Abstract

A new algorithm to infer structural parameters such as refractive index and asphericity of cloud particles has been developed by use of in situ observations taken by a laser backscattersonde and an optical particle counter during balloon stratospheric flights. All three main particles, liquid, ice, and a no-ice solid (NAT, nitric acid trihydrate) of polar stratospheric clouds, were observed during two winter flights performed from Kiruna, Sweden. The technique is based on use of the T-matrix code developed for aspherical particles to calculate the backscattering coefficient and particle depolarizing properties on the basis of size distribution and concentration measurements. The results of the calculations are compared with observations to estimated refractive indices and particle asphericity. The method has also been used in cases when the liquid and solid phases coexist with comparable influence on the optical behavior of the cloud to estimate refractive indices. The main results prove that the index of refraction for NAT particles is in the range of 1.37–1.45 at 532 nm. Such particles would be slightly prolate spheroids. The calculated refractive indices for liquid and ice particles are 1.51–1.55 and 1.31–1.33, respectively. The results for solid particles confirm previous measurements taken in Antarctica during 1992 and obtained by a comparison of lidar and optical particle counter data.

© 2005 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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2003 (1)

T. Deshler, N. Larsen, C. Weissner, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, F. Cairo, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, U. Blum, K. H. Fricke, A. Dörnbrack, “Large nitric acid particles at the top of an Arctic stratospheric cloud,” J. Geophys. Res. 108 (D16), 4517, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

J. Biele, A. Tsias, B. P. Luo, K. S. Carslaw, R. Neuber, G. Beyerle, T. Peter, “Nonequilibrium coexistence of solid and liquid particles in Arctic stratospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 106 (D19), 22991–23008 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (3)

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 °N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D3), 3943–3954 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Larsen, I. S. Mikkelsen, B. M. Knudsen, J. Schreiner, C. Voigt, K. Mauersberger, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, “Comparison of chemical and optical in situ measurements of polar stratospheric cloud particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D1), 1491–1502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Viterbini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, “Nitric acid trihydrate in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (3)

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, S. J. Oltmans, “Vertical profiles of volcanic aerosol and polar stratospheric clouds above Kiruna, Sweden: winter 1993 and 1995,” J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 11–23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Gobbi, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, “Physical properties of stratospheric clouds during the Antarctic winter of 1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (D9), 10859–10874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

K. D. Beyer, A. R. Ravishankara, E. R. Lovejoy, “Measurements of UV refractive indices and densities of H2S2O4/H2O and H2S2O4/HNO3/H2O solutions,” J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D9), 14519–14524 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Luo, U. K. Krieger, T. Peter, “Densities and refractive indices of H2SO4/HNO3/H2O solutions to stratospheric temperatures,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3707–3710 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Ravishankara, D. R. Hanson, “Differences in the reactivity of Type I polar stratospheric clouds depending on their phase,” J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D2), 3885–3890 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

A. Adriani, T. Deshler, G. Di Donfrancesco, G. P. Gobbi, “Polar stratospheric clouds and volcanic aerosol during spring 1992 over McMurdo Station, Antarctica: lidar and particle counter comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 100 (D12), 25877–25898 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (5)

B. S. Berland, D. R. Haynes, K. L. Foster, M. A. Tolbert, S. M. George, O. B. Toon, “Refractive indices of amorphous and crystalline HNO3/H2O films representative of Polar Stratospheric Clouds,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 4358–4364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Middlebrook, B. S. Berland, S. M. George, M. A. Tolbert, O. B. Toon, “Real refractive indices of infrared-characterized nitric-acid/ice films: implications for optical measurements of polar stratospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 99 (D12), 25655–25666 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Carslaw, B. P. Luo, S. L. Clegg, T. Peter, P. Brimblecombe, P. J. Crutzen, “Stratospheric aerosol growth and HNO3 gas phase depletion from coupled HNO3 and water uptake by liquid particles,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2479–2482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Tabazadeh, R. P. Turco, K. Drdla, M. Z. Jacobson, O. B. Toon, “A study of Type I polar stratospheric cloud formation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1619–1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by large spheroidal particles,” Opt. Commun. 109, 16–21 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. I. Carswell, “Lidar measurements of the atmosphere,” Can. J. Phys. 61, 378–395 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

F. Arnold, K. Petzoldt, E. Reimer, “On the formation and sedimentation of stratospheric nitric acid aerosols: implications for polar ozone destruction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 677–680 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, D. J. Hofmann, “Balloonborne measurements of the Pinatubo aerosol size distribution and volatility at Laramie, Wyoming during the summer of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 199–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, P. A. Robinette, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

D. Hanson, K. Mauersberger, “Laboratory studies of the nitric acid tridydrate: implications for the South polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 855–858 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (3)

P. J. Crutzen, F. Arnold, “Nitric acid cloud formation in the cold Antarctic stratosphere: a major cause for the springtime ozone hole,” Nature 324, 651–655 (1986).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, P. Hamill, R. P. Turco, J. Pinto, “Condensation of HNO3 and HCl in the winter polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1284–1287 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. Mugnai, W. J. Wiscombe, “Scattering from nonspherical Chebyshev particles. I: Cross sections, single-scattering albedo, asymmetry factor, and backscattered fraction,” Appl. Opt. 25, 1235–1244 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

1965 (1)

P. C. Waterman, “Matrix formulation of electromagnetic scattering,” Proc. IEEE 53, 805–812 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Adriani, A.

