Abstract

Optical communications networks require integrated photonic components with negligible polarization dependence, which typically means that the waveguides must feature very low birefringence. Recent studies have shown that waveguides with low birefringence can be obtained, e.g., by use of silica-on-silicon waveguides or buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides. However, many integrated photonic circuits consist of waveguides with varying widths. Therefore low birefringence is consequently required for waveguides having different widths. This is a difficult task for most waveguide fabrication technologies. We present experimental results on waveguide birefringence for buried silver–sodium ion-exchanged glass waveguides. We show that the waveguide birefringence of the order of 10−6 for waveguide mask opening widths ranging from 2 to 10 µm can be obtained by postprocessing the sample through annealing at an elevated temperature. The measured values are in agreement with the values calculated with our modeling software for ion-exchanged glass waveguides. This unique feature of ion-exchanged waveguides may be of significant importance in a wide variety of integrated photonic circuits requiring polarization-independent operation.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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  1. E. Wildermuth, Ch. Nadler, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, “Penalty-free polarization compensation of SiO2/Si arrayed waveguide grating wavelength multiplexers using stress release grooves,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1661–1663 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. K. Nadler, E. B. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, “Polarization insensitive, low-loss, low-crosstalk wavelength multiplexer modules,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407–1412 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, “Polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide wavelength multiplexer with birefringence compensating film,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 707–709 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Okuno, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, “Birefringence control of silica waveguides on Si and its application to a polarization-beam splitter/switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 625–633 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarisation-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits,” Electron. Lett. 34, 485–486 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Canning, M. Åslund, “Compensation of birefringence within integrated optical components using a CO2 laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 812–814 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  10. J. T. A. Carriere, J. A. Frantz, B. R. Youmans, S. Honkanen, R. K. Kostuk, “Measurement of waveguide birefringence using a ring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1134–1136 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  11. V. Minier, D. Persegol, J. L. Lovato, A. Kévorkian, “Integrated optical current sensor with low-birefringence optical waveguides,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of OSA Technical Digest Series, Postconference Edition (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 104–107.
  12. V. Minier, D. Persegol, J. L. Lovato, G. Clauss, A. Kévorkian, “Low-birefringence optical waveguides for high performance magneto-optic current sensing,” in Digest of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 94–97.
  13. S. Yliniemi, B. R. West, T. Aalto, P. Madasamy, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, “Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides featuring low birefringence with a broad range of waveguide widths,” in Integrated Optics and Photonic Integrated Circuits, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE5451, 558–564 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. K. Wörhoff, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. M. de Ridder, G. Segno, L. T. H. Hilderink, A. Driessen, “Tolerance of polarization independent waveguides for communication devices,” in Integrated Optics and Photonic Integrated Circuits, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE5451, 369–380 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  17. B. R. West, P. Madasamy, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, “Accurate modeling of ion-exchanged glass waveguide structures,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347, 18–26 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. W. Peaceman, H. H. Rachford, “The numerical solution of parabolic and elliptic differential equations,” J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 3, 28–41 (1955).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. M. Kim, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Modeling of graded-index channel waveguides using nonuniform finite difference method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1581–1589 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  20. P. Madasamy, B. R. West, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides: burial depth dependence on the waveguide width,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1132–1134 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. W. Lukosz, C. Stamm, “Integrated optical interferometer as relative humidity sensor and differential refractometer,” Sens. Actuators A 25, 185–188 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 2nd. ed. (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1997), pp. 17–29.
  23. W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1529–1533 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Ou, “Different index contrast silica-on-silicon waveguides by PECVD,” Electron. Lett. 39, 212–213 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  25. A. Kilian, J. Kirchhof, B. Kuhlow, G. Przyrembel, W. Wischmann, “Birefringence free planar optical waveguide made by flame hydrolysis deposition (FDH) through tailoring of the overcladding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 193–198 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2005 (1)

B. R. West, P. Madasamy, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, “Accurate modeling of ion-exchanged glass waveguide structures,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347, 18–26 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. T. A. Carriere, J. A. Frantz, B. R. Youmans, S. Honkanen, R. K. Kostuk, “Measurement of waveguide birefringence using a ring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1134–1136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2001 (1)

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Ion-exchanged waveguide add/drop filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 829–831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1999 (2)

