Abstract

The measurement and characterization of ultrashort laser pulses remains an arduous task. The most commonly used pulse-measurement method is known as frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), and another version with great experimental simplification and low-priced setup is known as grating-eliminated no-nonsense observation of ultrafast incident laser light E fields (GRENOUILLE). Nevertheless, there is interest in elaborating other, more accessible or simpler and cheaper, setups with equal or better assets. We explored modification of the GRENOUILLE method in which we replaced the original Fresnel biprism with a beam splitter and two mirrors and used a cheap webcam to measure the pulse traces. We have evaluated our system, and we propose a method to correct border effects caused by the beam intensity’s profile based on the characterization of three pulse classes: Fourier-transform limited, double, and chirped. We compare the recovered electric field with further spectral and second-order correlation data of the corresponding pulses.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Kawashima, M. M. Wefers, K. A. Nelson, “Femtosecond pulse shaping, multiple-pulse spectroscopy, and optical control,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 46, 627–656 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, G. P. Wiederrecht, K. A. Nelson, “Femtosecond pulse sequences used for optical manipulation of molecular-motion,” Science 247, 1317–1319 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. P. O’Shea, M. Kimmel, R. Trebino, “Increased phase-matching bandwidth in simple ultrashort-laser-pulse measurements,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 4, 44–48 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, “Measuring pulse-front tilt in ultrashort pulses using GRENOUILLE,” Opt. Express 11, 491–501 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. Z. Wang, E. Zeek, R. Trebino, P. Kvam, “Beyond error bars: understanding uncertainty in ultrashort-pulse frequency-resolved-optical-gating measurements in the presence of ambiguity,” Opt. Express 11, 3518–3527 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. Phase retrieval for Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating using Genetic Algorithms and Generalized Projections. Copyright 1998 Jeff Nicholson, jwn@ofsoptics.com.
  19. S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, “Extremely simple device for measuring 20-fs pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1025–1027 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

2002 (3)

2001 (2)

P. O’Shea, M. Kimmel, X. Gu, R. Trebino, “Highly simplified device for ultrashort-pulse measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 932–934 (2001).
[CrossRef]

N. Dudovich, B. Dayan, S. M. G. Faeder, Y. Silberberg, “Transform-limited pulses are not optimal for resonant multiphoton transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 47–50 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999 (2)

1998 (1)

D. Meshulach, Y. Silberberg, “Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Nature 396, 239–242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, “Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253–1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

H. Kawashima, M. M. Wefers, K. A. Nelson, “Femtosecond pulse shaping, multiple-pulse spectroscopy, and optical control,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 46, 627–656 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

1990 (1)

A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, G. P. Wiederrecht, K. A. Nelson, “Femtosecond pulse sequences used for optical manipulation of molecular-motion,” Science 247, 1317–1319 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

Akturk, S.

Dayan, B.

N. Dudovich, B. Dayan, S. M. G. Faeder, Y. Silberberg, “Transform-limited pulses are not optimal for resonant multiphoton transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 47–50 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeLong, K. W.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, “Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253–1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, J. Hunter, W. E. White, “Frequency-resolved optical gating with the use of second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2206–2215 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Dorrer, C.

Dudovich, N.

N. Dudovich, B. Dayan, S. M. G. Faeder, Y. Silberberg, “Transform-limited pulses are not optimal for resonant multiphoton transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 47–50 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faeder, S. M. G.

N. Dudovich, B. Dayan, S. M. G. Faeder, Y. Silberberg, “Transform-limited pulses are not optimal for resonant multiphoton transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 47–50 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fittinghoff, D. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, “Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253–1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fork, R. L.

Gallmann, L.

Gordon, J. P.

Gu, X.

Hunter, J.

Iaconis, C.

Kane, D. J.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, D. J. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulses: frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1101–1111 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kawashima, H.

H. Kawashima, M. M. Wefers, K. A. Nelson, “Femtosecond pulse shaping, multiple-pulse spectroscopy, and optical control,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 46, 627–656 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keller, U.

Kimmel, M.

Krumbügel, M. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kvam, P.

Leaird, D. E.

A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, G. P. Wiederrecht, K. A. Nelson, “Femtosecond pulse sequences used for optical manipulation of molecular-motion,” Science 247, 1317–1319 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marinez, O. E.

Matuschek, N.

Meshulach, D.

D. Meshulach, Y. Silberberg, “Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Nature 396, 239–242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, K. A.

H. Kawashima, M. M. Wefers, K. A. Nelson, “Femtosecond pulse shaping, multiple-pulse spectroscopy, and optical control,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 46, 627–656 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, G. P. Wiederrecht, K. A. Nelson, “Femtosecond pulse sequences used for optical manipulation of molecular-motion,” Science 247, 1317–1319 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Shea, P.

