Abstract

We present a novel technique for retrieving ozone (O3) profiles and especially tropospheric O3 from airborne UV/visible spectrometer measurements. This technique utilizes radiance spectra from one down-looking and two up-looking (85° and 75°) directions, taking advantage of the O3 absorption structure in the Huggins (300–340-nm) and Chappuis (530–650-nm) bands. This technique is especially sensitive to tropospheric O3 below and ≤8 km above the aircraft with a vertical resolution of 2–6 km and is sensitive to lower and middle stratospheric O3 with a vertical resolution of 8–15 km. It can measure tropospheric O3 at spatial resolutions of 2 km × 2 km or higher and is therefore well suited for regional air-quality studies and validation of satellite measurements.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  37. Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, L. A. Remer, E. F. Vermote, A. Chu, B. N. Holben, “Operational remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol over land from EOS moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17051–17067 (1997).
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    [CrossRef]
  40. K. V. Chance, J. P. Burrows, D. Perner, W. Schneider, “Satellite measurements of atmospheric ozone profiles, including tropospheric ozone, from ultraviolet/visible measurements in the nadir geometry: a potential method to retrieve tropospheric ozone,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 57, 467–476 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  41. R. J. D. Spurr, T. P. Kurosu, K. V. Chance, “A linearized discrete ordinate radiative transfer model for atmospheric remote-sensing retrieval,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 68, 689–735 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  42. R. D. McPeters, J. A. Logan, G. J. Labow, “Ozone climatological profiles for Version 8 TOMS and SBUV retrievals,” Eos. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 84, Fall Meeting Supplement, Abstract A21D-0998 (2003).
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    [CrossRef]

2004

2003

M. J. Newchurch, D. Sun, J. H. Kim, X. Liu, “Tropical tropospheric ozone derived using Clear-Cloudy Pairs (CCP) of TOMS measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 683–695 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. J. M. Valks, R. B. A. Koelemeijer, M. van Weele, P. van Velthoven, J. P. F. Fortuin, H. Kelder, “Variability in tropical tropospheric ozone: analysis with Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment observations and a global model,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Chandra, J. R. Ziemke, R. V. Martin, “Tropospheric ozone at tropical and middle latitudes derived from TOMS/ MLS residual: comparison with a global model,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, 4291, doi:4210.1029/2002JD002912 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. D. McPeters, J. A. Logan, G. J. Labow, “Ozone climatological profiles for Version 8 TOMS and SBUV retrievals,” Eos. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 84, Fall Meeting Supplement, Abstract A21D-0998 (2003).

J. Orphal, “A critical review of the absorption cross sections of O3 and NO2 in the 240–790-nm region,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. A 157, 185–209 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002

R. V. Martin, K. Chance, D. J. Jacob, T. P. Kurosu, R. J. D. Spurr, E. Bucsela, J. F. Gleason, P. I. Palmer, I. Bey, A. M. Fiore, Q. Li, R. M. Yantosca, R. B. A. Koelemeijer, “An improved retrieval of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide from GOME,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

R. J. van der A, R. F. van Oss, A. J. M. Piters, J. P. F. Fortuin, Y. J. Meijer, H. M. Kelder, “Ozone profile retrieval from recalibrated GOME data,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Petritoli, F. Ravegnani, G. Giovanelli, D. Bortoli, U. Bonafe, I. Kostadinov, A. Oulanovsky, “Off-axis measurements of atmospheric trace gases by use of an airborne ultraviolet-visible spectrometer,” Appl. Opt. 41, 5593–5599 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001

O. P. Hasekamp, J. Landgraf, “Ozone profile retrieval from backscattered ultraviolet radiances: the inverse problem solved by regularization,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 8077–8088 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. J. D. Spurr, T. P. Kurosu, K. V. Chance, “A linearized discrete ordinate radiative transfer model for atmospheric remote-sensing retrieval,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 68, 689–735 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Newchurch, X. Liu, J. H. Kim, “Lower tropospheric ozone (LTO) derived from TOMS near mountainous regions,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 20403–20412 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Ziemke, S. Chandra, P. K. Bhartia, “Cloud slicing: a new technique to derive upper tropospheric ozone from satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9853–9867 (2001).
[CrossRef]

M. Newchurch, D. Sun, X. Liu, L. Emmons, L. Horowitz, J. H. Kim, D. Kinnison, G. Brasseur, D. Jacob, J. Logan, R. V. Martin, K. Han, S. Na, “Critical assessment of TOMS-derived tropospheric ozone: comparisons with other measurements and model evaluation of controlling processes,” Eos. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 82, Spring Meeting Supplement, Abstract A52A-09 (2001).