T. Deshler, N. Larsen, C. Weissner, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, F. Cairo, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, U. Blum, K. H. Fricke, A. Dörnbrack, “Large nitric acid particles at the top of an Arctic stratospheric cloud,” J. Geophys. Res. 108 (D16), 4517, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 °N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D3), 3943–3954 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Viterbini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, “Nitric acid trihydrate in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Gobbi, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, “Physical properties of stratospheric clouds during the Antarctic winter of 1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (D9), 10859–10874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Adriani, T. Deshler, G. Di Donfrancesco, G. P. Gobbi, “Polar stratospheric clouds and volcanic aerosol during spring 1992 over McMurdo Station, Antarctica: lidar and particle counter comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 100 (D12), 25877–25898 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Adriani, F. Cairo, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, T. Deshler, B. Nardi, “A new joint balloon-borne experiment to study polar stratospheric clouds: laser backscattersonde and optical particle counter,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the XVIII Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Vol. 2, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Edigrafital for Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, 1998), pp. 879–882.

Arnold, F.

F. Arnold, K. Petzoldt, E. Reimer, “On the formation and sedimentation of stratospheric nitric acid aerosols: implications for polar ozone destruction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 677–680 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Crutzen, F. Arnold, “Nitric acid cloud formation in the cold Antarctic stratosphere: a major cause for the springtime ozone hole,” Nature 324, 651–655 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Berland, B. S.

B. S. Berland, D. R. Haynes, K. L. Foster, M. A. Tolbert, S. M. George, O. B. Toon, “Refractive indices of amorphous and crystalline HNO3/H2O films representative of Polar Stratospheric Clouds,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 4358–4364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Middlebrook, B. S. Berland, S. M. George, M. A. Tolbert, O. B. Toon, “Real refractive indices of infrared-characterized nitric-acid/ice films: implications for optical measurements of polar stratospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 99 (D12), 25655–25666 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beyer, K. D.

K. D. Beyer, A. R. Ravishankara, E. R. Lovejoy, “Measurements of UV refractive indices and densities of H2S2O4/H2O and H2S2O4/HNO3/H2O solutions,” J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D9), 14519–14524 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Beyerle, G.

J. Biele, A. Tsias, B. P. Luo, K. S. Carslaw, R. Neuber, G. Beyerle, T. Peter, “Nonequilibrium coexistence of solid and liquid particles in Arctic stratospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 106 (D19), 22991–23008 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Biele, J.

J. Biele, A. Tsias, B. P. Luo, K. S. Carslaw, R. Neuber, G. Beyerle, T. Peter, “Nonequilibrium coexistence of solid and liquid particles in Arctic stratospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 106 (D19), 22991–23008 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Blum, U.

T. Deshler, N. Larsen, C. Weissner, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, F. Cairo, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, U. Blum, K. H. Fricke, A. Dörnbrack, “Large nitric acid particles at the top of an Arctic stratospheric cloud,” J. Geophys. Res. 108 (D16), 4517, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Bottiger, J. R.

J. R. Bottiger, E. S. Fry, R. C. Thompson, “Phase matrix measurements for electromagnetic scattering by sphere aggregates,” in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 283–290.
[CrossRef]

Brimblecombe, P.

K. S. Carslaw, B. P. Luo, S. L. Clegg, T. Peter, P. Brimblecombe, P. J. Crutzen, “Stratospheric aerosol growth and HNO3 gas phase depletion from coupled HNO3 and water uptake by liquid particles,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2479–2482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Browell, E. V.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, P. A. Robinette, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Butler, C. F.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, P. A. Robinette, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Cairo, F.

T. Deshler, N. Larsen, C. Weissner, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, F. Cairo, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, U. Blum, K. H. Fricke, A. Dörnbrack, “Large nitric acid particles at the top of an Arctic stratospheric cloud,” J. Geophys. Res. 108 (D16), 4517, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 °N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D3), 3943–3954 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Viterbini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, “Nitric acid trihydrate in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Adriani, F. Cairo, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, T. Deshler, B. Nardi, “A new joint balloon-borne experiment to study polar stratospheric clouds: laser backscattersonde and optical particle counter,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the XVIII Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Vol. 2, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Edigrafital for Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, 1998), pp. 879–882.

Carslaw, K. S.

J. Biele, A. Tsias, B. P. Luo, K. S. Carslaw, R. Neuber, G. Beyerle, T. Peter, “Nonequilibrium coexistence of solid and liquid particles in Arctic stratospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 106 (D19), 22991–23008 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Carslaw, B. P. Luo, S. L. Clegg, T. Peter, P. Brimblecombe, P. J. Crutzen, “Stratospheric aerosol growth and HNO3 gas phase depletion from coupled HNO3 and water uptake by liquid particles,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2479–2482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Carswell, A. I.