Richman, B. A.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

N. Dudovich, B. Dayan, S. M. G. Faeder, Y. Silberberg, “Transform-limited pulses are not optimal for resonant multiphoton transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 47–50 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Meshulach, Y. Silberberg, “Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Nature 396, 239–242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

Sutter, D. H.

Sweetser, J. N.

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, “Extremely simple device for measuring 20-fs pulses,” Opt. Lett. 29, 1025–1027 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Akturk, M. Kimmel, P. O’Shea, R. Trebino, “Measuring pulse-front tilt in ultrashort pulses using GRENOUILLE,” Opt. Express 11, 491–501 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, E. Zeek, R. Trebino, P. Kvam, “Beyond error bars: understanding uncertainty in ultrashort-pulse frequency-resolved-optical-gating measurements in the presence of ambiguity,” Opt. Express 11, 3518–3527 (2003), http://www.opticsexpress.org .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. O’Shea, M. Kimmel, R. Trebino, “Increased phase-matching bandwidth in simple ultrashort-laser-pulse measurements,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 4, 44–48 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. O’Shea, M. Kimmel, X. Gu, R. Trebino, “Highly simplified device for ultrashort-pulse measurement,” Opt. Lett. 26, 932–934 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, “Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253–1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, J. Hunter, W. E. White, “Frequency-resolved optical gating with the use of second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2206–2215 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Trebino, D. J. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of ultrashort pulses: frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1101–1111 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Walmsley, I. A.

Wang, Z.

Wefers, M. M.

H. Kawashima, M. M. Wefers, K. A. Nelson, “Femtosecond pulse shaping, multiple-pulse spectroscopy, and optical control,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 46, 627–656 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiner, A. M.

A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, G. P. Wiederrecht, K. A. Nelson, “Femtosecond pulse sequences used for optical manipulation of molecular-motion,” Science 247, 1317–1319 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, W. E.

Wiederrecht, G. P.

A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, G. P. Wiederrecht, K. A. Nelson, “Femtosecond pulse sequences used for optical manipulation of molecular-motion,” Science 247, 1317–1319 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeek, E.

Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. (1)

H. Kawashima, M. M. Wefers, K. A. Nelson, “Femtosecond pulse shaping, multiple-pulse spectroscopy, and optical control,” Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 46, 627–656 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. Iaconis, I. A. Walmsley, “Self-referencing spectral interferometry for measuring ultrashort optical pulses,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 501–509 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, “Practical issues in ultrashort-laser-pulse measurement using frequency-resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 1253–1264 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclass. Opt. (1)

P. O’Shea, M. Kimmel, R. Trebino, “Increased phase-matching bandwidth in simple ultrashort-laser-pulse measurements,” J. Opt. B Quantum Semiclass. Opt. 4, 44–48 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Nature (1)

D. Meshulach, Y. Silberberg, “Coherent quantum control of two-photon transitions by a femtosecond laser pulse,” Nature 396, 239–242 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

N. Dudovich, B. Dayan, S. M. G. Faeder, Y. Silberberg, “Transform-limited pulses are not optimal for resonant multiphoton transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 47–50 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

R. Trebino, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, J. N. Sweetser, M. A. Krumbügel, B. A. Richman, D. J. Kane, “Measuring ultrashort laser pulses in the time-frequency domain using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68, 3277–3295 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, G. P. Wiederrecht, K. A. Nelson, “Femtosecond pulse sequences used for optical manipulation of molecular-motion,” Science 247, 1317–1319 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

Phase retrieval for Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating using Genetic Algorithms and Generalized Projections. Copyright 1998 Jeff Nicholson, jwn@ofsoptics.com.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Our experimental setup. (a) Top view: M1–M3, mirrors (M3 at the translation stage); BS, beam splitter; L, cylindrical lens; C, BBO crystal; W, webcam. (b) Side view.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Webcam images obtained with our setup (gray-scale intensity): (a) a transform-limited pulse; (b) chirped pulse; (c) result when a double pulse impinges on the GRENOUILLE.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Spectral intensity recovered by the iterative program for the transform-limited pulse. The spectral phase is also shown, and the experimentally measured spectral intensity is juxtaposed. (b) Temporal intensity and temporal phase recovered by the iterative program. As can be seen, the phase is a linear function of time.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Same as Fig. 3(a) but for the chirped pulse. (b) Same as Fig. 3(b) but for the chirped pulse. As can be seen, the phase is a quadratic function of time.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Same as Fig. 3(a) but for the double pulse. (b) Same as Fig. 3(b) but for the double pulse.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Variation of the maximum value of the delay margin (filled squares). Also shown are three curves obtained for three different delay positions of the translation stage.

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