J. Canning, M. Åslund, “Compensation of birefringence within integrated optical components using a CO2 laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 812–814 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. K. Nadler, E. B. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, “Polarization insensitive, low-loss, low-crosstalk wavelength multiplexer modules,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407–1412 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

E. Wildermuth, Ch. Nadler, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, “Penalty-free polarization compensation of SiO2/Si arrayed waveguide grating wavelength multiplexers using stress release grooves,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1661–1663 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarisation-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits,” Electron. Lett. 34, 485–486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Äyräs, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Birefringence control for ion-exchanged channel glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8400–8405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

M. Okuno, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, “Birefringence control of silica waveguides on Si and its application to a polarization-beam splitter/switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 625–633 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, “Polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide wavelength multiplexer with birefringence compensating film,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 707–709 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1529–1533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

W. Lukosz, C. Stamm, “Integrated optical interferometer as relative humidity sensor and differential refractometer,” Sens. Actuators A 25, 185–188 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

C. M. Kim, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Modeling of graded-index channel waveguides using nonuniform finite difference method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1581–1589 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

A. Brandenburg, “Stress in ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1580–1593 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1955 (1)

D. W. Peaceman, H. H. Rachford, “The numerical solution of parabolic and elliptic differential equations,” J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 3, 28–41 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Aalto, T.

S. Yliniemi, B. R. West, T. Aalto, P. Madasamy, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, “Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides featuring low birefringence with a broad range of waveguide widths,” in Integrated Optics and Photonic Integrated Circuits, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE5451, 558–564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Albert, J.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarisation-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits,” Electron. Lett. 34, 485–486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, “Ion exchange from salt melts,” in Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics, S. I. Najafi, ed. (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1992), pp. 7–38.

Åslund, M.

J. Canning, M. Åslund, “Compensation of birefringence within integrated optical components using a CO2 laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 812–814 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Äyräs, P.

Bilodeau, F.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarisation-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits,” Electron. Lett. 34, 485–486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brandenburg, A.

A. Brandenburg, “Stress in ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1580–1593 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Canning, J.

J. Canning, M. Åslund, “Compensation of birefringence within integrated optical components using a CO2 laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 812–814 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carriere, J. T. A.

J. T. A. Carriere, J. A. Frantz, B. R. Youmans, S. Honkanen, R. K. Kostuk, “Measurement of waveguide birefringence using a ring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1134–1136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Clauss, G.

V. Minier, D. Persegol, J. L. Lovato, G. Clauss, A. Kévorkian, “Low-birefringence optical waveguides for high performance magneto-optic current sensing,” in Digest of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 94–97.

de Ridder, R. M.

K. Wörhoff, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. M. de Ridder, G. Segno, L. T. H. Hilderink, A. Driessen, “Tolerance of polarization independent waveguides for communication devices,” in Integrated Optics and Photonic Integrated Circuits, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE5451, 369–380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Driessen, A.

K. Wörhoff, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. M. de Ridder, G. Segno, L. T. H. Hilderink, A. Driessen, “Tolerance of polarization independent waveguides for communication devices,” in Integrated Optics and Photonic Integrated Circuits, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE5451, 369–380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Frantz, J. A.

J. T. A. Carriere, J. A. Frantz, B. R. Youmans, S. Honkanen, R. K. Kostuk, “Measurement of waveguide birefringence using a ring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1134–1136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Geraghty, D. F.

P. Madasamy, B. R. West, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides: burial depth dependence on the waveguide width,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1132–1134 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Ion-exchanged waveguide add/drop filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 829–831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hibino, Y.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarisation-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits,” Electron. Lett. 34, 485–486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, “Polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide wavelength multiplexer with birefringence compensating film,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 707–709 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, I. Nishi, “Polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide grating wavelength multiplexer on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 17, 499–501 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hilderink, L. T. H.

K. Wörhoff, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. M. de Ridder, G. Segno, L. T. H. Hilderink, A. Driessen, “Tolerance of polarization independent waveguides for communication devices,” in Integrated Optics and Photonic Integrated Circuits, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE5451, 369–380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K. O.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarisation-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits,” Electron. Lett. 34, 485–486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

B. R. West, P. Madasamy, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, “Accurate modeling of ion-exchanged glass waveguide structures,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347, 18–26 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. T. A. Carriere, J. A. Frantz, B. R. Youmans, S. Honkanen, R. K. Kostuk, “Measurement of waveguide birefringence using a ring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1134–1136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Madasamy, B. R. West, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides: burial depth dependence on the waveguide width,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1132–1134 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Ion-exchanged waveguide add/drop filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 829–831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Äyräs, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Birefringence control for ion-exchanged channel glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8400–8405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1529–1533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Yliniemi, B. R. West, T. Aalto, P. Madasamy, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, “Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides featuring low birefringence with a broad range of waveguide widths,” in Integrated Optics and Photonic Integrated Circuits, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE5451, 558–564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hunziker, W.