A. I. Carswell, “Lidar measurements of the atmosphere,” Can. J. Phys. 61, 378–395 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Carter, A. F.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, P. A. Robinette, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Clegg, S. L.

K. S. Carslaw, B. P. Luo, S. L. Clegg, T. Peter, P. Brimblecombe, P. J. Crutzen, “Stratospheric aerosol growth and HNO3 gas phase depletion from coupled HNO3 and water uptake by liquid particles,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2479–2482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Crutzen, P. J.

K. S. Carslaw, B. P. Luo, S. L. Clegg, T. Peter, P. Brimblecombe, P. J. Crutzen, “Stratospheric aerosol growth and HNO3 gas phase depletion from coupled HNO3 and water uptake by liquid particles,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2479–2482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Crutzen, F. Arnold, “Nitric acid cloud formation in the cold Antarctic stratosphere: a major cause for the springtime ozone hole,” Nature 324, 651–655 (1986).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Viterbini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, “Nitric acid trihydrate in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deshler, T.

T. Deshler, N. Larsen, C. Weissner, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, F. Cairo, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, U. Blum, K. H. Fricke, A. Dörnbrack, “Large nitric acid particles at the top of an Arctic stratospheric cloud,” J. Geophys. Res. 108 (D16), 4517, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 °N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D3), 3943–3954 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Viterbini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, “Nitric acid trihydrate in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Deshler, S. J. Oltmans, “Vertical profiles of volcanic aerosol and polar stratospheric clouds above Kiruna, Sweden: winter 1993 and 1995,” J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 11–23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Adriani, T. Deshler, G. Di Donfrancesco, G. P. Gobbi, “Polar stratospheric clouds and volcanic aerosol during spring 1992 over McMurdo Station, Antarctica: lidar and particle counter comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 100 (D12), 25877–25898 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, D. J. Hofmann, “Balloonborne measurements of the Pinatubo aerosol size distribution and volatility at Laramie, Wyoming during the summer of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 199–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Adriani, F. Cairo, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, T. Deshler, B. Nardi, “A new joint balloon-borne experiment to study polar stratospheric clouds: laser backscattersonde and optical particle counter,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the XVIII Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Vol. 2, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Edigrafital for Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, 1998), pp. 879–882.

Di Donfrancesco, G.

T. Deshler, N. Larsen, C. Weissner, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, F. Cairo, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, U. Blum, K. H. Fricke, A. Dörnbrack, “Large nitric acid particles at the top of an Arctic stratospheric cloud,” J. Geophys. Res. 108 (D16), 4517, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Viterbini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, “Nitric acid trihydrate in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Gobbi, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, “Physical properties of stratospheric clouds during the Antarctic winter of 1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (D9), 10859–10874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Adriani, T. Deshler, G. Di Donfrancesco, G. P. Gobbi, “Polar stratospheric clouds and volcanic aerosol during spring 1992 over McMurdo Station, Antarctica: lidar and particle counter comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 100 (D12), 25877–25898 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Adriani, F. Cairo, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, T. Deshler, B. Nardi, “A new joint balloon-borne experiment to study polar stratospheric clouds: laser backscattersonde and optical particle counter,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the XVIII Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Vol. 2, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Edigrafital for Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, 1998), pp. 879–882.

Dörnbrack, A.

T. Deshler, N. Larsen, C. Weissner, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, F. Cairo, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, U. Blum, K. H. Fricke, A. Dörnbrack, “Large nitric acid particles at the top of an Arctic stratospheric cloud,” J. Geophys. Res. 108 (D16), 4517, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Viterbini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, “Nitric acid trihydrate in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Drdla, K.

A. Tabazadeh, R. P. Turco, K. Drdla, M. Z. Jacobson, O. B. Toon, “A study of Type I polar stratospheric cloud formation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1619–1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fierli, F.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 °N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D3), 3943–3954 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Foster, K. L.

B. S. Berland, D. R. Haynes, K. L. Foster, M. A. Tolbert, S. M. George, O. B. Toon, “Refractive indices of amorphous and crystalline HNO3/H2O films representative of Polar Stratospheric Clouds,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 4358–4364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fricke, K. H.

T. Deshler, N. Larsen, C. Weissner, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, F. Cairo, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, U. Blum, K. H. Fricke, A. Dörnbrack, “Large nitric acid particles at the top of an Arctic stratospheric cloud,” J. Geophys. Res. 108 (D16), 4517, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

J. R. Bottiger, E. S. Fry, R. C. Thompson, “Phase matrix measurements for electromagnetic scattering by sphere aggregates,” in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 283–290.
[CrossRef]

George, S. M.

B. S. Berland, D. R. Haynes, K. L. Foster, M. A. Tolbert, S. M. George, O. B. Toon, “Refractive indices of amorphous and crystalline HNO3/H2O films representative of Polar Stratospheric Clouds,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 4358–4364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Middlebrook, B. S. Berland, S. M. George, M. A. Tolbert, O. B. Toon, “Real refractive indices of infrared-characterized nitric-acid/ice films: implications for optical measurements of polar stratospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 99 (D12), 25655–25666 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gobbi, G. P.