1999

J. Fishman, A. E. Balok, “Calculation of daily tropospheric ozone residuals using TOMS and empirically improved SBUV measurements: application to an ozone pollution episode over the eastern United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30319–30340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Hoogen, V. V. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, “Ozone profiles from GOME satellite data: algorithm description and first validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8263–8280 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

R. Munro, R. Siddans, W. J. Reburn, B. Kerridge, “Direct measurement of tropospheric ozone from space,” Nature (London) 392, 168–171 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Kim, M. J. Newchurch, “Biomass-burning influence on tropospheric ozone over New Guinea and South America,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1455–1461 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Hudson, A. M. Thompson, “Tropical tropospheric ozone from a Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer by a modified residual method,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 22129–22145 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Ziemke, S. Chandra, P. K. Bhartia, “Two new methods for deriving tropospheric column ozone from TOMS measurements: assimilated UARS MLS/HALOE and convective-cloud differential techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 22115–22127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Brasseur, J. T. Kiehl, J.-F. Muller, T. Schneider, C. Granier, X. X. Tie, D. Hauglustaine, “Past and future changes in global tropospheric ozone: impact on radiative forcing,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3807–3810 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, Z. Ahmad, J. Gleason, “Derivation of aerosol properties from satellite measurements of backscattered ultraviolet radiation: theoretical basis,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17099–17110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. Glatthor, C. E. Blom, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, T. Gulde, C. Piesch, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, M. P. Chipperfield, A. M. Lee, J. A. Pyle, “Airborne remote sensing of NO2 in the Arctic winter of 1994–1995 and comparison with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13315–13326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

Y. Jiang, Y. L. Yung, S. P. Sander, “Detection of tropospheric ozone by remote sensing from the ground,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 57, 811–818 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, L. A. Remer, E. F. Vermote, A. Chu, B. N. Holben, “Operational remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol over land from EOS moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17051–17067 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Chance, J. P. Burrows, D. Perner, W. Schneider, “Satellite measurements of atmospheric ozone profiles, including tropospheric ozone, from ultraviolet/visible measurements in the nadir geometry: a potential method to retrieve tropospheric ozone,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 57, 467–476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Fishman, V. G. Brackett, “The climatological distribution of tropospheric ozone derived from satellite measurements using Version 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment data sets,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19275–19278 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

J. H. Kim, R. D. Hudson, A. M. Thompson, “A new method of deriving time-averaged tropospheric column ozone over the tropics using Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) radiances: intercomparison and analysis using TRACE-A data,” J. Geophys. Res. 101, 24317–24330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Jiang, Y. L. Yung, “Concentrations of tropospheric ozone from 1979 to 1992 over tropical Pacific South America from TOMS data,” Science 272, 714–716 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. H. Kim, M. J. Newchurch, “Climatology and trends of tropospheric ozone over the eastern Pacific Ocean: the influences of biomass burning and tropospheric dynamics,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3723–3726 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994

L. Harrison, J. Michalsky, J. Berndt, “Automated multi-filter rotation shadow-band radiometer: an instrument for optical depth and radiation measurements,” Appl. Opt. 33, 5118–5125 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Brandtjen, T. Klüpfel, D. Perner, B. M. Knudsen, “Airborne measurements during the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment: observation of OClO,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1363–1366 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Pfeilsticker, U. Platt, “Airborne measurements during the Arctic stratospheric experiment: observation of O3 and NO2,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1375–1378 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990

A. Wahner, J. Callies, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, C. Schiller, “Near UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition, January–February 1989: 3. BrO observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 517–520 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. Wahner, J. Callies, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, C. Schiller, “Near-UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition, January–February 1989: 1. Technique and NO2 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 497–500 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. Schiller, A. Wahner, U. Platt, H.-P. Dorn, J. Callies, D. H. Ehhalt, “Near-UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition, January–February 1989: 2. OClO observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 501–504 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Fishman, C. E. Watson, J. C. Larsen, J. A. Logan, “Distribution of tropospheric ozone determined from satellite data,” J. Geophys. Res. 95, 3599–3617 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Abreu, L. W.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, “Users Guide to lowtran 7,” AFGL-TR-88-0177 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Mass., 1988).

