S. Yee, “Quantitative interpretation of the response of surface plasmon resonance sensors to absorbed films,” Langmuir 14, 5636–5648 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Haemers, G. J. M. Koper, M. C. van der Leeden, G. Frens, “A alternative method to quantify surface plasmon resonance measurements of absorption on flat surfaces,” Langmuir 18, 2069–2074 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

B. Rothenhausler, W. Knoll, “Surface-plasmon microscopy,” Nature 332, 615–617 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

K. Johansen, H. Arwin, I. Lundstrom, B. Liedberg, “Imaging surface plasmon resonance sensor based on multiple wavelengths: sensitivity consideration,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 3530–3538 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sens. Actuators (1)

B. Liedberg, I. Lundstrom, E. Stenberg, “Principles of biosensing with an extended coupling matrix and surface plasmon resonance,” Sens. Actuators B11, 63–72 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical configuration of a WS-SPR imaging device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Correction of the wavelength dispersion of the system efficiency, using an infrared transmission filter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Simulated curves of the reflectance versus wavelength at varying sample thicknesses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated relation between the SPR wavelength and the sample thickness for a gold–BK7 glass substrate in air.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Surface and (b) linear profiles of the SPR wavelength for an array of protein thin films.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated relation between the sample thickness and the SPR wavelength in air.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Surface and (b) linear profiles of the thickness distribution for an array of protein thin films.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r ir = I ir / I max ir .
I C = I 1 r ir 1 ( I r / I ir ) ,
[ ɛ g ( λ ) ] 1 / 2 sin θ = [ ɛ ( λ ) ɛ a ɛ a + ɛ ( λ ) ] 1 / 2 ,
ɛ s = ɛ ( λ ) ɛ g ( λ ) sin 2 θ ɛ ( λ ) ɛ g ( λ ) sin 2 θ .
y = a [ b ( x + x 0 ) ] 1 / 2 + y 0 ,

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