G. P. Gobbi, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, “Physical properties of stratospheric clouds during the Antarctic winter of 1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (D9), 10859–10874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Adriani, T. Deshler, G. Di Donfrancesco, G. P. Gobbi, “Polar stratospheric clouds and volcanic aerosol during spring 1992 over McMurdo Station, Antarctica: lidar and particle counter comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 100 (D12), 25877–25898 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hamill, P.

O. B. Toon, P. Hamill, R. P. Turco, J. Pinto, “Condensation of HNO3 and HCl in the winter polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1284–1287 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, G.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 °N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D3), 3943–3954 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, D.

D. Hanson, K. Mauersberger, “Laboratory studies of the nitric acid tridydrate: implications for the South polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 855–858 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, D. R.

A. R. Ravishankara, D. R. Hanson, “Differences in the reactivity of Type I polar stratospheric clouds depending on their phase,” J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D2), 3885–3890 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hauchecorne, A.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 °N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D3), 3943–3954 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Haynes, D. R.

B. S. Berland, D. R. Haynes, K. L. Foster, M. A. Tolbert, S. M. George, O. B. Toon, “Refractive indices of amorphous and crystalline HNO3/H2O films representative of Polar Stratospheric Clouds,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 4358–4364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Higdon, N. S.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, P. A. Robinette, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. J.

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, D. J. Hofmann, “Balloonborne measurements of the Pinatubo aerosol size distribution and volatility at Laramie, Wyoming during the summer of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 199–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ismail, S.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, P. A. Robinette, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jacobson, M. Z.

A. Tabazadeh, R. P. Turco, K. Drdla, M. Z. Jacobson, O. B. Toon, “A study of Type I polar stratospheric cloud formation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1619–1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, B. J.

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, D. J. Hofmann, “Balloonborne measurements of the Pinatubo aerosol size distribution and volatility at Laramie, Wyoming during the summer of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 199–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kjome, N. T.

N. Larsen, I. S. Mikkelsen, B. M. Knudsen, J. Schreiner, C. Voigt, K. Mauersberger, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, “Comparison of chemical and optical in situ measurements of polar stratospheric cloud particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D1), 1491–1502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, “Backscattersonde: a new instrument for atmospheric aerosol research,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1552–1561 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knudsen, B. M.

N. Larsen, I. S. Mikkelsen, B. M. Knudsen, J. Schreiner, C. Voigt, K. Mauersberger, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, “Comparison of chemical and optical in situ measurements of polar stratospheric cloud particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D1), 1491–1502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kohlmann, A.

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Viterbini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, “Nitric acid trihydrate in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krieger, U. K.

B. Luo, U. K. Krieger, T. Peter, “Densities and refractive indices of H2SO4/HNO3/H2O solutions to stratospheric temperatures,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3707–3710 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kröger, C.

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Viterbini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, “Nitric acid trihydrate in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larsen, N.

T. Deshler, N. Larsen, C. Weissner, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, F. Cairo, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, U. Blum, K. H. Fricke, A. Dörnbrack, “Large nitric acid particles at the top of an Arctic stratospheric cloud,” J. Geophys. Res. 108 (D16), 4517, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Larsen, I. S. Mikkelsen, B. M. Knudsen, J. Schreiner, C. Voigt, K. Mauersberger, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, “Comparison of chemical and optical in situ measurements of polar stratospheric cloud particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D1), 1491–1502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Viterbini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, “Nitric acid trihydrate in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lovejoy, E. R.

K. D. Beyer, A. R. Ravishankara, E. R. Lovejoy, “Measurements of UV refractive indices and densities of H2S2O4/H2O and H2S2O4/HNO3/H2O solutions,” J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D9), 14519–14524 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Luo, B.

B. Luo, U. K. Krieger, T. Peter, “Densities and refractive indices of H2SO4/HNO3/H2O solutions to stratospheric temperatures,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3707–3710 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Luo, B. P.

J. Biele, A. Tsias, B. P. Luo, K. S. Carslaw, R. Neuber, G. Beyerle, T. Peter, “Nonequilibrium coexistence of solid and liquid particles in Arctic stratospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 106 (D19), 22991–23008 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Carslaw, B. P. Luo, S. L. Clegg, T. Peter, P. Brimblecombe, P. J. Crutzen, “Stratospheric aerosol growth and HNO3 gas phase depletion from coupled HNO3 and water uptake by liquid particles,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2479–2482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mandolini, S.

A. Adriani, F. Cairo, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, T. Deshler, B. Nardi, “A new joint balloon-borne experiment to study polar stratospheric clouds: laser backscattersonde and optical particle counter,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the XVIII Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Vol. 2, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Edigrafital for Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, 1998), pp. 879–882.

Mauersberger, K.

T. Deshler, N. Larsen, C. Weissner, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, F. Cairo, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, U. Blum, K. H. Fricke, A. Dörnbrack, “Large nitric acid particles at the top of an Arctic stratospheric cloud,” J. Geophys. Res. 108 (D16), 4517, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Larsen, I. S. Mikkelsen, B. M. Knudsen, J. Schreiner, C. Voigt, K. Mauersberger, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, “Comparison of chemical and optical in situ measurements of polar stratospheric cloud particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D1), 1491–1502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Viterbini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, “Nitric acid trihydrate in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hanson, K. Mauersberger, “Laboratory studies of the nitric acid tridydrate: implications for the South polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 855–858 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Middlebrook, A. M.