C. K. Nadler, E. B. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, “Polarization insensitive, low-loss, low-crosstalk wavelength multiplexer modules,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407–1412 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Wildermuth, Ch. Nadler, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, “Penalty-free polarization compensation of SiO2/Si arrayed waveguide grating wavelength multiplexers using stress release grooves,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1661–1663 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jinguji, K.

M. Okuno, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, “Birefringence control of silica waveguides on Si and its application to a polarization-beam splitter/switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 625–633 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, D. C.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarisation-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits,” Electron. Lett. 34, 485–486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kawachi, M.

M. Okuno, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, “Birefringence control of silica waveguides on Si and its application to a polarization-beam splitter/switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 625–633 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, “Polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide wavelength multiplexer with birefringence compensating film,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 707–709 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kévorkian, A.

V. Minier, D. Persegol, J. L. Lovato, A. Kévorkian, “Integrated optical current sensor with low-birefringence optical waveguides,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of OSA Technical Digest Series, Postconference Edition (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 104–107.

V. Minier, D. Persegol, J. L. Lovato, G. Clauss, A. Kévorkian, “Low-birefringence optical waveguides for high performance magneto-optic current sensing,” in Digest of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 94–97.

Kilian, A.

Kim, C. M.

C. M. Kim, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Modeling of graded-index channel waveguides using nonuniform finite difference method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1581–1589 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kirchhof, J.

Kitagawa, T.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarisation-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits,” Electron. Lett. 34, 485–486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kostuk, R. K.

J. T. A. Carriere, J. A. Frantz, B. R. Youmans, S. Honkanen, R. K. Kostuk, “Measurement of waveguide birefringence using a ring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1134–1136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuhlow, B.

Lanker, M.

C. K. Nadler, E. B. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, “Polarization insensitive, low-loss, low-crosstalk wavelength multiplexer modules,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407–1412 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Wildermuth, Ch. Nadler, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, “Penalty-free polarization compensation of SiO2/Si arrayed waveguide grating wavelength multiplexers using stress release grooves,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1661–1663 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lovato, J. L.

V. Minier, D. Persegol, J. L. Lovato, G. Clauss, A. Kévorkian, “Low-birefringence optical waveguides for high performance magneto-optic current sensing,” in Digest of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 94–97.

V. Minier, D. Persegol, J. L. Lovato, A. Kévorkian, “Integrated optical current sensor with low-birefringence optical waveguides,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of OSA Technical Digest Series, Postconference Edition (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 104–107.

Lukosz, W.

W. Lukosz, C. Stamm, “Integrated optical interferometer as relative humidity sensor and differential refractometer,” Sens. Actuators A 25, 185–188 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Madasamy, P.

B. R. West, P. Madasamy, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, “Accurate modeling of ion-exchanged glass waveguide structures,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347, 18–26 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Madasamy, B. R. West, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides: burial depth dependence on the waveguide width,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1132–1134 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yliniemi, B. R. West, T. Aalto, P. Madasamy, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, “Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides featuring low birefringence with a broad range of waveguide widths,” in Integrated Optics and Photonic Integrated Circuits, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE5451, 558–564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Melchior, H.

C. K. Nadler, E. B. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, “Polarization insensitive, low-loss, low-crosstalk wavelength multiplexer modules,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407–1412 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Wildermuth, Ch. Nadler, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, “Penalty-free polarization compensation of SiO2/Si arrayed waveguide grating wavelength multiplexers using stress release grooves,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1661–1663 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mihailov, S. J.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarisation-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits,” Electron. Lett. 34, 485–486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Minier, V.

V. Minier, D. Persegol, J. L. Lovato, A. Kévorkian, “Integrated optical current sensor with low-birefringence optical waveguides,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of OSA Technical Digest Series, Postconference Edition (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 104–107.