Acarreta, J. R.

J. R. Acarreta, J. F. de Haan, “Cloud pressure algorithm based on O2–O2 absorption,” in OMI Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document, Vol. III: Clouds, Aerosols, and Surface UV Irradiance, P. Stammes, ed. ( http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/eoshomepage/for scientists/atbd/docs/OMI/ATBD-OMI-03.pdf .

Ahmad, Z.

O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, Z. Ahmad, J. Gleason, “Derivation of aerosol properties from satellite measurements of backscattered ultraviolet radiation: theoretical basis,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17099–17110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, G. P.

F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, “Users Guide to lowtran 7,” AFGL-TR-88-0177 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Mass., 1988).

Balok, A. E.

J. Fishman, A. E. Balok, “Calculation of daily tropospheric ozone residuals using TOMS and empirically improved SBUV measurements: application to an ozone pollution episode over the eastern United States,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 30319–30340 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Berndt, J.

Bey, I.

R. V. Martin, K. Chance, D. J. Jacob, T. P. Kurosu, R. J. D. Spurr, E. Bucsela, J. F. Gleason, P. I. Palmer, I. Bey, A. M. Fiore, Q. Li, R. M. Yantosca, R. B. A. Koelemeijer, “An improved retrieval of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide from GOME,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bhartia, P. K.

J. R. Ziemke, S. Chandra, P. K. Bhartia, “Cloud slicing: a new technique to derive upper tropospheric ozone from satellite measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 106, 9853–9867 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Ziemke, S. Chandra, P. K. Bhartia, “Two new methods for deriving tropospheric column ozone from TOMS measurements: assimilated UARS MLS/HALOE and convective-cloud differential techniques,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 22115–22127 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, Z. Ahmad, J. Gleason, “Derivation of aerosol properties from satellite measurements of backscattered ultraviolet radiation: theoretical basis,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17099–17110 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Chance, X. Liu, R. J. D. Spurr, T. P. Kurosu, C. E. Sioris, R. V. Martin, M. J. Newchurch, P. K. Bhartia, “Ozone profile retrieval from the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument,” in Proceeding of the XX Quadrennial Ozone Sympoium, C. S. Zerefos, ed.(International Ozone Commission, Athens, Greece, 2004), pp. 483–484.

Blom, C. E.

N. Glatthor, C. E. Blom, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, T. Gulde, C. Piesch, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, M. P. Chipperfield, A. M. Lee, J. A. Pyle, “Airborne remote sensing of NO2 in the Arctic winter of 1994–1995 and comparison with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13315–13326 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bonafe, U.

Bortoli, D.

Brackett, V. G.

J. Fishman, V. G. Brackett, “The climatological distribution of tropospheric ozone derived from satellite measurements using Version 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment data sets,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 19275–19278 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brandtjen, R.

R. Brandtjen, T. Klüpfel, D. Perner, B. M. Knudsen, “Airborne measurements during the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment: observation of OClO,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1363–1366 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brasseur, G.

M. Newchurch, D. Sun, X. Liu, L. Emmons, L. Horowitz, J. H. Kim, D. Kinnison, G. Brasseur, D. Jacob, J. Logan, R. V. Martin, K. Han, S. Na, “Critical assessment of TOMS-derived tropospheric ozone: comparisons with other measurements and model evaluation of controlling processes,” Eos. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 82, Spring Meeting Supplement, Abstract A52A-09 (2001).

Brasseur, G. P.

G. P. Brasseur, J. T. Kiehl, J.-F. Muller, T. Schneider, C. Granier, X. X. Tie, D. Hauglustaine, “Past and future changes in global tropospheric ozone: impact on radiative forcing,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3807–3810 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bruns, M.

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T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Honninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. v. Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, P. Xie, “The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation,” presented at the 15th European Space Agency Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, Biarritz, France, 28–31 May 2001.