A. M. Middlebrook, B. S. Berland, S. M. George, M. A. Tolbert, O. B. Toon, “Real refractive indices of infrared-characterized nitric-acid/ice films: implications for optical measurements of polar stratospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 99 (D12), 25655–25666 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mikkelsen, I. S.

N. Larsen, I. S. Mikkelsen, B. M. Knudsen, J. Schreiner, C. Voigt, K. Mauersberger, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, “Comparison of chemical and optical in situ measurements of polar stratospheric cloud particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D1), 1491–1502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by large spheroidal particles,” Opt. Commun. 109, 16–21 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mugnai, A.

Nardi, B.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 °N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D3), 3943–3954 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Adriani, F. Cairo, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, T. Deshler, B. Nardi, “A new joint balloon-borne experiment to study polar stratospheric clouds: laser backscattersonde and optical particle counter,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the XVIII Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Vol. 2, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Edigrafital for Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, 1998), pp. 879–882.

Neuber, R.

J. Biele, A. Tsias, B. P. Luo, K. S. Carslaw, R. Neuber, G. Beyerle, T. Peter, “Nonequilibrium coexistence of solid and liquid particles in Arctic stratospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 106 (D19), 22991–23008 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Oltmans, S. J.

T. Deshler, S. J. Oltmans, “Vertical profiles of volcanic aerosol and polar stratospheric clouds above Kiruna, Sweden: winter 1993 and 1995,” J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 11–23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ovarlez, H.

T. Deshler, N. Larsen, C. Weissner, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, F. Cairo, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, U. Blum, K. H. Fricke, A. Dörnbrack, “Large nitric acid particles at the top of an Arctic stratospheric cloud,” J. Geophys. Res. 108 (D16), 4517, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Viterbini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, “Nitric acid trihydrate in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ovarlez, J.

T. Deshler, N. Larsen, C. Weissner, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, F. Cairo, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, U. Blum, K. H. Fricke, A. Dörnbrack, “Large nitric acid particles at the top of an Arctic stratospheric cloud,” J. Geophys. Res. 108 (D16), 4517, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Viterbini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, “Nitric acid trihydrate in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peter, T.

J. Biele, A. Tsias, B. P. Luo, K. S. Carslaw, R. Neuber, G. Beyerle, T. Peter, “Nonequilibrium coexistence of solid and liquid particles in Arctic stratospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 106 (D19), 22991–23008 (2001).
[CrossRef]

B. Luo, U. K. Krieger, T. Peter, “Densities and refractive indices of H2SO4/HNO3/H2O solutions to stratospheric temperatures,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3707–3710 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Carslaw, B. P. Luo, S. L. Clegg, T. Peter, P. Brimblecombe, P. J. Crutzen, “Stratospheric aerosol growth and HNO3 gas phase depletion from coupled HNO3 and water uptake by liquid particles,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2479–2482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Petzoldt, K.

F. Arnold, K. Petzoldt, E. Reimer, “On the formation and sedimentation of stratospheric nitric acid aerosols: implications for polar ozone destruction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 677–680 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pinto, J.

O. B. Toon, P. Hamill, R. P. Turco, J. Pinto, “Condensation of HNO3 and HCl in the winter polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1284–1287 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pulvirenti, L.

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 °N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D3), 3943–3954 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Ravishankara, A. R.

K. D. Beyer, A. R. Ravishankara, E. R. Lovejoy, “Measurements of UV refractive indices and densities of H2S2O4/H2O and H2S2O4/HNO3/H2O solutions,” J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D9), 14519–14524 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Ravishankara, D. R. Hanson, “Differences in the reactivity of Type I polar stratospheric clouds depending on their phase,” J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D2), 3885–3890 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Reimer, E.

F. Arnold, K. Petzoldt, E. Reimer, “On the formation and sedimentation of stratospheric nitric acid aerosols: implications for polar ozone destruction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 677–680 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Robinette, P. A.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, P. A. Robinette, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, J.

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Viterbini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, “Nitric acid trihydrate in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rosen, J. M.

N. Larsen, I. S. Mikkelsen, B. M. Knudsen, J. Schreiner, C. Voigt, K. Mauersberger, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, “Comparison of chemical and optical in situ measurements of polar stratospheric cloud particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D1), 1491–1502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, “Backscattersonde: a new instrument for atmospheric aerosol research,” Appl. Opt. 30, 1552–1561 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rozier, W. R.

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, D. J. Hofmann, “Balloonborne measurements of the Pinatubo aerosol size distribution and volatility at Laramie, Wyoming during the summer of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 199–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schoeberl, M. R.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, P. A. Robinette, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schreiner, J.