V. Minier, D. Persegol, J. L. Lovato, G. Clauss, A. Kévorkian, “Low-birefringence optical waveguides for high performance magneto-optic current sensing,” in Digest of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 94–97.

Morrell, M.

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Ion-exchanged waveguide add/drop filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 829–831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Morrell, M. M.

Nadler, C. K.

C. K. Nadler, E. B. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, “Polarization insensitive, low-loss, low-crosstalk wavelength multiplexer modules,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407–1412 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nadler, Ch.

E. Wildermuth, Ch. Nadler, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, “Penalty-free polarization compensation of SiO2/Si arrayed waveguide grating wavelength multiplexers using stress release grooves,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1661–1663 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1529–1533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nishi, I.

Nunzi Conti, G.

Ohmori, Y.

H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, “Polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide wavelength multiplexer with birefringence compensating film,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 707–709 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Okuno, M.

M. Okuno, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, “Birefringence control of silica waveguides on Si and its application to a polarization-beam splitter/switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 625–633 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ou, H.

H. Ou, “Different index contrast silica-on-silicon waveguides by PECVD,” Electron. Lett. 39, 212–213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Peaceman, D. W.

D. W. Peaceman, H. H. Rachford, “The numerical solution of parabolic and elliptic differential equations,” J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 3, 28–41 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Persegol, D.

V. Minier, D. Persegol, J. L. Lovato, A. Kévorkian, “Integrated optical current sensor with low-birefringence optical waveguides,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of OSA Technical Digest Series, Postconference Edition (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 104–107.

V. Minier, D. Persegol, J. L. Lovato, G. Clauss, A. Kévorkian, “Low-birefringence optical waveguides for high performance magneto-optic current sensing,” in Digest of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 94–97.

Peyghambarian, N.

B. R. West, P. Madasamy, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, “Accurate modeling of ion-exchanged glass waveguide structures,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347, 18–26 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Madasamy, B. R. West, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides: burial depth dependence on the waveguide width,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1132–1134 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Ion-exchanged waveguide add/drop filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 829–831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

P. Äyräs, G. Nunzi Conti, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Birefringence control for ion-exchanged channel glass waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 37, 8400–8405 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Yliniemi, B. R. West, T. Aalto, P. Madasamy, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, “Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides featuring low birefringence with a broad range of waveguide widths,” in Integrated Optics and Photonic Integrated Circuits, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE5451, 558–564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Provenzano, D.

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Ion-exchanged waveguide add/drop filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 829–831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Przyrembel, G.

Rachford, H. H.

D. W. Peaceman, H. H. Rachford, “The numerical solution of parabolic and elliptic differential equations,” J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 3, 28–41 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Ramaswamy, R. V.

C. M. Kim, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Modeling of graded-index channel waveguides using nonuniform finite difference method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1581–1589 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Roeloffzen, C. G. H.

K. Wörhoff, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. M. de Ridder, G. Segno, L. T. H. Hilderink, A. Driessen, “Tolerance of polarization independent waveguides for communication devices,” in Integrated Optics and Photonic Integrated Circuits, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE5451, 369–380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Segno, G.

K. Wörhoff, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. M. de Ridder, G. Segno, L. T. H. Hilderink, A. Driessen, “Tolerance of polarization independent waveguides for communication devices,” in Integrated Optics and Photonic Integrated Circuits, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE5451, 369–380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stamm, C.

W. Lukosz, C. Stamm, “Integrated optical interferometer as relative humidity sensor and differential refractometer,” Sens. Actuators A 25, 185–188 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stryckman, D.

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarisation-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits,” Electron. Lett. 34, 485–486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sugita, A.

M. Okuno, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, “Birefringence control of silica waveguides on Si and its application to a polarization-beam splitter/switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 625–633 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, H.

H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, “Polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide wavelength multiplexer with birefringence compensating film,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 707–709 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, I. Nishi, “Polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide grating wavelength multiplexer on silicon,” Opt. Lett. 17, 499–501 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tervonen, A.

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1529–1533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. J.

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1529–1533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

West, B. R.

B. R. West, P. Madasamy, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, “Accurate modeling of ion-exchanged glass waveguide structures,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347, 18–26 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Madasamy, B. R. West, M. M. Morrell, D. F. Geraghty, S. Honkanen, N. Peyghambarian, “Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides: burial depth dependence on the waveguide width,” Opt. Lett. 28, 1132–1134 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yliniemi, B. R. West, T. Aalto, P. Madasamy, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, “Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides featuring low birefringence with a broad range of waveguide widths,” in Integrated Optics and Photonic Integrated Circuits, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE5451, 558–564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wildermuth, E.