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R. V. Martin, K. Chance, D. J. Jacob, T. P. Kurosu, R. J. D. Spurr, E. Bucsela, J. F. Gleason, P. I. Palmer, I. Bey, A. M. Fiore, Q. Li, R. M. Yantosca, R. B. A. Koelemeijer, “An improved retrieval of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide from GOME,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
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M. Bruns, S. A. Buehler, J. P. Burrows, K.-P. Heue, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, A. Rozanov, T. Wagner, P. Wang, “Retrieval of profile information from airborne multiaxis UV/ visible skylight absorption measurements,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4415–4426 (2004).
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R. Hoogen, V. V. Rozanov, J. P. Burrows, “Ozone profiles from GOME satellite data: algorithm description and first validation,” J. Geophys. Res. 104, 8263–8280 (1999).
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K. V. Chance, J. P. Burrows, D. Perner, W. Schneider, “Satellite measurements of atmospheric ozone profiles, including tropospheric ozone, from ultraviolet/visible measurements in the nadir geometry: a potential method to retrieve tropospheric ozone,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 57, 467–476 (1997).
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T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Honninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. v. Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, P. Xie, “The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation,” presented at the 15th European Space Agency Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, Biarritz, France, 28–31 May 2001.

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A. Wahner, J. Callies, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, C. Schiller, “Near-UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition, January–February 1989: 1. Technique and NO2 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 497–500 (1990).
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R. V. Martin, K. Chance, D. J. Jacob, T. P. Kurosu, R. J. D. Spurr, E. Bucsela, J. F. Gleason, P. I. Palmer, I. Bey, A. M. Fiore, Q. Li, R. M. Yantosca, R. B. A. Koelemeijer, “An improved retrieval of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide from GOME,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
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R. J. D. Spurr, T. P. Kurosu, K. V. Chance, “A linearized discrete ordinate radiative transfer model for atmospheric remote-sensing retrieval,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 68, 689–735 (2001).
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K. V. Chance, J. P. Burrows, D. Perner, W. Schneider, “Satellite measurements of atmospheric ozone profiles, including tropospheric ozone, from ultraviolet/visible measurements in the nadir geometry: a potential method to retrieve tropospheric ozone,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 57, 467–476 (1997).
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N. Glatthor, C. E. Blom, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, T. Gulde, C. Piesch, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, M. P. Chipperfield, A. M. Lee, J. A. Pyle, “Airborne remote sensing of NO2 in the Arctic winter of 1994–1995 and comparison with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13315–13326 (1998).
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Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, L. A. Remer, E. F. Vermote, A. Chu, B. N. Holben, “Operational remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol over land from EOS moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17051–17067 (1997).
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F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, “Users Guide to lowtran 7,” AFGL-TR-88-0177 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Mass., 1988).

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A. Wahner, J. Callies, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, C. Schiller, “Near-UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition, January–February 1989: 1. Technique and NO2 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 497–500 (1990).
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A. Wahner, J. Callies, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, C. Schiller, “Near UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition, January–February 1989: 3. BrO observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 517–520 (1990).
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C. Schiller, A. Wahner, U. Platt, H.-P. Dorn, J. Callies, D. H. Ehhalt, “Near-UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition, January–February 1989: 2. OClO observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 501–504 (1990).
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C. Schiller, A. Wahner, U. Platt, H.-P. Dorn, J. Callies, D. H. Ehhalt, “Near-UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition, January–February 1989: 2. OClO observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 501–504 (1990).
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N. Glatthor, C. E. Blom, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, T. Gulde, C. Piesch, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, M. P. Chipperfield, A. M. Lee, J. A. Pyle, “Airborne remote sensing of NO2 in the Arctic winter of 1994–1995 and comparison with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13315–13326 (1998).
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T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Honninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. v. Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, P. Xie, “The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation,” presented at the 15th European Space Agency Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, Biarritz, France, 28–31 May 2001.

Fiore, A. M.

R. V. Martin, K. Chance, D. J. Jacob, T. P. Kurosu, R. J. D. Spurr, E. Bucsela, J. F. Gleason, P. I. Palmer, I. Bey, A. M. Fiore, Q. Li, R. M. Yantosca, R. B. A. Koelemeijer, “An improved retrieval of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide from GOME,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
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T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Honninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. v. Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, P. Xie, “The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation,” presented at the 15th European Space Agency Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, Biarritz, France, 28–31 May 2001.