T. Deshler, N. Larsen, C. Weissner, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, F. Cairo, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, U. Blum, K. H. Fricke, A. Dörnbrack, “Large nitric acid particles at the top of an Arctic stratospheric cloud,” J. Geophys. Res. 108 (D16), 4517, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

N. Larsen, I. S. Mikkelsen, B. M. Knudsen, J. Schreiner, C. Voigt, K. Mauersberger, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, “Comparison of chemical and optical in situ measurements of polar stratospheric cloud particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D1), 1491–1502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Viterbini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, “Nitric acid trihydrate in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tabazadeh, A.

A. Tabazadeh, R. P. Turco, K. Drdla, M. Z. Jacobson, O. B. Toon, “A study of Type I polar stratospheric cloud formation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1619–1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, R. C.

J. R. Bottiger, E. S. Fry, R. C. Thompson, “Phase matrix measurements for electromagnetic scattering by sphere aggregates,” in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 283–290.
[CrossRef]

Tolbert, M. A.

A. M. Middlebrook, B. S. Berland, S. M. George, M. A. Tolbert, O. B. Toon, “Real refractive indices of infrared-characterized nitric-acid/ice films: implications for optical measurements of polar stratospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 99 (D12), 25655–25666 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Berland, D. R. Haynes, K. L. Foster, M. A. Tolbert, S. M. George, O. B. Toon, “Refractive indices of amorphous and crystalline HNO3/H2O films representative of Polar Stratospheric Clouds,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 4358–4364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Toon, O. B.

B. S. Berland, D. R. Haynes, K. L. Foster, M. A. Tolbert, S. M. George, O. B. Toon, “Refractive indices of amorphous and crystalline HNO3/H2O films representative of Polar Stratospheric Clouds,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 4358–4364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Middlebrook, B. S. Berland, S. M. George, M. A. Tolbert, O. B. Toon, “Real refractive indices of infrared-characterized nitric-acid/ice films: implications for optical measurements of polar stratospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 99 (D12), 25655–25666 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Tabazadeh, R. P. Turco, K. Drdla, M. Z. Jacobson, O. B. Toon, “A study of Type I polar stratospheric cloud formation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1619–1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, P. A. Robinette, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, P. Hamill, R. P. Turco, J. Pinto, “Condensation of HNO3 and HCl in the winter polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1284–1287 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Travis, L. D.

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by large spheroidal particles,” Opt. Commun. 109, 16–21 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tsias, A.

J. Biele, A. Tsias, B. P. Luo, K. S. Carslaw, R. Neuber, G. Beyerle, T. Peter, “Nonequilibrium coexistence of solid and liquid particles in Arctic stratospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 106 (D19), 22991–23008 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tuck, A. F.

E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, P. A. Robinette, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Turco, R. P.

A. Tabazadeh, R. P. Turco, K. Drdla, M. Z. Jacobson, O. B. Toon, “A study of Type I polar stratospheric cloud formation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1619–1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, P. Hamill, R. P. Turco, J. Pinto, “Condensation of HNO3 and HCl in the winter polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1284–1287 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Viterbini, M.

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Viterbini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, “Nitric acid trihydrate in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voigt, C.

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Viterbini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, “Nitric acid trihydrate in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Larsen, I. S. Mikkelsen, B. M. Knudsen, J. Schreiner, C. Voigt, K. Mauersberger, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, “Comparison of chemical and optical in situ measurements of polar stratospheric cloud particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D1), 1491–1502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Waterman, P. C.

P. C. Waterman, “Matrix formulation of electromagnetic scattering,” Proc. IEEE 53, 805–812 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Weissner, C.

T. Deshler, N. Larsen, C. Weissner, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, F. Cairo, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, U. Blum, K. H. Fricke, A. Dörnbrack, “Large nitric acid particles at the top of an Arctic stratospheric cloud,” J. Geophys. Res. 108 (D16), 4517, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wiscombe, W. J.

Young, A. T.

Zink, P.

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Viterbini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, “Nitric acid trihydrate in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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E. V. Browell, S. Ismail, A. F. Carter, N. S. Higdon, C. F. Butler, P. A. Robinette, O. B. Toon, M. R. Schoeberl, A. F. Tuck, “Airborne lidar observations in the wintertime arctic stratosphere: polar stratospheric clouds,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 17, 385–388 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Arnold, K. Petzoldt, E. Reimer, “On the formation and sedimentation of stratospheric nitric acid aerosols: implications for polar ozone destruction,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 677–680 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Carslaw, B. P. Luo, S. L. Clegg, T. Peter, P. Brimblecombe, P. J. Crutzen, “Stratospheric aerosol growth and HNO3 gas phase depletion from coupled HNO3 and water uptake by liquid particles,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 2479–2482 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Tabazadeh, R. P. Turco, K. Drdla, M. Z. Jacobson, O. B. Toon, “A study of Type I polar stratospheric cloud formation,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 21, 1619–1622 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Toon, P. Hamill, R. P. Turco, J. Pinto, “Condensation of HNO3 and HCl in the winter polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 13, 1284–1287 (1986).
[CrossRef]

D. Hanson, K. Mauersberger, “Laboratory studies of the nitric acid tridydrate: implications for the South polar stratosphere,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 15, 855–858 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. J. Johnson, W. R. Rozier, D. J. Hofmann, “Balloonborne measurements of the Pinatubo aerosol size distribution and volatility at Laramie, Wyoming during the summer of 1991,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 19, 199–202 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Luo, U. K. Krieger, T. Peter, “Densities and refractive indices of H2SO4/HNO3/H2O solutions to stratospheric temperatures,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 23, 3707–3710 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Atmos. Chem. (1)