E. Wildermuth, Ch. Nadler, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, “Penalty-free polarization compensation of SiO2/Si arrayed waveguide grating wavelength multiplexers using stress release grooves,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1661–1663 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wildermuth, E. B.

C. K. Nadler, E. B. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, “Polarization insensitive, low-loss, low-crosstalk wavelength multiplexer modules,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407–1412 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wischmann, W.

Wörhoff, K.

K. Wörhoff, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. M. de Ridder, G. Segno, L. T. H. Hilderink, A. Driessen, “Tolerance of polarization independent waveguides for communication devices,” in Integrated Optics and Photonic Integrated Circuits, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE5451, 369–380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Ion-exchanged waveguide add/drop filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 829–831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 2nd. ed. (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1997), pp. 17–29.

Yliniemi, S.

S. Yliniemi, B. R. West, T. Aalto, P. Madasamy, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, “Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides featuring low birefringence with a broad range of waveguide widths,” in Integrated Optics and Photonic Integrated Circuits, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE5451, 558–564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Youmans, B. R.

J. T. A. Carriere, J. A. Frantz, B. R. Youmans, S. Honkanen, R. K. Kostuk, “Measurement of waveguide birefringence using a ring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1134–1136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Electron. Lett. (5)

H. Ou, “Different index contrast silica-on-silicon waveguides by PECVD,” Electron. Lett. 39, 212–213 (2003).
[CrossRef]

D. F. Geraghty, D. Provenzano, M. Morrell, S. Honkanen, A. Yariv, N. Peyghambarian, “Ion-exchanged waveguide add/drop filter,” Electron. Lett. 37, 829–831 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. Wildermuth, Ch. Nadler, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, “Penalty-free polarization compensation of SiO2/Si arrayed waveguide grating wavelength multiplexers using stress release grooves,” Electron. Lett. 34, 1661–1663 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, S. J. Mihailov, D. Stryckman, T. Kitagawa, Y. Hibino, “Polarisation-independent strong Bragg gratings in planar lightwave circuits,” Electron. Lett. 34, 485–486 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Canning, M. Åslund, “Compensation of birefringence within integrated optical components using a CO2 laser,” Electron. Lett. 35, 812–814 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. K. Nadler, E. B. Wildermuth, M. Lanker, W. Hunziker, H. Melchior, “Polarization insensitive, low-loss, low-crosstalk wavelength multiplexer modules,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 5, 1407–1412 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. Takahashi, Y. Hibino, Y. Ohmori, M. Kawachi, “Polarization-insensitive arrayed-waveguide wavelength multiplexer with birefringence compensating film,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 707–709 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. T. A. Carriere, J. A. Frantz, B. R. Youmans, S. Honkanen, R. K. Kostuk, “Measurement of waveguide birefringence using a ring resonator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 16, 1134–1136 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

W. J. Wang, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, A. Tervonen, “Loss characteristics of potassium and silver double-ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 1529–1533 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

C. M. Kim, R. V. Ramaswamy, “Modeling of graded-index channel waveguides using nonuniform finite difference method,” J. Lightwave Technol. 7, 1581–1589 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A. Brandenburg, “Stress in ion-exchanged glass waveguides,” J. Lightwave Technol. LT-4, 1580–1593 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Okuno, A. Sugita, K. Jinguji, M. Kawachi, “Birefringence control of silica waveguides on Si and its application to a polarization-beam splitter/switch,” J. Lightwave Technol. 12, 625–633 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Kilian, J. Kirchhof, B. Kuhlow, G. Przyrembel, W. Wischmann, “Birefringence free planar optical waveguide made by flame hydrolysis deposition (FDH) through tailoring of the overcladding,” J. Lightwave Technol. 18, 193–198 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

B. R. West, P. Madasamy, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, “Accurate modeling of ion-exchanged glass waveguide structures,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 347, 18–26 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. (1)

D. W. Peaceman, H. H. Rachford, “The numerical solution of parabolic and elliptic differential equations,” J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. 3, 28–41 (1955).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Sens. Actuators A (1)

W. Lukosz, C. Stamm, “Integrated optical interferometer as relative humidity sensor and differential refractometer,” Sens. Actuators A 25, 185–188 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 2nd. ed. (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1997), pp. 17–29.