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F. X. Kneizys, E. P. Shettle, L. W. Abreu, J. H. Chetwynd, G. P. Anderson, W. O. Gallery, J. E. A. Selby, S. A. Clough, “Users Guide to lowtran 7,” AFGL-TR-88-0177 (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, Mass., 1988).

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N. Glatthor, C. E. Blom, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, T. Gulde, C. Piesch, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, M. P. Chipperfield, A. M. Lee, J. A. Pyle, “Airborne remote sensing of NO2 in the Arctic winter of 1994–1995 and comparison with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13315–13326 (1998).
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R. V. Martin, K. Chance, D. J. Jacob, T. P. Kurosu, R. J. D. Spurr, E. Bucsela, J. F. Gleason, P. I. Palmer, I. Bey, A. M. Fiore, Q. Li, R. M. Yantosca, R. B. A. Koelemeijer, “An improved retrieval of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide from GOME,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
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G. P. Brasseur, J. T. Kiehl, J.-F. Muller, T. Schneider, C. Granier, X. X. Tie, D. Hauglustaine, “Past and future changes in global tropospheric ozone: impact on radiative forcing,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 25, 3807–3810 (1998).
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N. Glatthor, C. E. Blom, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, T. Gulde, C. Piesch, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, M. P. Chipperfield, A. M. Lee, J. A. Pyle, “Airborne remote sensing of NO2 in the Arctic winter of 1994–1995 and comparison with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13315–13326 (1998).
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M. Newchurch, D. Sun, X. Liu, L. Emmons, L. Horowitz, J. H. Kim, D. Kinnison, G. Brasseur, D. Jacob, J. Logan, R. V. Martin, K. Han, S. Na, “Critical assessment of TOMS-derived tropospheric ozone: comparisons with other measurements and model evaluation of controlling processes,” Eos. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 82, Spring Meeting Supplement, Abstract A52A-09 (2001).

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O. Torres, P. K. Bhartia, J. R. Herman, Z. Ahmad, J. Gleason, “Derivation of aerosol properties from satellite measurements of backscattered ultraviolet radiation: theoretical basis,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 17099–17110 (1998).
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M. Bruns, S. A. Buehler, J. P. Burrows, K.-P. Heue, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, A. Rozanov, T. Wagner, P. Wang, “Retrieval of profile information from airborne multiaxis UV/ visible skylight absorption measurements,” Appl. Opt. 43, 4415–4426 (2004).
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Y. J. Kaufman, D. Tanre, L. A. Remer, E. F. Vermote, A. Chu, B. N. Holben, “Operational remote sensing of tropospheric aerosol over land from EOS moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer,” J. Geophys. Res. 102, 17051–17067 (1997).
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T. Wagner, M. Bruns, J. P. Burrows, S. Fietkau, F. Finocchi, K.-P. Heue, G. Honninger, U. Platt, I. Pundt, A. Richter, R. Rollenbeck, C. v. Friedeburg, F. Wittrock, P. Xie, “The AMAXDOAS instrument and its application for SCIAMACHY validation,” presented at the 15th European Space Agency Symposium on European Rocket and Balloon Programmes and Related Research, Biarritz, France, 28–31 May 2001.

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R. V. Martin, K. Chance, D. J. Jacob, T. P. Kurosu, R. J. D. Spurr, E. Bucsela, J. F. Gleason, P. I. Palmer, I. Bey, A. M. Fiore, Q. Li, R. M. Yantosca, R. B. A. Koelemeijer, “An improved retrieval of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide from GOME,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
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P. J. M. Valks, R. B. A. Koelemeijer, M. van Weele, P. van Velthoven, J. P. F. Fortuin, H. Kelder, “Variability in tropical tropospheric ozone: analysis with Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment observations and a global model,” J. Geophys. Res. 108, doi: (2003).
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R. J. van der A, R. F. van Oss, A. J. M. Piters, J. P. F. Fortuin, Y. J. Meijer, H. M. Kelder, “Ozone profile retrieval from recalibrated GOME data,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
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R. V. Martin, K. Chance, D. J. Jacob, T. P. Kurosu, R. J. D. Spurr, E. Bucsela, J. F. Gleason, P. I. Palmer, I. Bey, A. M. Fiore, Q. Li, R. M. Yantosca, R. B. A. Koelemeijer, “An improved retrieval of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide from GOME,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
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K. Chance, X. Liu, R. J. D. Spurr, T. P. Kurosu, C. E. Sioris, R. V. Martin, M. J. Newchurch, P. K. Bhartia, “Ozone profile retrieval from the Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument,” in Proceeding of the XX Quadrennial Ozone Sympoium, C. S. Zerefos, ed.(International Ozone Commission, Athens, Greece, 2004), pp. 483–484.