T. Deshler, S. J. Oltmans, “Vertical profiles of volcanic aerosol and polar stratospheric clouds above Kiruna, Sweden: winter 1993 and 1995,” J. Atmos. Chem. 30, 11–23 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Geophys. Res. (9)

A. R. Ravishankara, D. R. Hanson, “Differences in the reactivity of Type I polar stratospheric clouds depending on their phase,” J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D2), 3885–3890 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Larsen, I. S. Mikkelsen, B. M. Knudsen, J. Schreiner, C. Voigt, K. Mauersberger, J. M. Rosen, N. T. Kjome, “Comparison of chemical and optical in situ measurements of polar stratospheric cloud particles,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D1), 1491–1502 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Middlebrook, B. S. Berland, S. M. George, M. A. Tolbert, O. B. Toon, “Real refractive indices of infrared-characterized nitric-acid/ice films: implications for optical measurements of polar stratospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 99 (D12), 25655–25666 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Beyer, A. R. Ravishankara, E. R. Lovejoy, “Measurements of UV refractive indices and densities of H2S2O4/H2O and H2S2O4/HNO3/H2O solutions,” J. Geophys. Res. 101 (D9), 14519–14524 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Biele, A. Tsias, B. P. Luo, K. S. Carslaw, R. Neuber, G. Beyerle, T. Peter, “Nonequilibrium coexistence of solid and liquid particles in Arctic stratospheric clouds,” J. Geophys. Res. 106 (D19), 22991–23008 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Gobbi, G. Di Donfrancesco, A. Adriani, “Physical properties of stratospheric clouds during the Antarctic winter of 1995,” J. Geophys. Res. 103 (D9), 10859–10874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, N. Larsen, C. Weissner, J. Schreiner, K. Mauersberger, F. Cairo, A. Adriani, G. Di Donfrancesco, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, U. Blum, K. H. Fricke, A. Dörnbrack, “Large nitric acid particles at the top of an Arctic stratospheric cloud,” J. Geophys. Res. 108 (D16), 4517, doi: (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Deshler, B. Nardi, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Hansen, F. Fierli, A. Hauchecorne, L. Pulvirenti, “Determining the index of refraction of polar stratospheric clouds above Andoya (69 °N) by combining size-resolved concentration and optical scattering measurements,” J. Geophys. Res. 105 (D3), 3943–3954 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Adriani, T. Deshler, G. Di Donfrancesco, G. P. Gobbi, “Polar stratospheric clouds and volcanic aerosol during spring 1992 over McMurdo Station, Antarctica: lidar and particle counter comparisons,” J. Geophys. Res. 100 (D12), 25877–25898 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

B. S. Berland, D. R. Haynes, K. L. Foster, M. A. Tolbert, S. M. George, O. B. Toon, “Refractive indices of amorphous and crystalline HNO3/H2O films representative of Polar Stratospheric Clouds,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 4358–4364 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (1)

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “Capabilities and limitations of a current FORTRAN implementation of the T-matrix method for randomly oriented, rotationally symmetric scatterers,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 60, 309–324 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

P. J. Crutzen, F. Arnold, “Nitric acid cloud formation in the cold Antarctic stratosphere: a major cause for the springtime ozone hole,” Nature 324, 651–655 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

M. I. Mishchenko, L. D. Travis, “T-matrix computations of light scattering by large spheroidal particles,” Opt. Commun. 109, 16–21 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. IEEE (1)

P. C. Waterman, “Matrix formulation of electromagnetic scattering,” Proc. IEEE 53, 805–812 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

C. Voigt, J. Schreiner, A. Kohlmann, P. Zink, K. Mauersberger, N. Larsen, T. Deshler, C. Kröger, J. Rosen, A. Adriani, F. Cairo, G. Di Donfrancesco, M. Viterbini, J. Ovarlez, H. Ovarlez, C. David, A. Dörnbrack, “Nitric acid trihydrate in polar stratospheric clouds,” Science 290, 1756–1758 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

“WMO Annual report 2001,” (World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2002).

M. I. Mishchenko, J. W. Hovenier, L. D. Travis, eds., Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles: Theory, Measurements, and Applications (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1999), pp. 3–27.