V. Minier, D. Persegol, J. L. Lovato, A. Kévorkian, “Integrated optical current sensor with low-birefringence optical waveguides,” in Optical Fiber Sensors, Vol. 16 of OSA Technical Digest Series, Postconference Edition (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 104–107.

V. Minier, D. Persegol, J. L. Lovato, G. Clauss, A. Kévorkian, “Low-birefringence optical waveguides for high performance magneto-optic current sensing,” in Digest of the Eighth European Conference on Integrated Optics (ECIO) (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 94–97.

S. Yliniemi, B. R. West, T. Aalto, P. Madasamy, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, “Buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides featuring low birefringence with a broad range of waveguide widths,” in Integrated Optics and Photonic Integrated Circuits, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE5451, 558–564 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Wörhoff, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. M. de Ridder, G. Segno, L. T. H. Hilderink, A. Driessen, “Tolerance of polarization independent waveguides for communication devices,” in Integrated Optics and Photonic Integrated Circuits, G. C. Righini, S. Honkanen, eds., Proc. SPIE5451, 369–380 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Albert, “Ion exchange from salt melts,” in Introduction to Glass Integrated Optics, S. I. Najafi, ed. (Artech House, Boston, Mass., 1992), pp. 7–38.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Mode intensity profiles for waveguides with mask opening widths of (a) 2 µm, (b) 7 µm, and (c) for a single-mode fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measurement setup used to determine the waveguide birefringence of channel waveguides. Linearly polarized light at λ0 = 1550 nm is coupled to the sample with a 20 × objective. After the beam emerges from the sample it travels through a 20 × objective, a λ/2 plate at an angle of 22.5°, and a rotatable analyzer to the InGaAs detector. The setup also includes a movable λ/4 plate at an angle of 45°. All angles are presented with respect to the horizontal axis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured birefringence (nTEnTM) after burial (crosses) and the corresponding modeled values (diamonds).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Birefringence (nTEnTM) before annealing (crosses) and after annealing at 250 °C for 15 min (open circles), 45 min (diamonds), 75 min (squares), and 105 min (filled circles).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Exponential fit for birefringence as a function of annealing time for mask opening widths (a) 2 µm and (b) 10 µm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Saturated birefringence values obtained from the exponential fitting procedure for different mask opening widths.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Azimuthal Angle and Phase Shift used in Eq. (A4) for Half- and Quarter-Wave Plates and the Sample

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n TE = n 0 + C 1 σ y + C 2 ( σ x + σ z ) ,
n TM = n 0 + C 1 σ x + C 2 ( σ y + σ z ) ,
C Ag t = D Ag 1 ( 1 M ) C Ag [ 2 C Ag + ( 1 M ) ( C Ag ) 2 1 ( 1 M ) C Ag q E ext · C Ag k T ] ,
Δ Φ = 2 π λ 0 ( n TE n TM ) L ,
E in = [ E x in E y in ] = I 0 2 [ 1 1 ] ,
E 1 out = J λ / 2 J s E in .
E 2 out = J λ / 4 J λ / 2 J s E in .
J i ( Ψ , Γ ) = { exp [ i ( Γ / 2 ) ] cos 2 Ψ + exp [ i ( Γ / 2 ) ] sin 2 Ψ i sin ( Γ 2 ) sin ( 2 Ψ ) i sin ( Γ 2 ) sin ( 2 Ψ ) exp [ i ( Γ / 2 ) ] sin 2 Ψ + exp [ i ( Γ / 2 ) ] cos 2 Ψ } ,
I 1 x = E 1 x out E 1 x out * = I 0 / 2 [ 1 + cos ( Δ Φ ) ] ,
I 1 y = E 1 y out E 1 y out * = I 0 / 2 [ 1 cos ( Δ Φ ) ] ,
I 2 x = E 2 x out E 2 x out * = I 0 / 2 [ 1 + sin ( Δ Φ ) ] ,
I 2 y = E 2 y out E 2 y out * = I 0 / 2 [ 1 sin ( Δ Φ ) ] .
Δ Φ = arctan [ ( I 1 y + I 1 x ) ( I 2 y I 2 x ) ( I 1 y I 1 x ) ( I 2 y I 2 x ) ] .

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