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R. D. McPeters, J. A. Logan, G. J. Labow, “Ozone climatological profiles for Version 8 TOMS and SBUV retrievals,” Eos. Trans. Am. Geophys. Union 84, Fall Meeting Supplement, Abstract A21D-0998 (2003).

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N. Glatthor, C. E. Blom, T. von Clarmann, H. Fischer, T. Gulde, C. Piesch, F. Erle, K. Pfeilsticker, M. P. Chipperfield, A. M. Lee, J. A. Pyle, “Airborne remote sensing of NO2 in the Arctic winter of 1994–1995 and comparison with a three-dimensional chemical transport model,” J. Geophys. Res. 103, 13315–13326 (1998).
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R. V. Martin, K. Chance, D. J. Jacob, T. P. Kurosu, R. J. D. Spurr, E. Bucsela, J. F. Gleason, P. I. Palmer, I. Bey, A. M. Fiore, Q. Li, R. M. Yantosca, R. B. A. Koelemeijer, “An improved retrieval of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide from GOME,” J. Geophys. Res. 107, doi: (2002).
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M. J. Newchurch, D. Sun, J. H. Kim, X. Liu, “Tropical tropospheric ozone derived using Clear-Cloudy Pairs (CCP) of TOMS measurements,” Atmos. Chem. Phys. 3, 683–695 (2003).
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A. Wahner, J. Callies, H.-P. Dorn, U. Platt, C. Schiller, “Near-UV atmospheric absorption measurements of column abundances during Airborne Arctic Stratospheric Expedition, January–February 1989: 1. Technique and NO2 observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 497–500 (1990).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Air mass factors (kilometer/kilometer) for down-looking radiances with a VZA of 0° at 300, 310, 320, 340, and 590 nm normalized to the direct irradiance reference. (b) Similar to (a) but for radiances normalized to zenith-sky radiance reference. (c)–(d), (e)–(f) Similar to (a)–(b) but for up-looking radiances at a VZA of 75° and 85°, respectively. Calculation is performed for the U.S. Standard Atmosphere with a total O3 of 345.3 DU and lowtran background aerosols. The SZA is 45°, and the surface albedo is 0.1. Flight altitude is 15.0 km. The AMF is calculated on an altitude grid from 0 to 60 km at every 1 km.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

O3 profile for the standard case and a priori O3 profile used in the retrievals. A priori standard deviations [i.e., Sa(i, i)1/2 in Eq. (4)] in the equations are plotted as error bars. The total column O3 is shown in parentheses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Averaging kernels for the standard case. The horizontal line shows the flight altitude. The averaging kernels at different altitudes are plotted as solid and dashed lines alternately.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) True, a priori, and retrieved O3 profiles for the base case. (b) Column O3 bias between retrieved and true profiles in (a). (c)–(d), (e)–(f) Similar to (a)–(b) but for two modified cases with low and high tropospheric O3 conditions, respectively. The total O3 for the true and a priori O3 profiles and the total O3 bias in the retrieval are shown in parentheses. The error bars on retrievals include both random-noise errors and smoothing errors.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Degrees of Freedom for Signal at Each Layer, Actual Peak Altitude of the Averaging Kernels, Vertical Resolution in Terms of FWHM for Each Row of Averaging Kernels of the Base Case

Tables Icon

Table 2 Column O3 Biases with Retrieval Errors due to Measurement Random Noise and Smoothing

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I I exp ( AMF i × Δ τ i ) .
AMF i In I In I Δ τ i Δ I I Δ τ i d I I d τ i = d I I β i d x i ,
X k + 1 = X k + ( K T S ɛ 1 K + S a 1 ) 1 { K T S ɛ 1 [ Y F ( X k ) ] S a 1 ( X k X a ) } ,
S a ( i , j ) = [ S a ( i , i ) S a ( j , j ) ] 1 / 2 exp ( | z i z j | / l ) ,
A = d X / d X = ( K T S ɛ 1 K + S a 1 ) 1 K T S ɛ 1 K .

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