J. R. Bottiger, E. S. Fry, R. C. Thompson, “Phase matrix measurements for electromagnetic scattering by sphere aggregates,” in Light Scattering by Irregularly Shaped Particles, D. W. Schuerman, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1980), pp. 283–290.
[CrossRef]

A. Adriani, F. Cairo, S. Mandolini, G. Di Donfrancesco, T. Deshler, B. Nardi, “A new joint balloon-borne experiment to study polar stratospheric clouds: laser backscattersonde and optical particle counter,” in Atmospheric Ozone, Proceedings of the XVIII Quadrennial Ozone Symposium, Vol. 2, R. D. Bojkov, G. Visconti, eds. (Edigrafital for Parco Scientifico e Tecnologico d’Abruzzo, 1998), pp. 879–882.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Kiruna, 25 January 2000. Time series of aerosol depolarization (black), aerosol backscatter coefficient (gray) at 532 nm, and temperature (dashed gray). The legend gives the time intervals considered in the calculations. (b) Time series of concentration density in each bin at an index of refraction of 1.45. Gray scale colors represent different radius bins: 0.01–0.15, 0.15–0.25, 0.25–0.30, 0.30–0.50, 0.50–0.75, 0.75–1.08, 1.08–1.25, 1.25–1.75, 1.75–2.50, and 2.50–3.50 µm. Small boxes: particulars of concentration densities as a function of particle radius at time T, color bins are the same as in (b). Values of δexperimental and βexperimental are signed for two different times.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Average distribution concentration density versus radius for the five subintervals of interest. The legend lists the average values of aerosol depolarization and backscatter coefficient at 532 nm for each subinterval.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Kiruna, 25 January 2000. For each subinterval, the crosses represent pairs of RI and AR that fulfill the backscatter coefficient inequality (11); see text. Open squares represent pairs of RI and AR that satisfy inequality (12); see text. Values of RI and AR that simultaneously fulfill the imposed conditions can easily be discerned from these graphs and are placed at the intersection of the two curves.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Values of index of refraction versus depolarization aerosol. Different gray colors are related to different time subintervals. Transparent points belong to no subintervals.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Kiruna, 25 January 2000. Particle distribution is formed by particles with R < 0.56 µm in the liquid phase and particles with R > 0.56 µm in the solid phase. For each subinterval the crosses represent pairs of RI and AR that fulfill the backscatter coefficient inequality (11). Open squares represent pairs of RI and AR that satisfy inequality (12) for solid particles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Kiruna, 9 December 2001. Time series, from 78400 to 78900 UT, of aerosol depolarization (black) and backscatter aerosol coefficient (gray) at 532 nm, temperature measured with a LABS (dashed black). The legend lists the time intervals considered in the calculations. (b) Particle concentration time series from 78400 to 78900 UT in each bin at an index of refraction of 1.45. The gray scale represents different radius bins: 0.01–0.15, 0.15–0.25, 0.25–0.30, 0.30–0.50, 0.50–0.75, 0.75–1.08, 1.08–1.25, 1.25–1.75, 1.75–2.50, and 2.50–3.50 µm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Kiruna, 9 December 2001. Particle distribution is formed by particles with R < 0.56 µm in the liquid phase and particles with R > 0.56 µm in the solid phase. For each subinterval the crosses represent pairs of RI and AR that fulfill the backscatter coefficient inequality (11). The open squares represent pairs of RI and AR that satisfy inequality (12) for solid particles.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Index of refraction as a function of wavelength. The indices shown here are the mean values for each defined time subinterval, and the errors represents the variability of the solution. Also depicted are values of refractive indices for depolarizing and nondepolarizing clouds observed in 1996 in the Arctic stratosphere,26 the results of comparison between OPC and lidar (532 nm) measurements in Antarctica,27 laboratory measurements at 650 nm for nitric acid monohydrate and NAT,28,29 laboratory measurements at 308 and 365 nm for a STS,30 theoretical estimates for STS,31 and the refractive-index value used to compare chemical and optical measurements at 940 nm.32 The position on the wavelength axis for measurements at 532 nm are slightly shifted to improve readability of error bars.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I = E θ E θ * + E φ E φ * , U = E θ E φ * E φ E θ * Q = E θ E θ * E φ E φ * , V = i ( E φ E θ * E θ E φ * ) .
F ( Θ ) = [ F 11 ( Θ ) F 12 ( Θ ) 0 0 F 12 ( Θ ) F 22 ( Θ ) 0 0 0 0 F 33 ( Θ ) F 34 ( Θ ) 0 0 F 34 ( Θ ) F 44 ( Θ ) ]
F ( π ) = [ F 11 ( π ) , F 22 ( π ) , F 22 ( π ) , F 11 ( π ) 2 F 22 ( π ) ] .
F 11 ( π ) F 22 ( π ) F 11 ( π ) + F 22 ( π ) = δ p .
β M p = N ( R ) C sca ( R TM ) F 11 ( π ) d R
R vol ( t ) = β p ( t ) + β mol ( t ) β mol ( t ) = 1 + R p ,
β p ( t ) experimental = R p ( t ) * β mol ( t ) ,
β mol ( t ) = K ( λ ) * P ( t ) T ( t )
δ = β orthogonal p + β orthogonal mol β parallel p + β parallel mol
δ p = β orthogonal p β parallel p
[ β M p ( RI , AR , t ) ] max , [ β M p ( RI , AR , t ) ] min , [ δ M p ( RI , AR , t ) ] max , [ δ M p ( RI , AR , t ) ] min ,
[ β M p ( RI , AR , t ) ] min [ β experimental p ( t ) ] [ β M p ( RI , AR , t ) ] max
[ δ M p ( AR , AR , t ) ] 1.5 [ δ experimental p ( t ) ] [ δ M p ( AR , RI , t ) ] + 1.5 ( % ) .

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